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Vol. I — The Verb 






LeipsiC: theodor stauffer 




8. Gushing- Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 


In venturing to prepare a work to replace the now antiquated 
Holtze, Syntaxis Priscorum Scriptorum Latinorum, I have en- 
deavored to bear in mind the stricter standards of syntactical 
investigation imposed by the wider and exacter knowledge of 
to-day. Where adequate monographs existed, I have made 
use of them, but for most portions of the work I have been 
compelled to make independent collections. 

"Early Latin" is necessarily a somewhat vague term. 
Holtze's work ended with Terence. Bell, Be locativi in prisca 
Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau, 1889, sets the later limit at 75 B.C. 
A definite date is really impossible, since archaic Latin does not 
terminate abruptly, but continues even down to imperial times. 
For practical purposes I have chosen 100 B.C. as the later limit 
of the archaic period, and have endeavored to consider all the 
remains of any syntactical significance from the earliest period 
down to this time. Had I extended the scope of the work for 
another quarter of a century, the additions would have been 
insignificant, — merely a few citations from the Sullan annalists 
and contemporary inscriptions. 

References are to the following editions : Plautus, Lindsay ; 
Terence, Dziatzko ; Cato, De Agricultura, Keil ; the fragments, 
Jordan; fragments of the dramatists, Ribbeck ; other poetic frag- 
ments, Baehrens ; fragments of the historians, Peter ; fragments 
of the orators, Meyer-Diibner (Paris, 1887). Figures in paren- 
thesis indicate the number of occurrences of the usage which 
they accompany. Examples without figures, unless accompa- 
nied by " e.g.," are intended to represent the complete material 
belonging under the given topic. In many instances the cita- 
tions may seem to some readers unnecessarily full, but I have 
so often been hampered in my own syntactical work by the 

iv Preface. 

opposite defect that I have preferred to err by too copious, 
rather than too scanty, illustration. The fact is, it is impos- 
sible to foresee what particular information the student may 
seek in a syntactical manual ; apparently gratuitous citations 
may therefore often prove of the greatest service. 

In putting this volume through the press I have received 
most generous and valuable assistance from Professor Edwin 
W. Fay, Dr. Emory B. Lease, and my former pupil, Dr. Mary 
B. McElwain, to all of whom I here desire to express my sincere 

The present volume will be followed at as early a date as 
practicable by the concluding portion of the work, on the cases, 
the adjectives, the pronouns, and the particles. 

Ithaca, November, 1910. 




Agreement of Verb 1 

Agreement in Number .......... 1 

Agreement in Person 3 

The Voices 4 

Peculiarities in the Use of the Active 4 

Peculiarities in the Use of the Passive 6 

Passive as Reflexive ......... 6 

Attraction of Active Verbs into the Passive 7 

Impersonal Uses 7 

Omission of the Verb 9 

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. (Especially in Principal Clauses.) 

Present Tense 10 

Varieties of the Present Indicative 11 

In General Truths, Statements of Customs, etc. . . . .11 

The Historical Present 11 

The Present Indicative with iam, iam dudum, quam dudum, iam 

pridem, iam diu, modo 17 

The Present used as Future .18 

Positive Declarative Sentences 18 

Negative Sentences 21 

Questions 21 

Present Indicative in Deliberative Questions .... 22 
Present Indicative in Questions having the Force of the Impera- 
tive, Hortatory Subjunctive, etc. 24 

The Imperfect Indicative 26 

Denoting an Action as in Process, as going on, in Past Time . . 26 

Denoting a Continuing State or Condition 29 

Imperfect of Customary Action 30 

Of Acts persisted in 31 

The Aoristic Use of the Imperfect 32 

Imperfects denoting a Future from a Past Standpoint .... 35 


vi Table of Contents. 


The ' Shifted ' Imperfect 36 

Further Peculiarities of Usage 36 

Imperfect for Present 36 

Imperfect with iam dudum, iam pridem, iam diu . . .37 

The Inceptive and Conative Imperfects 37 

The Future Indicative 38 

Volitive Uses of the Future Indicative 38 

Pure Future Uses 43 

Optative Uses 43 

The Achronistic Use of the Future Indicative 44 

The ' Potential ' Future 44 

The Perfect Indicative 45 

Present Perfect 45 

Historical Perfect 46 

The Pluperfect Indicative 47 

Denoting an Action Prior to Another Past Act or to a Past Point of 

Time explicitly mentioned in the Immediate Context ... 48 
Denoting an Act Prior to Another Past Act or Point of Time implied 

in the Context . 49 

Denoting a Past Act not conceived as Prior to Another Past Act . 50 
Satius fuerat, aequius fuerat, par fuerat, etc., in the Sense of 'would 

have been preferable,' 'would have been fairer,' etc. ... 52 

Denoting the State resulting from a Completed Past Act ... 53 

The Future Perfect Indicative 53 

The Future Perfect with the Force of the Future ..... 54 

The Future Perfect with Future Perfect Force 58 

In Principal Clauses unaccompanied by a Dependent Clause . 58 

In Principal Clauses accompanied by a Dependent Clause . . 58 

The ' Shifted ' Future Perfect 59 

Future Perfect as Imperative 59 



Conditional Sentences 60 

Parataxis 60 

Classification of Indicative Protases ....... 60 

Protasis in Present Indicative ....... 60 

Protasis in Present Indicative referring to Present Time or 

denoting a General Truth ....... 60 

Protases in Present Indicative referring to Future Time . 65 
Protasis in the Imperfect Indicative . . . . . .67 

Protasis in the Future Indicative 68 

Protasis in the Perfect Indicative ..... . 70 

Table of Contents. vii 


Protasis in the Pluperfect Indicative 73 

Protasis in the Future Perfect Indicative 73 

Protases exhibiting a Combination of Two Tenses in Coordination 76 

Dependent Conditional Sentences ....... 76 

Substantive si-clauses . . . . . . . . .77 

" Concessive " sz-clauses .78 

Temporal Clauses in the Indicative 79 

Quom-cl&uses ........... 79 

Quom, ' When ' 79 

The gwom-clause is Descriptive 79 

The qtiom-clsMse is Adverbial 79 

Quom extemplo ........... 83 

Quom primum ........... 83 

Quom puto, quom cogito, etc., in Elliptical Expressions ... 83 

Quom inversum 84 

Quom Explicative . 84 

Substantive gwom-clauses 85 

Quom, 'Since' ('seitdem') 85 

Quom, 'While' 85 

Quom interea, quom interim 85 

Quom magis . . . (magis) 86 

Temporal Clauses introduced by ubi ....... 86 

Ubi primum . 90 

Extemplo ubi ........... 90 

Ubi with Conditional Force 90 

Substantive Clauses introduced by ubi ....... 90 

Temporal Clauses introduced by quando 90 

Quandoque ............ 92 

Temporal Clauses introduced by quoniam ...... 92 

Temporal Clauses introduced by ut . . . . . . 93 

Ut, ' When ' 93 

Ut, ' Since ' 94 

Ut, ' After ' 94 

Temporal Clauses introduced by dum ....... 94 

Bum, ' While ' . . . '. 94 

Dum, ' As long As '......... 97 

Dum, 'Until' 98 

Dum Circumstantial ......... 99 

Temporal Clauses introduced by donee, donicum, ' Until ' . . . 100 

Temporal Clauses introduced by postquam ...... 101 

Postquam, 'After' ......... 101 

Postquam, ' Now That '......... 102 

Postquam, ' Since ' 103 

Postquam Causal 103 

Temporal Clauses introduced by prius quam and ante quam . . 104 

Simul ac, simul, simul ut ....... 106 

viii Table of Contents. 


Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative . 106 

^-clauses 106 

One Act or State in its Entirety is compared with Another . 106 
The w£-clause does not constitute a Formal Comparison, but 

merely serves as an Adverbial Modifier of the Main Clause 107 
The w£-clause stands in Appositional Relation to the Contents 

of the Main Clause 109 

TJt; ita . . . ut, equivalent to qualis ; talis . . . qualis . 110 

Ita . . . ut in Asseverations Ill 

The wtf-clause indicates Proportion Ill 

The wZ-clause indicates the Standard or Norm according to 
which the Content of the Main Clause has Validity . .111 

TJt = quanto 113 

TJtquomque 113 

/SfowZ-clauses .113 

FeZw£-clauses 114 

Praeut 115 

Quasi = sicut 115 

Quam-cl&uses 115 

Tarn . . . quam 115 

Ita . . . quam 116 

Aeque . . . quam 116 

Quam alone without Correlative . . . . . .116 

After Comparatives . . . . . . . .116 

After Words implying a Comparative 118 

With Superlatives 118 

Quam si, quasi 118 

Tamquam = sicut 119 

Clauses introduced by atque, * As,' i Than' 119 

Proinde ac 119 

Pariter ac 119 

Talis ac 119 

Aeque, adaeque ac 119 

Similis atque 119 

Without Correlative 119 

With Comparatives . 119 

With alius, aliter, etc 119 

Atque uti 119 

Indicative in Indirect Questions 120 

Pronominal Questions 120 

Sentence Questions . . . . . . . . .122 

Dependent Deliberative Questions 123 

Causal Clauses in the Indicative 123 

Causal Clauses introduced by quod 123 

Adverbial Clauses 123 

Substantive qiwd-clanses 124 

Table of Contents. ix 


Further Peculiarities in the Use of quod 125 

Causal Clauses introduced by quia ...... 126 

The Governing Verb is Expressed ...... 126 

The Governing Verb is not expressed, but is implied in a 

Question to which the gwza-clause is the Answer . . 128 

Substantive giua-clauses 130 

Causal Clauses introduced by quoniam 132 

Causal Clauses introduced by quando ...... 132 

Causal Clauses introduced by quom 133 

With Expressions of Rejoicing ...... 134 

With Expressions of Fear or Pain 134 

With Expressions of Praising 134 

With Expressions of Thanking 134 

With Expressions of Congratulating 134 

With Other Expressions 134 

Substantive Clauses introduced by quom Causal . . . 135 

Causal Clauses introduced by quatenus 136 

Causal Clauses of the Type : Quid est quod f ' What is the Reason 

Why'? 136 

Type quid est quod f 136 

Type quid hoc est quod? 136 

Type quid hoc negotist quod? 136 

Type hoc est quod 137 

Relative Causal Clauses 137 

Quippe qui 138 

Adversative Clauses in the Indicative 139 

Adversative Clauses introduced by etsi, tarn etsi, etiam si, tamen 

si, tamen etsi 139 

Introduced by etsi 139 

Introduced by tarn etsi (tametsi) 139 

Introduced by etiam si 139 

Introduced by tamen etsi 140 

Introduced by tamen si 140 

Adversative Clauses introduced by quamquam . . . .140 

Without Correlative Particle in the Main Clause . . . 140 
With Correlative Particle (tamen, verum tamen, at, tain) in 

Main Clause 140 

Corrective quamquam .141 

Adversative Clauses introduced by quom 141 

Without Correlative Particle in the Main Clause . . .141 
With Correlative Particle {tamen, turn, tarn) in the Main 

Clause 141 

Indicative Adversative Clauses introduced by Relative Pronouns . 142 

Adversative Clauses introduced by utut (ut ut) . . . 142 

Indicative Clauses introduced by Local Particles 142 

Clauses introduced by ubi 142 

Table of Contents. 




Clauses introduced by qua 
Clauses introduced by quo 
Clauses introduced by unde . 
Clauses introduced by quotiens 
Clauses introduced by quoad . 


Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive 145 

The Subjunctive 152 

Optative 153 

Volitive Uses 161 

Subjunctive of Determined Resolution 161 

The Jussive Subjunctive 162 

Present Jussive 163 

No Introductory Particle 163 

Second Singular 163 

Third Singular 163 

Second Plural 164 

Third Plural 164 

Jussive with Introductory Particle . . . . . .164 

Perfect Jussive 166 

The Hortatory Subjunctive 166 

First Plural Hortatory 167 

Affirmative . . . . . . . . . .167 

Negative 167 

First Singular Hortatory . . . . . . . .167 

The Prohibitive Subjunctive 167 

The Present Prohibitive 168 

Second Singular with ne . 168 

Second Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ni . . .169 
Third Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ne .... 169 
Third Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ni . . . .169 

Second Plural Present Prohibitive 169 

Third Plural Present Prohibitive ..... . 170 

Present Prohibitive introduced by numquam, nemo, nullus, 
7i07i, etc. . . . . . . . . • .170 

Present Prohibitive with Connecting Negatives (neve, neu, 
nive ; neque, nee) ........ 170 

The Perfect Prohibitive 171 

With ne 171 

Perfect Prohibitive introduced by nullus, numquam, nil, 
7iemo, etc. .......... 171 

Perfect Prohibitive with Connecting Negatives, neve, neu, 
neque, nee . . . . . . . • • .171 

Table of Contents. xi 


On the Use of Negatives in the Prohibitive 172 

On the Force of Tenses in the Prohibitive 173 

Developments of the Jussive and Prohibitive 174 

The Permissive Subjunctive 174 

The Present Permissive 175 

Affirmative 175 

Negative 175 

The Perfect Permissive 176 

The Subjunctive of Compliance 176 

Subjunctive of Unfulfilled Past Obligation 176 

Affirmative 177 

Negative 177 

The Jussive as Protasis 178 

The Prohibitive Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse .... 178 

The Concessive Subjunctive 178 

Deliberative Subjunctive 178 

Subjunctive of Inquiry after a Command or Advice . . . .179 
Subjunctive of Duty or Fitness . . . . . . . .179 

Affirmative Questions of Duty or Fitness 181 

Present Tense 181 

Imperfect Tense . . . . ' . . . . . 181 

Perfect Tense . 182 

Negative Questions of Duty or Fitness 182 

Present Tense 183 

Imperfect Tense 183 

True Deliberative Subjunctives 184 

Subjunctive of Impossibility or Helplessness 185 

Present Tense ....... ... 185 

Imperfect Tense 186 

Perfect Tense 186 

Subjunctive in Repudiating Questions and Exclamations . . . 186 
Affirmative Repudiating Questions and Exclamations . . .187 

No Introductory Particle 187 

Present Tense ......... 187 

Imperfect Tense . . . . . . . .188 

Perfect Tense 188 

Introduced by -ne ......... 188 

Present Tense . . . . . . . . .188 

Imperfect Tense 189 

Perfect Tense 189 

Introduced by ut 189 

Present Tense .189 

Imperfect Tense 189 

Perfect Tense 189 

Introduced by -ne ut 190 

xii Table of Contents. 


Present Tense . 190 

Imperfect Tense 190 

Introduced by utin 190 

Negative Repudiating Questions and Exclamations . . .191 

Optative Uses 191 

Present Optative 192 

Affirmative 192 

Without Particles 192 

Present Optative with Reinforcing Particles .... 193 

Asseverative Use of the Present Optative .... 194 

Negative Present Optative 195 

Perfect Optative 195 

Affirmative 195 

Without Particles 195 

With Particles 196 

Asseverative Use of the Perfect Optative 196 

Negative Perfect Optative 196 

Imperfect Optative 196 

The Pluperfect Optative 197 

Potential Uses 197 

The 'Should 1 - 4 Would 1 Potential 197 

Present Tense 197 

Velim, nolim, malim 198 

1 Should '-' Would ' Potential as Apodosis of Conditional Sen- 
tences 201 

Perfect Tense 202 

Imperfect Tense 203 

Pluperfect Tense 205 

« May ' Potentials 205 

* Can '-' Could 1 Potentials . .206 


Parataxis and Hypotaxis 208 

Subjunctive Substantive Clauses 209 

Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive 210 

Original Uses and Extensions ........ 210 

Classification of Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive . 212 

Developed from the Jussive and Prohibitive 212 

With Verbs of Ordering and Commanding .... 212 
With volo and nolo in the Senses, 'I want you To,' 4 1 want 

you not To' 215 

The Type nolo ames . . . . . • .216 

Table of Contents. xiii 


With Verbs of Begging, Requesting, etc., including, as Ex- 
tensions, Verbs of succeeding in one's Request . . .217 

With impetro, exoro 219 

With Verbs of Advising, Warning, Exhorting, Reminding, 
Admonishing, etc., including, as Extensions, Verbs of In- 
ducing, and, as Extensions of Verbs of Inducing, Verbs of 

Compelling 220 

With Verbs of Inducing, Persuading, etc 222 

With Verbs of Forcing 223 

With fac, facito, and Other Forms of facio .... 224 

With efficio, perficio, and Similar Verbs 228 

With euro and Expressions of Striving ..... 229 

With vide, videto, 4 See to It,' etc 230 

With cave, caveto, etc. ........ 232 

With Verbs of Permitting, Granting, Allowing . . . 234 

With Verbs of Deciding, Resolving, etc. .... 236 

With potin, etc 237 

With optumum est, aequom est, oportet, tempus est, etc. . 238 

With opus est, usus est, necesse est 239 

With Verbs of Hindering, Preventing, etc 239 

With Verbs of Deserving 240 

With quid est quod ; nihil est quod, etc. .... 241 

Miscellaneous Expressions 242 

Perfect Subjunctive used with Force of Future in Substantive Clauses 

developed from the Jussive and Prohibitive 242 

Connecting Negatives in Substantive Clauses developed from the Jus- 
sive and Prohibitive .......... 243 

Absence of Introductory Particles in Subordinate Clauses . . . 244 

Substantive Clauses developed from the Deliberative .... 246 

With quin 246 

With cur (quor) 248 

With quam ob rem 248 

With qua causa 249 

With quapropter 249 

Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative 249 

With Verbs of Wishing, Desiring, Preferring, etc 249 

With Verbs of Fearing 252 

Subjunctive of Purpose 255 

Classification of Purpose Clauses 256 

Purpose Clauses introduced by ut 256 

Purpose Clauses introduced by we 257 

Purpose Clauses introduced by ut ne 258 

Relative Clauses of Purpose 258 

Relative Purpose Clauses with digitus, indignus, idoneus, etc. . 260 
Purpose Clauses introduced by quo — ut . . . . .261 

xiv Table of Contents. 


Purpose Clauses introduced by qui = ut . . . . . 261 

Substantive Clauses of Purpose ....... 262 

Connecting Negatives in Purpose Clauses 263 

The Stipulative Subjunctive 263 

Stipulative Clauses with the Force of * On the Understanding that, 

that Not ' ; ' Under the Agreement that, that Not ' . . . . 264 
Stipulative Clauses with the Force of 'On Pain Of,' 'Under Penalty 

Of 265 

Stipulative Clauses with the Force of ' On Condition That ' . . . 265 

Stipulative Clauses with the Force of ' By ' with a Verbal Noun . . 266 
Negative Stipulative Clauses with the Force of ' Without ' with a 

Verbal Noun 266 

Substantive Stipulative Clauses ........ 267 

Clauses of Proviso 268 

With dum 268 

With dum ne, dum ni ......... 269 

With dum modo ........... 269 

With modo 269 

With ut modo, modo ut 269 

Dam-clauses denoting a Wish ........ 270 

Subjunctive with quamvis, quantumvis, ut, 'Although' .... 270 






The Subjunctive in Conditional Sentences . 

Classification of Subjunctive Protases . 
Protasis in the Present Subjunctive 
Protasis in the Perfect Subjunctive 
Protasis in the Imperfect Subjunctive 

Protasis in the Pluperfect Subjunctive 280 

Conditional Sentences in which the Protasis has Adversative 

('Concessive') Force 282 

Subjunctive Protasis with Indicative Apodosis .... 283 

Dependent Conditional Sentences ....... 284 

Clauses of Conditional Comparison 285 

With quasi 285 

With quam si ........... 287 

With ut si 287 

With tamquam 287 

With tamquam si .......... 287 

With ac si 287 

With ut quasi si 287 

Descriptive Clauses 288 

Classification of Subjunctive Descriptive Clauses ..... 288 

Potential Descriptive Clauses ....... 288 

Descriptive Clauses of Fact ........ 289 

Jussive Descriptive Clauses ........ 294 

Table of Contents. xv 


Deliberative Descriptive Clauses 21)5 

Other Relative Clauses 295 

Restrictive Clauses 295 

Subjunctive in Result Clauses 296 

Result Clauses introduced by ut . . . . . . . . 2&. 

Relative Clauses of Result 298 

Substantive Clauses of Result 299 

Abverbial ^rf///7-clauses 300 

Subjunctive with quom 302 

Quom Temporal ........... 302 

Quom Causal 302 

Quom Adversative .......... 303 

Quom — si Adversative ......... 303 

Subjunctive with dum Temporal, donee, don/cum ..... 304 

Bum 304 

With donee, donicum .......... 305 

Subjunctive by Attraction (Assimilation) 305 

Subjunctive assimilated or attracted to Another Subjunctive . . 305 
Classification of Subjunctives attracted or assimilated to Another Sub- 
junctive ............ 307 

Subjunctive by Attraction in Clauses dependent on an Infinitive . 312 

Subjunctive in ratio obi i qua 315 

Implied Indirect Discourse ......... 318 

Subjunctive in Principal Clauses in oratio obliqua .... 318 

Subjunctive Clauses introduced by quod, quia, quo, etc 318 

With quod 318 

With quia 319 

With non quo, quam quo, non quod, non quia, quin .... 319 

Subjunctive of Indefinite Second Singular in Subordinate Clauses . . 319 
Subjunctive Clauses with quam, including ante quam, potius quam, prius 

quam ............. 322 

Quam, potius quam .......... 322 

With ante quam, prius quam ........ 324 

Subjunctive in Indirect Questions 320 

Classification of Indirect Questions 327 

Word (or Pronominal) Questions . . . . . . .328 

Sentence Questions ......... 331 

Single Questions ......... 332 

Double Questions 332 

Other Logical Types of Indirect Questions ..... 334 

Future Time in Indirect Questions 334 

Prolepsis in Indirect Questions ........ 335 

Words followed by Subjunctive of Indirect Question .... 335 


Table of Contents. 

Subjunctive with quod, ' Although ' 
Iterative Subjunctive 
Sequence of Tenses in the Subjunctive 
After the Indicative 

After Principal Tenses 
After Historical Tenses 
After the Subjunctive . 
After the Imperative 
After the Infinitive 





Affirmative Uses of the Imperative 348 

Present 348 

Form 348 

Function 350 

Present for Future 350 

Logical Force of the Present Imperative 351 

Future 354 

Form 354 

Function 358 

Future Referring to Present 3-58 

Logical Force of Future Imperative 359 

Negative Uses of the Imperative 362 

Present Tense 362 

Noli, nolite with the Infinitive 363 

Future Tense 863 

Connecting Negatives with the Imperative 304 

Nolito with the Infinitive 365 



The Infinitive with Subject Accusative 367 

As Object 367 

Verba Declarandi 367 

Verba Sentiendi 372 

Verba Affectuum 377 

Verba Voluntatis .......... 379 

Dependent on the Context 383 

Infinitive as Object, with Subject Accusative Understood . . 883 

Aequom censeo Type 388 

Passive Construction of Verbs taking the Infinitive with Subject 

Accusative as Object . 388 

Table of Contents. xvii 


As Subject 389 

Infinitive as Subject with Subject Accusative Understood . . 396 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative, used as an Appositive . . . 397 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative, used as Predicate .... 399 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative 399 

As Object 399 

Denoting Another Action of the Same Subject .... 399 

Aequom censeo Type 406 

As Subject 406 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative used as Appositive . . . 412 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative, as Predicate .... 413 

Use of the Impersonal Infinitive 413 

As Object 414 

As Subject 415 

As Appositive 416 

Infinitive to be supplied from the Context 416 

Infinitive dependent on Nouns 417 

The Infinitive with Adjectives 418 

Infinitive of Purpose 418 

Historical Infinitive 419 

Examples 421 

Infinitive in Exclamations 423 

Infinitives of Exclamation without -ne 424 

Infinitives of Exclamation with -ne . 424 

Infinitives in Titles 425 

Tenses of the Infinitive 426 

Present Infinitive 426 

Present for Future 426 

With memini 427 

Perfect Infinitive 427 

Perfect Infinitive with Force of Present 427 


The Present Active Participle 

Attributive Uses of the Present Participle 
Appositive Uses of the Present Participle 
Predicate Uses of the Present Participle 
Adjective Uses of the Present Participle 
Substantive Uses of the Present Participle 
Time of the Present Participle 


xviii Table of Contents. 


The Future Active Participle 435 

The Perfect Passive Participle 435 

Some Peculiarities in Tense and Voice Function .... 435 

Attributive Uses of the Perfect Participle 436 

Appositive Uses of the Perfect Participle 436 

Predicate Uses of the Perfect Participle 437 

Adjective Uses of the Perfect Participle 440 

Substantive Uses of the Perfect Participle ..... 440 

Special Idiomatic Uses of the Participle 441 

The Gerundive 441 

The Gerundive as Adjective 442 

The Gerundive as Participle in the Nominative ..... 442 

The Genitive of the Gerundive 442 

The Dative of the Gerundive 443 

The Accusative of the Gerundive 443 

The Ablative of the Gerundive 445 

The Gerund 446 

Genitive of the Gerund 446 

Dative of the Gerund .......... 449 

Accusative of the Gerund ......... 449 

Ablative of the Gerund 450 

Ablative without Prepositions 450 

The Gerund has a Direct Object 450 

The Gerund is used alone without Object or Modifier . . 450 

The Gerund has an Adverbial Modifier 452 

Ablative dependent on Prepositions 452 

The Supine 453 

The Supine in -um .......... 453 

The Supine in -u 456 

Used as Ablative of Specification 457 

With opus est 457 

As Ablative of Separation . . . . . . . . 457 

The Periphrastic Conjugations 457 

The Periphrastic Conjugation formed by combining the Future Active 

Participle with the Verb sum 457 

The Periphrastic Conjugation formed by combining the Gerundive 

with the Verb sum 458 

The Present Participle combined with the Verb sum .... 458 


Questions introduced by -ne 460 

-lie appended to the Verb ......... 460 

-ne appended to Pronouns 466 

Table of Contents. 

-ne appended to Nouns .... 
-ne appended to Adjectives and Participles 
-ne appended to Adverbs 



-ne appended to Relatives 
-ne appended to Conjunctions 
-ne appended to Interrogatives 

Questions introduced by num, numnam, numne, numquis 

Num ... 

Numnam, numne ...... 

Numquis, numquid ..... 

Questions introduced by ecquis, ecquid, enumquam 
Questions without Interrogative Particle 

Questions whose Interrogative Force is Slight or Questionable 
Repetitions ....... 

Mogas, negas, rogitas, etc. .... 

Questions with non and Other Negative Words 
Questions with iam and etiam 
Continued and Supplementary Questions 

Questions in the Infinitive . 
An and Disjunctive Questions 
Complete Disjunctive Questions 



An . . 

an . 

an non 

. an 

. an non , 
, an . 

. . -ne . 

. . an 
, . . -ne . 

. -ne 



















Agreement in Number. 

1. With compound subject. Examples of a combination of singu- 
lar subjects are not specially numerous. The plural verb is found : 
Bacch. 886, et ego te et ille mactamus infortunio ; Poen. 576, egredi- 
untur Milphio una et vilicus ; Pseud. 233, iani diu ego huic bene et 
hie mihi volumus ; And. 54, dum aetas metus magister prohibebant ; 
Ad. 213, ego vapulando, ille verberando usque ambo defessi sumus. 
The singular: Amph. 249, namque ego fui illi et meus pater; 
Aul. 217, quoniam. tu me et ego te qualis sis scio ; 276, probrum atque 
partitudo prope adest ; 580, tu, aula, multos inimicos habes atque 
istuc aurum; 584, novisti me et ego te ; 732, cui tanta mala maesti- 
tudoque optigit ; Cas. 314, si tu nolis filiusque tuos ; M. G. 224, 
qua cibatus commeatusque ad te possit pervenire ; Most. 322, 
visne ego te ac tu me amplectare ; Poen. 203, sed Adelphasium 
exit atque Anterastilis ; Pseud. 906, me et Calidorum servatum 
volunt esse ; 1097, epistula atque imago me certum facit ; Rud. 1411, 
tu vidulum et ego gnatam inveni ; Hec. 2, intervenit vitium et calami- 
tas ; Eun. 541, locus tempus constitutumst ; Ad. 340, tua fama et 
gnatae vita in dubium veniet ; 470, persuasit nox amor vinum adu- 
lescentia; 835, ne tuae nos rationes et tuos animus aequos subvortat; 
Ace. 349, persuasit maeror anxitudo error dolor ; Afran. 140, res 


2 Agreement, Voices, etc. 

tempus locus simul otium hortabatur. In these the singular is obvi- 
ously due either to the tendency to make the verb agree with the 
nearer subject, or to the fact that the different elements of the 
compound subject are felt as constituting a whole. The following 
example is different : Ad. 76, hoc pater ac dominus interest, where 
the subject is only formally compound. Logically, pater alone is 
the subject (' a father differs from a master ; ). 

2. Singular subjects connected by disjunctive particles. Here we 
find sometimes the singular, sometimes the plural. Singular : Bacch. 
79, quid si apud te eveniat prandium aut potatio ? Merc. 186, tarn 
certe quam ego te aut tu me vides; 653, quae patria aut domus 
tibi stabilis esse poterit ? And. 463, utinam aut hie surdus aut haec 
muta facta sit. Plural : Ad. 103, haec si neque ego neque tu fecimus ; 
Naev. Trag. 37, egone an ille iniurie facimus ? 

3. Where the subject and predicate are of different numbers. 

a) The verb agrees with its subject : And. 950, dos, Pamphile, est 
decern talenta; Amph. 97, haec urbs est Thebae. 

b) The verb is attracted to the number of the predicate : Asin. 155, 
quae dicis aurum atque argentum est; Enn. Epicharm. 507, Iupiter 
sunt ista quae dico tibi ; And. 555, amantium irae amoris integra- 
tiost; Ad. 6, Synapothnescontes Diphili comoediast. 

4. Construction according to sense. As a result of the meaning, we 
find a plural verb with a singular subject in the following instances : 

a) With uterque : Cure. 187, uterque insaniunt ; Eun. 840, apud 
Antiphonern uterque, mater et pater, domi erant (attraction to the 
appositive) ; Cato, Agr. 70, facito ut uterque sublimiter stent. In 
the following passages, often cited as illustrations of a plural verb 
with uterque, the uterque is probably rather in distributive apposition 
with the subject: Bacch. 754, facite, cum arnica sua uterque, adcubi- 
tum eatis ; Epid. 719, quam hodie per urbem uterque sumus defessi 
quaerere; Trin. 623, celeri gradu eunt uterque; Ad. 130, curemus 
aequam uterque partem. 

b) With titer, neuter : Men. 779, loquere uter meruistis culpam ; 
1119, uter eratis, tun an ille, maior ? 784, quotiens edixi tibi ut 
caveres neuter ad me iretis ! 

c) With si quis: Cato, fr. 23, 14, si quis advorsus rem suam quid 
fieri arbitrantur; 62, 3, si quis alter ab altero peterent. 

Agreement in Person. 3 

d) With quisque: Capt. 500, ubi quisque vident, eunt obviam; 
Epid. 212, filios suos quisque visunt; Most. 103, sibi quisque inde 
exemplum expetunt. In many examples cited in illustration of this 
use quisque is probably to be taken as in partitive apposition, e.g. 
Poen. 107, omnis meretrices, ubi quisque habitant, invenit. 

e) With quisquam: Amph. 1071, neque nostrum quisquam sensi- 
mus; 1099, neque nostrum quisquam audivimus. 

f) With pars, partim: Most. 114, sed magna pars morem hunc 
induxerunt; Capt. 232, fere maxuma pars morem hunc homines 
habent ; Trin. 34, hie pluris pauciorum gratiam f aciunt pars homi- 
num ; True. 105 ; fr. 29, maior pars populi reptant fame ; Cato, fr. 23, 
7, haut scio an partim eorum fuerint ; 52, 12, sunt partim, qui petunt 
(the sing. 64, 8, quoin partim illorum ad eundem modum erat) ; 
Enn. Ann. 44, pars saxa iactant, inter se licitantur. 

g) With aliquis: Epid. 399, exite hue aliquis; Merc. 131, aperite 
aliquis ; Ace. 425, Oeneum aliquis cette in conspectum. Eor further 
examples, see below under the imperative. 

h) With tantum hominum, etc. : Poen. 619, quid hue tan turn homi- 
nuiii incedunt ? And. 745, quid illi hominum litigant ! 

i) With other expressions: Epid. 213, turn meretricum numerus 
tantus obviam ornatae occurrebant; Cato, fr. 19, 16, omnis Graecia 
gloriam decoravere monumentis ; CIL, i, 196, 20, neve inter ibei virei 
pious duobus, mulieribus pious tribus arfuise velent ; Trin. 425, tarpe- 
zitae mille drachumarum, quas de ratione dehibuisti, redditae ; And. 
625, hocine credibile, tanta vecordia quoiquam ut siet, ut malis gau- 
deant alterius ; Cato, fr. 62, 6, si sponsionem fecissent Gellius cum 
Turio ; H. T. 473, Syrus cum illo vostro consusurrant. 

In expressions like Stich. 370, alius alium percontamur, I take alius 
as in partitive apposition with the subject ; so also Cure. 378 ; Pseud. 
1260, altera alter urn inter se prehendunt. 

Agreement in Person. 

1. Where we have subjects of different persons, we find in Early 
Latin conformity with the usual practice of the later period, e.g. 
Bacch. 886, et ego te et ille mactamus inf ortunio ; Pseud. 233, iam 
diu ego huic bene et hie mini volumus ; Ad. 213, ego vapulando, ille 
verberando usque ambo defessi sumus ; 103, haec si neque ego neque 

4 Agreement, Voices, etc. 

tu fecimus. Yet often the verb is singular and agrees with the nearer 
subject, as Merc. 186, tarn certe quam ego te aut tu me vides; Aul. 
217, quoniam tu me et ego te qualis sis scio ; 584 ; Most. 322 ; Pud. 
1411, quern propter tu vidulum et ego gnatam inveni. 

2. Attraction of person. A subject in the 3d singular is often 
attracted to the person (and number) of a genitive of the whole 
(nostrum, vostrum) expressed or understood : 

a) 1st person : Amph. 1071, neque nostrum quisquam sensimus 
(for quisquam serisit) ; 1099, neque nostrum quisquam audivimus. 

b) 2d person : Men. 779, loquere uter meruistis culpam (for titer 
meruit) ; 1119, uter eratis, tun an ille, maior ? 785, neuter ad me 
iretis ; especially with the imperative in expressions like Epid. 399, 
exite hue aliquis ; Merc. 131, aperite aliquis. The lack of a 3d per- 
son present imperative naturally leads to the use of the plural here, 
though the logical subject is singular (aliquis vostrum). 

Peculiarities in the Use of the Active. 

1. Absolute use: Amph. 352, tutatust domi; Eun. 780, solus San- 
nio servat domi ; Cist. 104, ut hanc sinas hie servare apud me ; 
Amph. 423, argumentis vicit ; And. 185, meum gnatum rumor est 
amare ; 191 ; Ad. 118 ; Amph. 243, equites iubet dextera inducere. 

2. Many verbs regularly used as transitive occur at times in an in- 
transitive use : 

a) Verbs used as equivalent to reflexives : 

ago : Bacch. 1106, unde agis ? Pers. 216, quo agis ? Poen. 333 ; 
but quo te agis occurs Trin. 1078. 

aperio : Pers. 300, f oris aperit. 

applico : Enn. Trag. 77, quo applicem ? 

avorto : M. G. 203, ecce avortit; cf. Titin. 93, quo te avortisti? 

capesso: Pud. 178, ad saxum quo capessit; cf. 172, horsum se 

convorto : Stich. 414, in amicitiam convortimus ; cf. Pud. 999, in 
vidulum te convortes. 

habeo : Most. 709, quam habeat male ; Phor. 429, bene habent 

The Voices. 5 

insiimo: Cist. 92, in amicitiam insinuavit cum matre; cf. 89, 
insinuavit se. 

lavo (-are) : regularly used in reflexive sense in Early Latin : 
Amph. 802, lavisti, lavi ; M. G. 251, dormit, ornatur, lavat ; Stich. 
568, ibo lautum; 569, lavero; True. 322; 323; And. 483, fac ista ut 
lavet ; Eun. 592, accersitur lavatum ; iit, lavit ; 595 ; 596 ; Cato, Agr. 
156, 3, lavet calida. 

praebeo : Plior. 476, Phormio strenuom hominem praebuit. 

recipio : Pers. 51, recipe quam primum potes ; Bacch. 294, rursum 
in portum recipimus ; Merc. 498 ; Eud. 880 ; but Merc. 881, reeipiam 
me ; Pers. 46, recipe te. 

sisto : Cure. 287, nee quisquam quin capite sistat ; M. G-. 850. 

suffulcio : Epid. 83, nisi suffulcis firmiter. 

vorto : Amph. 251, vortentibus Telobois ; Merc. 433, quo vortisti ? 

b) In the following the reflexive equivalence is not present : 

aequipero : Pacuv. 407, aequiperent Iovi. 

augeo : Cato, fr. 8, 6, eo res eorum auxit. 

colo : Poen. 13, exerce vocem quam per vivisque et colis ; Pseud. 
202 a. 

demuto : M. G. 1130, numquid demutare videtur ? 

expedio : Amph. 521, nequiter expedivit prima parasitatio. 

grandire : Cato, Agr. 141, 2, vineta grandire siris ! 

habeo : Trin. 193, ubi nunc adulescens habet ; 390. 

incendo : Enn. Trag. 291, civitatem video Argivom incendere. 

lenio : M. G. 583, dum haec irae leniunt. 

quasso : Asin. 403, quassanti capite incedit ; Bacch. 305 ; M. G. 851 ; 

suppedito : Eun. 1076, ut tuo amori suppeditare possint ; Asin. 423 ; 
Trin. 1119. 

vorto : Cure. 729, quae res bene vortat mi ; Pers. 453 ; et pass. 

3. Some verbs ordinarily intransitive are occasionally used transi- 
tively, e.g. : Eun. 550, erumpere gaudium; Cato, Agr. 157, 3; Men. 400, 
intra portam penetravi pedem ; Trin. 837, mere antemnas; Ad. 319. 
Reflexive uses: And. 562, ex illis sese emersurum malis ; Amph. 
250, perduelles penetrant se in fugam ; Trin. 276, 291, me penetravi ; 
314 ; True. 44 ; Eun. 599, f oras omnes proruont se. 

6 Agreement, Voices, etc. 

Peculiarities in the Use of the Passive. 

Passive as Reflexive. 1 

Examples : 

accingor : Phor. 318, accingere ! 

adsimulor : M. G. 152, alia esse adsimulabitur. 

amicior: Pers. 307, amieibor gloriose; Cas. 723. 

aperior : Cas. 434, audio aperiri fores ; 779 ; M. G. 527 ; 985 ; 1198 ; 
Trin. 400. 

avortor : Amph. 927, ab impudicis dicfcis avorti volo. 

cingor : Amph. 308, cingitur ; certe expedit se. 

comprimor : Most. 203, vix comprimor. 

conicior : Poen. 69, conicitur ipse in morbum ex aegritudine. 

convortor : Stich. 402, salvos convortor domum. 

euror : Poen. 693, liospitium ubi curer mollius. 

declinor : Hec. 200, neque declinatam ab aliarum ingenio ullam 

dirumpor: Cas. 809, dirumpi cantando hymenaeum licet; 810. 

dispertior : Cure. 189, etiam dispertimini ? 

fingor ; fricor : see under lavor. 

exunguor : True. 312, exunguimini. 

inmutor : Phor. 206, non possum inmutarier. 

lavor : Poen. 219, numquam concessamus lavari aut f ricari aut ter- 
geri aut ornari, poliri, expoliri, pingi, fingi ; 228. 

moveor: Asin. 788, illam moveri gestio. 

obsaturor : H. T. 869, istius obsaturabere. 

ornor : H. T. 288, quae ornantur sibi ; Poen. 123, ibo ; ornabor ; 
see also under lavor. 

pingor : see under lavor. 
■ polior : see under lavor. 

reprimor : M. G. 1368, vix reprimor. 

retineor : Trin. 641, nam retineri nequeo quin dicam. 

ringor: Phor. 341, ille ringitur. 

rumpor : Af ran. 127, risu rumpier. 

1 Nolting, Ueber das lateinische Deponens, 1859; Nausester, Beitrage zur Lehre 
vom Deponens und Passiv d. Lateinischen, 1907; Ernout, Recherches sur l'emploi 
du passif Latin, Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique, xv, p. 322 ff. 

Peculiarities in Use of Passive. 7 

simulor : Eun. 606, turn is essem, qui simulabar. 

teneor : Cas. 239, vix teneor quin dicam. 

tergeor : see under lavor. 

unguor : Cas. 226, unguor. 

vocor : Capt. 38, ille vocatur Philocrates, hie Tyndarus. 

vortor : Most. 218, in anginam me velim vorti. 

Different from the foregoing, in which the force is reflexive, are 
the following, which are indirect middles : Aul. 116, dexteras copu- 
lantur; Epid. 223, quid erat induta; 225, utin impluvium induta 
f uerit ; Men. 190 ; 514 ; Eud. 207 ; Eun. 708, eamst indutus ; 1016. 

Attraction of Active Verbs into the Passive. 

Several verbs governing the infinitive are attracted into the passive 
when the infinitive is passive or deponent : 

coeptus sum : Men. 718, iure coepta appellarist Canes. 

desitus sum : Most. 958, desitum est potarier. 

intermissus est : Most. 959, est haud intermissum bibi. 

nequitur, nequitum est : Rud. 1064, ut nequitur comprimi ; Plaut. 
fr. 109, retrahi nequitur; Pacuv. 390, quom contendi nequitum vi ; 
Cato, fr. 8, 17, id nequitum exaugurari. 

occeptus sum : Eun. 22, occeptast agi. 

osus sum: Amph. 900, osa sum optuerier. 

potestur : Enn. f r. 574, retrahi potestur ; Pacuv. 100, potestur 
investigari; Cato, Agr. 154, uti transferri possitur; CIL, i, 198, 
66, ubi de piano legi possitur ; Caelius (Peter), 100, 7, sine periculo 
bellum geri poteratur. 

quitur, quitus sum : Stat. 279, non sarciri quitur ; Ace. Baehr. 18, 
unde omnia perdisci ac percipi queuntur; Ace. Trag. 661, impelli 
quitus sum ; Hec. 572, nosci non quitast. 


The verb is used impersonally with great freedom in Early Latin. 
In addition to the common licet, oportet, clecet, paenitet, piget, pudet, 
and est with adjectives, we find very numerous instances of the 
impersonal use of the passive, of which the following illustrations 
are representative : 

1 Ernout, Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique, xv, p. 290 ff. 

8 Agreeme?vb, Voices, etc. 

1. In the uncompounded tenses of the indicative and subjunctive. 

a) Present indicative : Pseud. 273, amatur atque egetur ; Poen. 
835, bibitur, estur; Capt. 80, caletur; always in this form in the 
impersonal use (calet is personal) ; so also True. 65] Poen. 890, eredi- 
tur ; Trin. 479, cernitur ; H. T. 44, curritur ; Bacch. 447, itur ; so 
also Aul. 527; Pseud. 453; And. 480, fit; Pers. 386, nubitur; Pseud. 
516, praedicitur ; Rud. 1018, reditur ; Phor. 778, siletur ; Eun. 271, 
statur ; so also Pseud. 457 ; Pers. 309, ut valetur ? H. T. 154, vivi- 
tur; so also Trin. 65 ; Cato, Agr. 14, 1, iussitur. Deponent: Pacuv. 
182, cuius a te veretur maxume ; Atta, 7, nilne te populi veretur ? 

b) Future indicative (less frequent): Stich. 509, credetur; Cas. 
131, curabitur; so also And. 403; 980, despondebitur ; Poen. 734, 
dicetur ; so H. T. 88 ; Cas. 758, ibitur ; so Trin. 578 ; Cato, Agr. 88, 
2, nubilabitur ; 144, 1, debebitur ; 145, 1, deducetur ; 3, 6, ducetur ; 1, 
4, emetur; 4, peccabitur; CIL, i, 198, 24, petetur; so 26 ; 86; i, 200, 
33, ambigetur ; 69, comperietur. 

c) Subjunctive (infrequent): Poen. 533, curratur; M. G. 946, ne 
quid titubetur ; Cato, Agr. 39, 2, ne cessetur ; 5, 7, substernatur ; 66 y 
1, introeatur ; CIL, i, 198, 49, 70, ioudicetur ; so also 197, 10. 

2. Compound tenses of the indicative. 

a) Perfect : Pseud. 85, actum est ; so also 1221 ; Stich. 751 ; Trin. 
308 ; 595 ; 608 ; Amph. 219, exitum est ; Poen. 909, paratum est ; Men. 
964, proventum est ; Amph. 249, pugnatum est ; Aul. 604, renuntia- 
tum est ; Merc. 511, solitum est ; Stich. 467, sustentatum est ; 5S6 ; 
True. 9, ventumst. 

b) Future perfect: Bacch. 757, ubi erit accubitum; CIL, i, 198, 24, 
unde petitum erit ; so 27. 

3. The infinitive. For this very frequent impersonal use, see under 
the Infinitive (p. 413 f.). 

4. The impersonal use of the second periphrastic conjugation. This 
occurs with great frequency, especially in the present indicative and 
the infinitive : 

Examples: M. G. 35, adsentandum est; Poen. 567, agendum est; 
so 1243; Rud. 719; H. T. 321, audiundumst; 400, carendum erat; so 
M. G. 1210; Most. 1069, captandumst ; so Ace. 541 ; Most. 701, cenan- 
dum et cubandumst ; Pseud. 331, currendumst ; Ace. 541, est eundum ; 
Cas. 409, patiundumst ; M. G. 180, pereundum est. Earely in the 

Impersonal Uses. 9 

subjunctive : M. G. 170, optandum foret. Infinitive : Capt. 767, 
redauspicandum esse ; M. G. 359, esse pereundum ; Cas. 411, tibi 
cavendum censeo. 

5. Verbs ordinarily impersonal used in Early Latin as personal. The 
following exemplify this usage : Aul. 491, quo lubeant nubant ; Trin. 
211, quod lubeant (lubeat P) sciant; And. 481, quae adsolent quaeque 
oportent ; Stich. 51, me haee condicio non paenitet ; Pacuv. 31, pro- 
loqui non (prologo nunc, codd) paenitebunt ; Cas. 877, ita nunc pudeo ; 
Ad. 754, non te haec pudent ? Besides this we have, as later, the 
use of neuter singular pronouns with these impersonals, e.g. Epid. 
107, idne te pudet ? Ad. 84, quern neque pudet quicquam. 


The verb is frequently omitted in Early Latin, particularly forms of 
sum, especially in the function of auxiliary : 

1st person sing. : Men. 614, ne ego ecastor mulier misera ; M. G-. 
370, ego stulta quae cum hoc fabuler ; 443 ; Eud. 520, quis vivit me 
miserior ? : : ego multo miserior quam tu; Eun. 1062, quor ego in te 
conspicor regionibus ? : : vobis fretus. 

2d person sing. : Pers. 484, iam liberta audits is now usually writ- 
ten audit's ; so other passages containing periphrastic forms or predi- 
cate adjectives in -us. 

3d person sing. : M. G. 1041, hau minim si te habes carum ; Ad. 
678, quid nobis cum illis ? Eun. 511 ; Phor. 440, si quid opus fuerit, 
heus domo me (sc. arcessito) ; And. 300, verbum unum cave de nuptiis 
(sc. dicas), ne ad morbum hoc etiam (sc. accedat). 

1st person plu. : Eud. 369, nos ventis iactatae perpetuam noctem; 
690 ; Cure. 354, postquam cenati, talos poscit ; And. 285, accessi, vos 
semotae, nos soli. 

2d person plu. : Asin. 134, mare haud est mare : vos mare acerri- 
mum ; And. 285, accessi : vos semotae. 

3d person plu.: Amph. 1133, quae futura et quae facta eloquar; 
1061, ubi parturit, deos invocat, strepitus, crepitus, sonitus, tonitrus ; 
Stich. 212, quot cenae mortuae ! Eun. 780, ubi alii ? 

1 Olsen, Quaestionum Plantinarum de verbo substantivo specimen, 1884; Meillet, 
Meinoires de la Societede Linguistique, xiv, p. 1 ff. 



(Especially iist Principal Clauses.) 


In connection with the tenses of the indicative two important 
factors enter into consideration, viz. : the 'kind of action (" Aktions- 
art ") and the time-sphere (" Zeitstufe ") of the action or state. The 
present formations of Indo-European were not narrowly limited in 
either of these two respects. As regards the kind of action } they 
might designate the following varieties: 

1) Momentary (" punktuell ") ; 

2) Progressive ("cursiv," "durativ"); 

3) Iterative, indicating the successive repetition of the same act ; 

4) Completed ; 

5) Terminative, in which an act in process at the same time sug- 
gests a definite terminus ; see Delbriick, op. cit. ii, p. 14 ff. 

Originally these different " Aktionsarten " seem to have been asso- 
ciated to a certain extent with specific types of present formation ; 
ibid. p. 16 ff., but of this there is slight trace, if any, in Latin. 

As regards time-sphere, the present indicative in Indo-European 
indicated, in the main, acts belonging to the speaker's present. An 
exception is found in the case of those present formations denoting 
momentary actions (" punktuelle Aktionsarten"). The time-sphere 
of these in Indo-European was the future ; Delbrlick, op. cit. p. 309. 
The Indo-European seems to have possessed also the timeless 
(" achronistic ") use of the present indicative, i.e. its use in the state- 
ment of general truths, customs, etc. Delbriick, op. cit. p. 261, 
derives this use from that referring to the present, suggesting that, 
where adverbs meaning " always " were combined with the present, 

1 Herbig, Aktionsart und Zeitstufe, Indog. Forsch. vi, pp. 167 ff. ; Blase, Hist. 
Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 102 ff. ; Delbriick, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 1 ff. ; Brugmann, Kurze 
Vgl. Gramm. p. 491 ff. ; 559 ff. 


Present Indicative. 11 

the timeless use might most naturally arise. But it seems more nat- 
ural to regard the achronistic use as original. 1 

In Latin some scholars recognize only progressive action as 
expressed by the present indicative. But I agree with those who 
hold that the present expresses also momentary (aoristic) acts as 
well. The latter usage, in fact, is of great frequency. Thus in 
Most. 949, puere, nemo hie habitat, and in 950, non hie Philolaches 
habitat? there seems no rational ground for recognizing progressive 
action. Habito, to be sure, is a verb of durative meaning; but the 
obvious sense is : * lives/ not ' is living.' So in hundreds of instances 
in which the present is used, e.g. M. G. 5, hanc machaeram consolari 
volo ; 31, nolo istaec nunc ; 36, scio quid vis dicere ; 49, offae monent ; 
72, videtur tempus esse ut eamus. 

The time-sphere in Latin is ordinarily the speaker's present, but 
the achronistic use is also not infrequent. Whether the historical 
present and the present referring to the future come from the former 
usage or the latter, is uncertain; see below. 

Varieties of the Present Indicative. 2 

1. In general truths, statements of customs, etc. This use is com- 
mon and presents no peculiarities worth notice. Examples are : 
Capt. 232, morern hunc homines habent : quod sibi volunt, dum 
impetrant, boni sunt; ubi iain penes sese habent, ex bonis pessumi 
hunt ; And. 309, facile omnes, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis 
damus. This usage is to be referred to the achronistic use of the 
present indicative (see above, p. 10), i.e. the fact stated is repre- 
sented as true not only for the speaker's present, but also as some- 
thing that has been true in the past, and will be true in time to 
come ; cf . Herbig, op. cit. p. 159 ; 183. 

2. The historical present. 3 This usage was Indo-European. Its 
origin is variously explained. Some scholars regard it as resulting 

1 So Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 102. 

2 See, in general, Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 102 ff. ; Methner, Tempus- 
und Moduslehre, p. 110 ff. ; Joseph Schneider, De temporum apud priscos scriptores 
Latinos usu, 1888, p. 4 ff. 

3 Emery, Annie C, The Historical Present in Early Latin, 1897; Blase, Hist. 
Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 103 ff. ; Brugmann, Berichte der koniglichen sachs. 
Gesell. der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Kl. xxxv, p. 169. 

12 Tenses of the Indicative. 

from the dramatic picturing of past events as now occurring and as 
passing in imagination before the mind of the speaker or writer at 
the present time. Others regard it as a development of the achro- 
nistic use of the present. This view is supported by Hoffmann, Zeit- 
folge nach dem Praesens historicum im Latein, p. 14; also by Brug- 
mann, loc. cit. Both of these scholars regard the reference to the past 
in the historical present as due to the context, the tense in this usage 
having originally been per se entirely timeless. This attitude leads 
Brugmann to declare that, instead of recalling the past to the present 
in imagination, the writer or speaker rather puts himself back in the 
past. Which of these two explanations of the origin of the usage is 
correct, cannot be determined. Either is possible. At all events, in 
the historical present the speaker views the occurrences " as if they 
were going on before his eyes in the sphere of his own present, 
whether he does this by bringing the events out of the past into his 
actual present, or by putting himself back into their past. In either 
case he makes the present of the events his present." 1 

Emery (op. cit., p. 9 ff.) gives a complete list of all the verbs in 
Early Latin in which the historical present is found. " An examina- 
tion of the collection/ 7 she continues, " shows that it is chiefly verbs 
of incomplete and continued action, as opposed to verbs of momen- 
tary action, which tend toward the historical present. These verbs 
of incomplete and continued action are verbs that imply vision on 
the part of the speaker. They indicate that he is reviewing the 
events denoted by them and considering them in their process of 
completion instead of simply recognizing the fact that they once 
took place in the past " (p. 22). 

Neither the premises nor the conclusions of the paragraph just 
quoted seem to me to be valid. I cannot admit that an examination of 
the verbs in the list reveals any such predominance of verbs of durative 
character. The list contains some two hundred and eighty different 
verbs, and it is obviously impossible to examine them here in detail. 
I will only observe that some eighty-two verbs in the list are admitted 
by the author to be either primarily verbs of momentary action, or 
verbs denoting both momentary and progressive action. That the oth- 
ers, as a class, are far from denoting progressive action, will, I believe, 

1 Emery, op. cit., p. 23. 

Present Indicative. 13 

be clear to those who examine the entire list in detail. That this is 
true, may perhaps be indicated by taking at random a number of 
successive verbs held to belong in the main to the progressive class. 
Thus, p. 10, we have: respondeo, nomino, clamo, inclamo, conclamo, 
exclamo, clamito, boo, voco, invoco, provoco, revoco, invito, arcesso, 
offirmo, posco, postulo, oro, exoro, obsecro, precor, impero, iubeo; 
p. 19, do, reddo, dedo, devoveo, commendo, accipio, recipio, ostendo, 
placeo, lubet, decet, pareo, sequor, consequor, adnuo, abdo, consono, 
tinnio, cano, contonat, tumultuor, perstrepo, interpello, saluto, gratu- 
lor, plaudo, desero, relinquo, desino. Some of these, without ques- 
tion, primarily denote progressive action, but the majority seem to 
me clearly to denote acts that primarily are not progressive ; and the 
same is true of the entire list of two hundred and eighty verbs, taken 
as a whole. Moreover, many of these verbs occur in passages in 
which the perfect alternates with the historical present in the same 
passage. In fact, the disparity between the number of perfects and 
historical presents of the same verb is not great. I open again, at 
random, as before, and take a number of successive verbs. The first 
numeral shows the number of historical presents, the second the num- 
ber of perfects, of each verb occurring in Early Latin : dico, 18, 11 ; 
interrogo, 3, 1 ; respondeo, 3, 4 ; exclamo, 7, 1 ; voco, 4, 2 ; iubeo, 7, 
6 ; increpo, 1, 1 ; taceo, 1, 1 ; video, 12, 4 ; videor, 2, 7 ; aspicio, 4, 2. 
(62, 40.) In the main the balance is not so very far from even. A 
total of seventy -eight verbs used in both tenses shows 239 : 204. 
Either, then, the author's inference for the present must hold for the 
perfect, too, or is of no significance for the present. 

It is beyond question, I believe, that the use of the historical pres- 
ent in Early Latin has no connection with progressive verbs, — no 
more than the historical perfect. Further, I do not believe that any 
verb used in the historical present in Early Latin ordinarily denotes 
progressive action, whether the verb itself designates an act that is 
progressive or one that is momentary. To my mind, Kodemeyer, 
Das Prasens Historicum bei Herodot und Thukydides, is cor- 
rect when he maintains that the historical present narrates the bare 
fact of an action which took place in a sphere of time determined as 
past by the context. In other words, the historical present is aoristic 
in action. When it is urged that this is inconsistent with the vivid 

14 Tenses of the Indicative. 

picturesqueness of the historical present in actual use, I would 
observe that this is only apparently so. Each individual historical 
present in a series may perfectly well be aoristic, while the series 
itself gives us the effect of a moving whole. In other words, the 
progression lies in the succession of aoristic acts, not in the acts 
individually. An examination of the material gathered in Emery's 
dissertation will, I am confident, show that it is unnatural to take 
the presents as anything but momentary, and that it is this very 
momentariness which is the chief factor in the artistic effect pro- 
duced by the use of the historical present. The speaker does not 
dwell upon the acts as in process, but touches lightly upon each en 
2iassant, thus avoiding the tedium and drag on the attention which 
would naturally follow the suggestion of a series of acts each repre- 
sented as progressive. I have said that the momentariness of the 
action was the chief factor in the artistic effect produced by the his- 
torical present. This, of course, is supplemented by the simulta- 
neous conception that the acts occur in the speaker's present. I 
should, therefore, define the historical present as a tense used of a 
series of momentary acts belonging to the past, into which the 
speaker projects himself. This definition will demand modification 
only so far as other tenses occur in combination with the historical 
present. As a matter of fact the historical present seldom or never 
occurs alone, but only in connection with the imperfect, perfect, his- 
torical infinitive, or pluperfect, as will be shown in detail in the 
material which follows. 

a) The historical present varied with the historical perfect. 1 

In combinations of this kind the perfect is often used to introduce 
the narration and to close it, the presents being placed between. 
Examples : True. 645 ff. 

Eus mane cludum hinc ire me iussit pater 

Ut bubus glandem prandio depromerem. 

Post illoc quam veni, advenit, si dis placet, 

Ad villain argentum meo qui debebat patri, 

Qui ovis Tarentinas erat mercatus de patre. 

Qnaerit patrem. Dico esse in urbe. Interrogo 

Quid eum velit # * # # * # 

1 1 follow the classification of material presented in Emery's dissertation. 

Present Indicative. 15 

Homo cruminam sibi cle collo detrahit, 

Minas viginti mi dat. Accipio lubens, 

Condo in cruminam. Hie abiit. Ego * * minas 

Ovis in crumina hac in urbem detuli. 

In the following, Capt. 478 ff:., we have an introductory perfect, 
followed by presents, but without concluding perfect : 

Nam uti dudum hinc abii, accessi ad adulescentes in foro. 

' Salvete/ inquam. 'Quo imus una? ? inquam : atque illi tacent. 

<Quis ait " hoc " aut quis profitetur ? ? inquam. Quasi muti silent, 

ISTeque me rident. ' Ubi cenamus ?' inquam. Atque illi abnuont. 

Dico unura ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus, 

Quibus solebam menstrualis epulas ante aclipiscier : 

Nemo ridet ; scivi extemplo rem de conpecto geri. 

Ne canem quidem irritatam voluit quisquam imitarier, 

Saltern, si non adriderent, dentes ut restringerent. 

Abeo ab illis, postquam video me sic ludiflcarier ; 

Pergo ad alios, venio ad alios, deinde ad alios : una res ! 

In Phormio, 862 ff. we have a succession of presents with a perfect 
at the close : 

Ubi in gynaeceum ire occipio, puer ad me adcurrit Mida, 

Pone prendit pallio, resupinat : respicio, rogo 

Quam ob rem retineat me : ait esse vetitum intro ad eram accedere. 

' Sophrona modo fratrem hue ' in quit e senis introduxit Chremem : } 

Eumque nunc esse intus cum illis. Hoc ubi ego audivi, ad fores 

Suspense* gradu placide ire perrexi. 

Other characteristic examples of presents varying in one way or 
another with perfects are : Aul. 371 ff. ; Cure. 329 ££. ; Ad. 617 ff. ; 
And. 353 ff. ; Hec. 38 ff. 

b) The historical present varied with the imperfect. 

This combination is of rare occurrence. The only examples 
cited by Emery are Afran. 140, proficiscor : res tempus locus, simul 
otium hortabatur ; Naev. Bell. Pun. 3 ; Enn. Ann. 140 ; 288 j Lucil. 
296, 5. 

c) The historical present varied with the historical perfect and 
imperfect. A characteristic illustration is Capt. 498 : 

16 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Quid est suavius quam bene rem gerere 

Bono publico, sicut ego feci heri, quom 
Emi hosee homines : ubi quisque vident, 

Eunt obviam gratulanturque earn rem. 
Ita me miserum restitando retinendo lassum reddiderunt : 

Vix ex gratulando miser iam eminebam. 

Tandem abii ad praetorem ; ibi vix requievi : 
Eogo syngraphum: datur mi ilico : dedi Tyndaro: ille abiit domum. 

Inde ilico praevortor domum, postquam id actum est; 
Ego protinus ad fratrem inde abii, mei ubi sunt alii captivi. 

Eogo Philocratem ex Alide ecquis omnium norit : 

Tandem hie exclamat eum sibi esse sodalem ; 

Dico eum esse apud me ; hie extemplo orat opsecratque eum sibi 
ut liceat videre : 

Iussi ilico hunc exsolvi. 

Other examples are Amph. 1061 ff. ; Epid. 209 ff. ; H. T. 121 ff. ; 
Eun. 575 ff. ; Trag. Incert. 5 ff. ; Enn. Ann. 28 ff. ; 55 ff. 

d) The historical present is varied with the pluperfect. Only 
Cure. 644 ff. : 

Ea me spectatum tulerat per Dionysia. 
Postquam illo ventumst, iam ut me collocaverat, 
Exoritur ventus turbo : spectacla ibi ruont: 
Ego pertimesco : ibi me nescioquis arripit 
Timidam atque pavidam. 

e) Historical present varied with the historical perfect and plu- 
perfect. This is likewise rare. Most. 486 ff. : 

Abimus omnes cubitum, condormivimus. 
Lucernam forte oblitus fueram extinguere : 
Atque ille exclamat derepente maxumum. 

•T? *f£ *7V* W 'ff *flF T^ ^* 

Cf. Eun. 629 ff. 

f) The historical present is varied with the historical perfect, the 
imperfect, and the pluperfect. Examples : Eud. 37 ff. ; Phor. 592 ff . 
This combination is infrequent. 

g) The historical present is varied with the historical perfect, the 
imperfect, and the historical infinitive, e.g. Amph. 1107 ff. : 

Present Indicative. 17 

postquam in curias conditust, 
Devolant angues iubati deorsum inpluvium duo 
Maxumi : continue* extollunt ambo capita 
. . . sed angues oculis oninis circumvisere. 
Postquam pueros conspicati, pergunt ad cunas citi : 
Ego cunas recessim rursum vorsum trahere et ducere, 
Metuens pueris, mihi formidans, tantoque angues acrius 
Persequi. Postquam conspexit angues ille alter puer, 
Citus e cunis exilit, f acit recta in anguis impetum : 

Alteram altera prehendit eos manu perniciter. 
Cf . also Amph. 203 ff. ; Merc. 42 ff. ; Eun. 397 ff. ; And. 51 ff. 

h) The historical present is varied with the historical perfect, the 
imperfect, the pluperfect, and the historical infinitive, e.g. Phor. 
71 ff. ; Hec. 114 ff. 

An examination of the foregoing material along with the other cita- 
tions in Emery reveals to me no essential difference between the use 
of the historical present and the historical perfect, except that in 
the main the present seems to give the effect of greater vividness. 
In general, I assent to the verdict of Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. 
Spr., iii, p. 103, who says that the historical present alternates arbi- 
trarily with the perfect. This alternation was doubtless practiced for 
the sake of giving variety to long descriptive or narrative passages. 
But I doubt whether, if in a given instance, the presents were changed 
to perfects and the perfects to presents, any canon of usage would 
be violated, or whether any difference of force (barring the greater 
vividness of the present) would be recognizable. 

Brugmann (Kurze Vergl. Gramm., p. 572) recognizes also a Prae- 
sens Tabulare, e.g. CIL, i, 30, Scipio Cisauna Samnio cepit, subigit 
omne Loucanam opsidesque abdoucit. This usage originated in in- 
scriptional records, and is obviously related to the historical present. 

3. The present indicative with iam, iam dudum, quam dudum, iam 
pridem, iam diu, modo. 1 Here the present is equivalent to the pres- 
ent perfect. 

a) With iam dudum : As. 741, iam dudum est intus ; Bacch. 109, 
iam dudum tacitus te sequor ; 890, iam dudum hercle equidem sen- 
1 See Langen, Beitrage zum Plautus, 1881, p. 41 f. 

18 Tenses of the Indicative. 

tio; Cas. 368, iain dudum hercle fabulor; 414; 540; 803 ; Cist. 508, 
scis iam dudum omnem meam sententiam ; Merc. 138, iam dudum 
sputo sanguinem ; 556 ; 617 ; M. G. 580, iam dudum scio; 1301; 1398 ; 
Bud. 1030, ecquid condicionis audes ferre ? : : iam dudum fero ; Poen. 
12, iam dudum exspecto ; 1161; Pseud. 1215, mihi iam dudum ille 
Sums cor perfrigefacit ; Stich. 344, iam dudum ego istuin patior 
dicere iniuste mihi ; Trim 812 ; 1000 ; H. T. 409, iam dudum exspec- 
tat ; 882, quid illic iam dudum cessat ? Eun. 448, iam dudum te 
amat ; iam dudum facile fit quod doleat ; 743 ; 816 ; 917 ; Plior. 289, 
iam dudum audio ; 471, nos iam dudum accusamus ; Hec. 336, iam 
dudum audio hie tumultuari ; Ad. 720, te iam dudum quaero; Eim. 
Trag. 34, iam dudum animus atque aures avent; Afran. 197, studeo 
iam dudum ; Ace. 682, iam dudum exsulo ; Stat. 13, iam dudum 
depopulat macellum ; Turp. 24, iam dudum audio. Dudum alone, 
M. G. 406, dudum edepol planumst id quidem. 

b) With quam dudum, Stich. 528, quam dudum in portum venis ? 

c) With iam diu, Pseud. 233, iam diu ego huic bene et hie mihi 
volumus ; 261, iam diu scio qui fuit ; Ad. 931, iam diu non potest. 

d) With modo, Hec. 458, advenis modo. 

e) With iam, Most. 79, triennium iam hinc abest ; 589, multos me 
iam dies frustramini ; 954, sex menses iam hie nemo habitat. 

f ) With iam pridem : Pseud. 466, iam pridem tu me spernis ; 
Bud. 963, novi iam pridem. 

4. The present used as future l (apart from the use in deliberative 
questions, for which see below, p. 22). Instances of this usage are 
frequent in Early Latin. Its origin is usually referred to the achro- 
nistic use of the present indicative; see p. 10. Following Sjogren, I 
group the material according to A. Positive declarative sentences ; 
B. Negative declarative sentences ; C. Questions. 

A. Positive Declarative Sentences. 

a) In expressions of the type : ' I'll be back immediately.' 

1) Eegularly in the verb redire, e.g. M. G. 1020, iam ad te redeo ; 
so Merc. 963; Pseud. 1157; Stich. 523; Ad. 757, post hue redeo. 

1 See especially Sjogren, Zum Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinisclien, 1906, 
p. 6 ff. This supersedes all previous discussions of the subject. But see also Blase, 

Present Indicative. 19 

These are in dialogue. In soliloquy we find Cist. 704, redeo intro ; 
M. G. 592, redeo in senatum rusum ; Eud. 904. The future of redire 
is found only Amph. 530 (a soothing assurance) and Capt. 497. 

2) Reverti, on the other hand, occurs only in the future, e.g. Pseud. 
1159 ; And. 485 (E, Don, revortor) ; Sjogren, p. 7 f. 

3) Revenire occurs only in the future perfect (with future force ; 
see below under the Future Perfect), Bacch. 1066 ; M. G-. 863. So 
True. 547, mox hue venero. 

4) The future is regular with esse, adesse (Sjogren, p. 9). Con- 
tinuo hie adero, H. T. 502, is the Mss. reading, but was changed to 
adsum by Bentley, who is followed by modern editors. 

5) In other expressions of this type. The present is found As. 
379, iam ego recurro hue ; Bacch. 794, 1052, iam exeo ad te ; Eun. 
493, post hue continuo exeo ; Stich. 623, poste ad te continuo transeo; 
535 ; Cas. 145. But the future is used of an act to be consummated 
less immediately, e.g. Stich. 614, non metuo; per hortum transibo; 
so Capt. 457. 

b) Abire. The present of this occurs with future force some 40 
times in dialogue, e.g. Bacch. 902, abeo ad forum igitur. Once in 
soliloquy, Epid. 66o f abeo intro. The future : Cas. 962, quasi non 
audiani abibo. 

c) Expressions with the force : i I'll approach/ < I'll accost.' Bacch. 
980, quid quod te misi ? ecquid egisti ? : : rogas ? congredere ! : : gra- 
dior. But when a speaker merely expresses a resolve to accost 
another, the future is regular, e.g. Eud. 309, sed quos perconter 
video; adibo. 

d) The simple ire. 

1) The present of this referring to the immediate future is com- 
mon in dialogue, e.g. Poen. 190, ego in aedem Veneris eo ; so Asin. 
108; Cas. 715; Merc. 385; Eud. 403; Eun. 580; Hec. 273; and fre- 
quently elsewhere. 

2) The future also is frequent in the same sense of the immediate 
future, e.g. Bacch. 1060, ego ad forum autem hinc ibo; Cas. 526; 
Eun. 921; H. T. 173; Ad. 632; and frequently. 

3) The future is naturally used of acts to take place in the less 

Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr., iii, p. 108 ff. ; Rodenbusch, De temporum usu Plautino, 
1888, p. 39 ff . 

20 Tenses of the Indicative. 

immediate future, e.g. Most. 1131, quin venis ? : : promitte, ego ibo 
pro te ; Merc. 222 ; and elsewhere. 

e) Other verbs of motion. 

1) Sequi. Following a command or exhortation, seqaor occurs 
some thirty times, e.g. Poen. 502, sequere hac! : : sequor. 

2) But the future is used to indicate that one will follow soon, e.g. 
Men. 431, eamus intro. : : iam sequar te ; Amph. 544; so Cist. 773; 
and probably regularly in such context. 

3) Other verbs : H. T. 1000, quid hoc autem ? senex exit f oras : 
ego f ugio ; Hec. 513, porto hoc iurgium ad uxorem . . . atque evo- 
mam ; Amph. 1143, ego in caelum migro. 

4) In And. 957, proviso quid agat Pamphilus. atque eccum, we 
probably have a genuine present, ' I am on my way to see/ Expres- 
sions of this sort occur frequently where the purpose of the drama- 
tist is to acquaint the audience through one of the performers with 
the dramatic situation. Other examples of the same kind are : Eun. 
1005 ; H. T. 1046 ; Most. 880 ; Poen. 847 ; Merc. 804 ; And. 414 ; Eun. 
923 ; Ad. 549. 

f) In so-called rhetorical presents and equivalent perfects. 

1) In expressions of the type jjerii, actum est. These are usually 
accompanied by a protasis. Examples : Asin. 287, perii, nisi Liba- 
num invenio iam ; Capt. 749, peristis, nisi iam hunc abducitis ; so 
Asin. 243 ; Cist. 671 ; M. G. 828 ; Asin. 918, nam ni impetro, regem 
perdidi ; Eud. 683, nisi quid re praesidi apparas, acta haec res est ; 
and frequently. 

2) Presents : e.g. Phor. 179, nullus es, nisi iam aliquod tibi con- 
silium celere reperis ; Most. 539, manufesta res est, nisi quid occurro 
prius ; H. T. 672, triumpho, si licet me latere tecto abscedere ; Poen. 
671, rex sum, si ego ilium hodie ad med adlexero ; Trim 561, nam 
qui vivamus nil est, si ilium amiserit ; Eud. 168, salvae sunt, si illos 
fluctus devitaverint ; Asin. 244 ; Capt. 539 ; Epid. 82 ; Stat. 46. 

g) In some miscellaneous expressions : Bacch. 886, et ego te et ille 
mactamus infortunio ; Stich. 453, ego hunc lacero diem ; 612, ibisne 
ad cenam foras ? : : apud fratrem ceno; 415; Most. 827, satis boni 
sunt, si sunt inducti pice ; Pseud. 60, proxuma Dionysia. : : eras ea 
quidem sunt ; Eun. 338, < scin quid ego te volebam ? ' " die." & eras 
est mihi iudicium.' Atta, 9, eras est communis dies ; Cas. 447, pro- 

Present Indicative. 21 

tollo mortem mihi ; And. 594, domum ibo atque hue renuntio ; 732, 
sponsae pater intervenit ; repudio consilium ; Aul. 400 ; Trin. 815 ; 
H. T. 804; 1002 ; Bacch. 364 ; Asin. 114. 

B. Negative Sentences. 
There is noticeable a distinct tendency in Early Latin to use the 
present in negative expressions, where the corresponding affirmative 
expression takes the future, especially in expressions indicating an 
unwillingness to comply with some suggestion or request (' resist- 
ance to pressure '). Thus, corresponding to the affirmative futures, 
audiam, dabo, dicam, faciam, pergam, etc., we find the present in 
Phor. 486, audi, obsecro. : : non audio ; Eud. 946 ; Phor. 388, (die 
nomen. : : ) non dico ; 669, nil do ; Most. 261, turn tu igitur cedo 
purpurissum. : : non do; Cas. 231, mane ! : : non maneo; 373, gratiam 
facias ! : : neque facio nee censeo ; Men. 150, perge ! : : non pergo her- 
cle ; Amph. 449, non illi obtempero ; As. 480, in ius te voco. : : non 
eo; Cas. 149; Eud. 1371; Trin. 1059; and in the 3d person, Bacch. 
592, non it ; negat se ituram ; Stich. 608 ; And. 371. But where the 
will of the speaker sinks into the background, the future is employed, 
e.g. Most. 1070, non ego illi extemplo hamum ostendam ; cf. And. 
396 ; Eud. 959. Posse, also, referring to the future, w^hen accompanied 
by a negative, has a fondness for the present, e.g. Ep. 84, nisi sufTulcis 
firmiter, non potes subsistere; H. T. 679, nulla mihi res posthac 
potest iam intervenire; Gracchus (Meyer, p. 230), si repudiaritis, 
non potest quin. 

O. Questions. 

Questions referring to the future occasionally take the present 

a) With quam mox the present is regularly employed, e.g. True. 
207, quam mox te hue recipis ? : : iam hie ero ; Asin. 449, quam mox 
mi operam das? Cas. 742, quam mox recreas me? Pseud. 1166; 
Eud. 1227, quam mox licet te compellare? 1412, quam mox mi 
argentum redditur ? Stich. 533, quam mox coctast cena? Eud. 342. 
The future is never found with quam mox in Early Latin. 

b) In double questions, Aul. 660, abin annon? Capt. 846, iuben 
annon iubes astitui aulas? Cure. 566, reddin annon virginem ? M. G. 
449, mittis me annon mittis ? Pers. 533, tacen annon taces ? Pseud. 

22 Tenses of the Indicative. 

1246, pedes, statis annon? End. 1399, tacen annon? True. 755, redin 
annon redis? 825, diein annon? And. 186, hocine agis annon? 
Kodenbusch, op. cit. p. 41, states that in double questions referring 
to the future the present alone is used. 

c) Other expressions: Aul. 289, quoius ducit filiam? 255, quid 
nunc? etiam mihi despondes filiam? Asin. 480, non eo. : : non is? 
712, datisne argentum? Bacch. 911, satin est, si plura ex me audiet? 
Pseud. 874, quanti istuc unum me coquinare perdoees ? 1139, ecquis 
hoc aperit? True. 255, ecquis intus exit? 359, hicine hodie cenas? 
And. 301, daturne ilia Pamphilo hodie nuptum ? 321, hodie uxorem 
ducis? H. T. 611, quid agis? 

Except in questions, it will be noted that the use of the present as 
a future is limited almost exclusively to the first person singular. 
This is entirely natural, as the speaker is perfectly well aware of his 
own volition, but is not competent to assert the volition of a second 
or third person. In questions, for the same reasons, the second per- 
son is the rule, since these inquire after the volition of the person 
addressed. In other words it is the volitional element apparently 
which develops secondarily the future force. 

5. Present indicative in deliberative questions. 1 In this discussion 
of the indicative in deliberative questions I use the term i delibera- 
tive ? not in the exact sense, but as conveying an inquiry after a com- 
mand, or, perhaps more accurately, an inquiry after advice ; cf. under 
the deliberative subjunctive, p. 178. Sjogren, p. 81 ff., uses the term 
"konsultative Fragen." Sjogren's exhaustive discussion of these 
questions establishes conclusively that they are questions asking for 
advice, and that they never (or very rarely) cover any of the other 
varieties of the numerous subjunctive uses ordinarily grouped under 
the name " deliberative," such as questions expressing despair, true 
deliberatives, subjunctives of duty or fitness, repudiating questions. 
In this he differs from Deane, who (Proceedings Amer. Phil. Assoc, xxi, 
p. xxxiii ff.) expresses the opinion that there is no difference between 

1 Sjogren, Zum Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen, p. 81 ff. ; Mad- 
vig, Opuscula Academica, ii, p. 40 ff. ; Deane, Deliberative Questions in Terence, 
Proceedings Amer. Phil. Assoc, xxi, p. xxxiii ff . ; Neumann, De futuri usu, 1888, 16 
ff. ; Morris, Sentence Question in Plautus and Terence, Am. Jour. Phil, x, p. 397 ff. ; 
xi, p. 16 ff. ; Subjunctive in Independent Sentences in Plautus, Am. Jour. Phil, xviii, 
p. 133 ff. 

Present Indicative. 23 

the indicative and subjunctive in these questions. But as Sjogren 
demonstrates, quid agam is used only in soliloquy in true delibera- 
tives, or else in dialogue in questions of helplessness or despair, 
whereas quid ago (barring Phor. 736) is not used in soliloquy at all, and 
in dialogue is confined to questions asking for advice. Examples : 

a) Questions with iamne or iam : Men. 176, iam fores f erio ? : : 
feri; vel mane etiam ; M. G. 1400, iamne in hominem involo? : : imrao 
etiam prius verberetur; Cas. 503; Cure. 132; Eun. 814; Stat. 35. 
Plural: Eun. 492, iamne imus? 

b) After quam mox : M. G. 1406, quam mox seco? Bacch. 775; 
880 ; Men. 153. Plural : Eun. 788, quam mox irruimus ? 

c) Questions introduced by particles (usually -ne) or pronouns : 
Bacch. 1196, quid ago? So Epid. 693; Pers. 666 ; Phor. 447 ; H. T. 
343; Trin. 1062. Plural: M. G. 250, quid agimus? So Men. 844; 
Pseud. 1160; Eun. 1081; 1088; Phor. 1007; Ad. 538; in the form 
quid nunc agimus, Pseud. 722; Epid. 157; Eun. 811; Asin. 755, 
addone ? : : adde ; Bacch. 1168, etiam redditis ? an ego experior tecum 
vim maiorem? Capt. 479 ff., quo imus ad prandium? ubi cenamus? 
Cas. 405, compressan palma an porrecta ferio ? 977 ; Epid. 143, quo a 
tarpezita peto? Men. 231, an quasi mare omnis circumimus insulas? 
320, satin obsonatumst, an obsono amplius ? M. G. 1036, vocon ergo 
hanc quae te quaerit? 1424, verberon etiam an mittis? Most. 774, 
eon? voco hue hominem? Stich. 531, hodiene exoneramus navem? 
750, utrubi accumbo? And. 315, adeon ad eum ? Eun. 434, purgon 
ego me ? 

d) Without introductory pronoun or particle, Poen. 1224, pergo 
(])erge, codd) etiam temptare ? Plural: M. G. 613, gerimus rem? 
Phor. 812, hanc igitur mittimus ? 

e) All of the foregoing examples are in the 1st person. One or 
two instances of the 3d person also occur: Cist. 768, quid fit? So 
Pseud. 1159 ; Bud. 687, unde iste animus mi invenitur ? 

The foregoing material, which is fairly complete for Early Latin, 
shows clearly that the present indicative in "deliberative" questions 
is confined to dialogue. The only exception is Phor. 736, quid ago? 
adeo, maneo? which occurs in soliloquy. 

As already stated, the usage is almost exclusively restricted to 
questions asking for advice. The only exceptions I have noted are : 

24 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Amph. 391, die, non nocebo. : : tuae fide credo! So Cas. 1007; And. 
497, credon tibi hoc nunc, peperisse hanc e Pamphilo ! All of these 
seem to have repudiating force (see p. 186). 

A difference of opinion exists in regard to the interpretation of 
passages like the following : Merc. 130, at etiam asto ? at etiam cesso 
foribus facere hisce assulas? Eud. 677, cesso ego illas consolari? 
Capt. 827; Cas. 237; 723; Epid. 342; M. G. 896; Pers. 197; True. 
630. All of these contain cesso with a following infinitive and occur 
in soliloquy. Most editors take these expressions as interrogative. 
By this interpretation they are true deliberatives, thus forming an 
exception to Sjogren's principle that the present indicative is not 
employed in true deliberative questions. Others regard the expres- 
sions with cesso just cited as declarative, not interrogative. This is 
Lindsay's view. 

6. Present indicative in questions having the force of the imperative, 
hortatory subjunctive, etc. 1 These questions are introduced by quin, 
etiam, non, -ne. 

a) Imperative questions introduced by quin: Amph. 775, quin tu 
istanc iubes circumferri ; 918, quin hue adducis? Asin. 30, quin tu 
ergorogas? 325; 380; 597; 659; 661; 850; 868; Bacch. 245, quin 
tu reddis? 861; Capt. 592, quin fugis? 636; Cas. 599, quin tu sus- 
pendis te? 100; 903; Cure. 84, quin tu taces? The same phrase 
also Men. 561 ; 1114 ; Merc. 494 ; Cure. 94, quin das savium ? 183 ; 
611, quin tu is in malam crucem? The same phrase also Men. 915 ; 
Eud. 518; Epid. 303, quin tu is intro? 479; 615; 685; Men. 382, 
quin, amabo, is intro? 639, quin dicis ? The same phrase also Merc. 
724 ; M. G. 1183 ; Pers. 144 ; Men. 660, quin refers pallam domum ? 
747, quin respicis ? 912, quin tu te suspendis ? Merc. 174, quin tu 
expedis? 778, quin abis? The same phrase also M. G. 1085, 
1087; Poen. 608; Merc. 915, quin intro ducis me? 929; 942; 951; 
M. G. 446, quin retines altrinsecus ? 751, quin tu istanc orationem amo- 
ves? 1067 ; 1387 ; Most. 343, quin, amabo, accubas? 572 ; 1131 ; Pers. 
397, quin tu me ducis ? 424 ; 437 ; 625 ; Poen. 373, quin adire sinis ? 972 ; 
Pseud. 40, quin legis ? 241, quin revocas ? 350 ; 638 ; 713 ; 880 ; 891 ; 
1147 ; Pud. 122, quin tu in paludem is? Stich. 479, quin tu promit- 

1 Loch, Zum Gebrauch des Imperativs bei Plautus, 1871, p. 23 f . ; Stahl, De natura 
atque usu imperativi apud Terentium, 188G, p. 35 f . 

Present Indicative. 25 

tis ? 716, quin bibis ? Trin. 502, quin f abulare ? 802 ; 1026 ; And. 399, 
quin taces? H. T. 832, quin accipis? Ph. 429, quin quod est ferun- 
dum fers ? Examples of the 2d plural : Cas. 765, quin agitis ? quin 
datis? Men. 1000, quin me mittitis? Merc. 932, quin, pedes, vos in 
curriculum conicitis? Stich. 138, quin vos capitis condicionem? 

b) Questions introduced by etiam. The few instances of this for- 
mula all seem to involve impatience: Asin. 714, etiam tu istunc 
amoves? Cure. 41, etiam taces? So also Pers. 152; Trin. 514; 790; 
Cure. 189, etiam dispertimini ? Most. 383, etiam vigilas ? 937, etiainne 
aperis ? Pers. 275, scelerate, etiam respicis ? 413 ; 542 ; Poen. 431 ; 
H. T. 235, etiam caves? Phor. 542, etiam tu hinc abis? Ad. 550, 
etiam taces ? 

c) Questions introduced by non: Amph. 700, non taces? So also 
Asin. 931 ; Bacch. 470 ; 627 ; Cure. 712 ; Men. 1026 ; Merc. 211 ; 484 ; 
754 ; Most. 734 ; Asin. 476, non audes mini subvenire ? Men. 516, non 
tu abis ? So also Merc. 757 ; Pseud. 1196 ; Stieh. 603 ; M. G. 318, 
non iubes ? And. 743, non mihi respondes ? H. T. 919, non tu te 
cohibes ? non te respicis ? Phor. 987, non taces ? so also 1004 ; 849, 
non manes ? Ad. 781, non manum abstines ? > Plural: Ad. 942, non 
omittitis ? 

d) Questions introduced by -ne: Amph. 518, abin e conspectu 
meo ? Similarly 857 ; Aul. 660 ; Bacch. 1168 ; 1176 ; Cas. 302 ; Merc. 
756; Most. 850; Pers. 671; Trin. 457; 989; Asin. 939, iuben hanc 
abscedere? M. G. 315; Most. 660, dicisne? Pers. 412, accipin 
argentum? 792; And. 317, abin in malam rem? 337, fugin hinc? 
Eun. 651, in hinc? 861? Plural: Cure. 311, datin isti sellam? pro- 
peratin ocius ? True. 631, datin soleas ? atque me intro actutum ducite ! 

In most of the examples in the foregoing categories, the present 
indicative refers to future time. These examples, therefore, might 
have been classified under the use of the present for the future. 
But their imperative equivalence seemed to call for the separate 
classification here given. 

e) Without particle, Trag. incert. 34, itis, paratis ? 
Questions equivalent to the hortatory subjunctive, etc. : 

a) In self -exhortations, Asin. 291, quin ego iubeo ? Aul. 816, quin 
dico? Merc. 910, quin ornatum hunc reicio? Pud. 586, quin abeo 
in Veneris f anum ? Phor. 209, quin abeo ? 

26 Tenses of the Indicative, 

b) Hortatory, Asin. 680, quin ad hunc adgredimur? Cas. 854, quin 
imus ergo? Men. 247, quin domum redimus? Merc. 582, quin ergo 
imus atque obsonium curamus? 773, quin abimus? Pseud. 1048. 

c) Jussive, Cure. 251, quin depromuntur quae opus sunt? 

7. The conative present. Instances of this probably do not occur 
in Early Latin, though Capt. 232, quod volunt, dum id impetrant, 
boni sunt, is sometimes cited as an example of the usage. 


The Indo-European imperfect indicative transferred to the past 
the kind of action denoted by the present from which it was formed. 
Some present formations designated progressive action ; others mo- 
mentary (aoristic) action; cf. p. 10. Hence some imperfects desig- 
nated progressive action in past time ; others denoted momentary 
action in the past, and were equivalent to aorists. Examples of 
these last are seen in the Greek €(£77, laav, trr]v, hco^-qv ; Brugmann, 
Gr. Gramm. 3 , p. 487. 

The imperfect indicative formation of Indo-European has disap- 
peared in Latin and has been supplanted by a new imperfect in 
-ham (an aorist formation — bliudm — from the root bheu-), which, how- 
ever, seems to have inherited the functions of the Indo-European 
imperfect. In Latin accordingly we find imperfect indicatives of both 
types : progressive and aoristic. Of these two general values, the pro- 
gressive is by far the more prevalent. From it also have developed 
other functions, — particularly the customary and iterative uses. 

Classification of Imperfect Uses. 2 

1. The imperfect indicative represents an action as in process, as 
going on, in past time (Progressive imperfect). Examples : Amph. 
199, (quom pugnabant maxume) ego turn fugiebam maxume ; 251 ; 

1 Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 145 ff. ; Wheeler, The Imperfect Indic- 
ative in Early Latin, Am. Jour. Phil, xxiv, p. 163 ff. ; The Syntax of the Imperfect 
Indicative in Early Latin, Classical Philology, i, p. 357 ff . ; Blase, Studien und Kriti- 
ken zur lat. Syntax, 1904, p. 1 ff . ; Rodenbuseh, De temporum usu Plautino, 1888, 
p. 8 ff . ; Wimmerer, Zum Indikativ im Hauptsatz irrealer Bedingungsperioden, 
Wiener Studien, xxvii, p. 260 ff. ; Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 485 f. ; Delbriick, 
Vergl Synt. ii, p. 268; 302-6; 310-14; Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gramm., p. 573 f. 

2 I am greatly indebted to the very complete collection of examples contained in 
the paper of Wheeler in Classical Philology, i, p. 380 ff . My treatment also, in the 

Imperfect Indicative. 27 

603, prius multo ante aedis stabam quam illo adveneram ; 1067, 
ardere censui aedis ; ita turn confulgebant ; so 1096 ; Aul. 427, in 
aedibus quid tibi erat negoti (< what were you doing ? ') ; 550, pol ego 
te ut accusem merito meditabar ; 625, semul radebat pedibus terrain 
et croceibat ; 827, iam ut eriperes apparabas ; so also Epid. 409 ; And, 
ti56', Aul. 706, me coulocavi in arborem indeque exspectabam; so 
also Poen. 1391 ; And. 435 5 And. Alt. Ex. 1 ; Eun. 743 ; Enn. Ann. 55. 
12; Bacch. 286, is nostrae navi lembus insidias dabat; 297; 983, 
lacrimans tacitus auscultabat ; Capt. 491, alii parasiti obambulabant 
in foro ; 913, ilium f ormidabam ; ita frendebat dentibus ; Cas. 178, 
ibam ad te ; so also Cas. 593, ad te hercle ibam commodum; Epid. 
218, et cum ea tibicinae ibant quattuor; Enn. Sota, 534; Lucil. 382; 
Cas. 432, ut trepidabat ! ut festinabat ! 433, ut sussultabat ! 577, 
quid agis ? : : te ecastor praestolabar ; so also Epid. 221 ; Cist. 566, 
iam perducebam illam ad me suadela mea; 723, quid quaeritabas ? 
Epid. 214, obviam occurrebant suis amatoribus ; 215, eos captabant ; 
216, sub vestimentis liabebant retia; so also Merc. 360, nequiquam 
abstrusam habebam ; Pseud. 676 ; Naev. Trag. 54 ; Lucil. 4 ; Epid. 
482, hanc filius meus deperibat ; Men. 29, Tarenti ludi forte erant 
quom illuc venit ; 419, tibi advorsabar ; Men. 1053, tu clam abas 
deum fidem ; 1116, nam tunc dentes mihi cadebaht primulum ; 563, 
pallam ad phrygionem f erebat ; Merc. 43, res ad illam abibat ; 45 ; 
M. G. 100, is amabat meretricem ; so also And. 88 ; Hec. 114 ; M. G. 
1336, temptabam spirarent annon; Most. 961, quis istaec faciebat? 
Poen. 1179, omnis odor complebat ; Pseud. 800, cur sedebas ? so also 
Bud. 846; Cato, Jord. p. 36, 2; Calp. Piso, Peter, p. 84, 5; Bud. 
519, eas res agebam commodum ; 543, iam postulabas te totam Siciliam 
devoraturum ; cf . Stich. 559 ; Bud. 1123, duclum dimidiam petebas 
partem ; Stich. 328, quid me velles visebam ; 365, commodum sese sol 
superabat; Trin. 212, omnes mortales hunc aiebant Calliclem indignum 
ci vitate hac esse ; 901, ubi ipse erat ? : : bene rem gerebat ; 910, atque 
modo vorsabatur mihi in labris ; 926, quid ille mihi latitabat ? 1100, 
thensaurum ecfodiebam ; True. 197, nam lavabat; Plant. Frag. 82, tunc 

main, follows Wheeler's; but I have omitted in this connection all consideration of 
the imperfect indicative in dependent clauses. A careful examination of the mate- 
rial showed that subordinate clauses exhibit no uses not exemplified in independent 
sentences. Full material illustrative of the use of the imperfect in dependent 
sentences is given below in the chapter on " The Indicative in Subordinate Clauses." 

28 Tenses of the Indicative. 

papillae primulum fraterculabant — illud volui dicere : sororiabant ; 
And. 108, curabat una f unus ; 533, te ipsum quaerebam ; so also H. T. 
844 ; Eun. 1065 ; Plior. 472 ; Ad. 461 ; H. T. 126, pro se quisque 
sedulo f aciebant ; 292, anus subtemen nebat ; praeterea una ancillula 
erat • ea texebat ; 366, haec arte tractabat virum ; 758, te mi ipsum 
iam dudum optabam dari; 781; 907, Clinia haec fieri videbat; Eun. 
86, quis hie loquitur ? tun hie eras ? quid stabas hie ? so also Ad. 
901, tu hie eras ? Eun. 323, id stomachabar modo ; 378, quid agis ? 
iocabar; 620, id faciebat retinendi illius causa; 1000, iam diu ali- 
quam causam quaerebat; Phor. 52, ego obviam conabar tibi; 573, 
quid illi tarn diu commorabare ? 614, id cum hoc agebam eommo- 
dum ; Hec. 294 ; Naev. Bell. Pun. 3, 2, in auream molabat victimam 
pulchram ; 4, 2, noctu Troiade exibant ; so 5, 3 ; Com. 114, tantum 
ibi molae crepitum faciebant, tintinnabant compedes ; Enn. Ann. 28, 
9, semita nulla viam stabilibat; 55, 8, certabant, urbem Eomam 
vocarent ; 93, 1, mandebat homonem : heu ! quam crudeli condebat 
membra sepulcro ! 107, aquila volabat ; 140, 4, omne arbustum sona- 
bat f remitu ; 320, iam cata signa f era e sonitum dare voce parabant ; 
321, olli cernebant magnis de rebus; 351, navibus explebant sese 
terrasque replebant ; 359, cum saevo obsidio magnus Titanus preme- 
bat ; 400, ratibusque f remebat imber Neptuni ; 437, Massili- porta- 
bant iuvenes ad litora -tanas; Enn. Trag. 9, ita magni fluctus 
eiciebantur; 107, his erat in ore Bromius, his Bacchus pater; 110, 
ignotus iuvenum coetus alterna vice inibat : 396, cnbitis pinsibant 
humum ; Ace. 34, f ulmen, flammam ostentabat ; Trag. Incert. Bibb, 
p. 273, 7, Priamus ecsacritlcabat hostiis ; p. 282, 3, trepidus hortabar 
fugam ; Turp. 58, sperabam consilia nostra dividiae tibi non fore ; 
147, misero mihi mitigabat sandalio caput; Afran. 140, res tempus 
locus simul otium hortabatur ; 151, quod vitae studium mihi suppo- 
nebas ? Com. Incert. Bibb. 32, sibi cum tetulit coronam, tibi ferebat ; 
Lucil. 80, mantica cantheri costas gravitate premebat; 112, 1, ex- 
spirans animam pulmonibus aeger agebat; 127, 2, ilium sumina 
ducebant ; 171, ante fores quidam grandaevos gemebat ; 186, circum 
impluvium ciner pluebat ; 294, Scipiadae magno improbus obiciebat 
Asellus ; 519, di r edit urn talem portendebant ; 749, hoc pretium atque 
reddebamus honorem ; Cass. Hem. Peter, p. 72, 29, mulier cantabat 
et cymbalissabat ; C. Gracchus, Meyer, p. 234, is in lectica f erebatur. 

Imperfect Indicative. 29 

2. The imperfect often denotes, not an act in process, but a continuing 
state or condition. This use is closely connected with that already 
considered and is obviously but another phase of it. Thus certain 
verbs by their very nature are incapable of indicating an act as in 
process. Verbs like 'walk/ 'run/ 'sigh/ 'rain/ 'show/ 'fight/ etc. 
easily lend themselves to the idea of progression; but verbs like 
'know/ 'believe/ 'fear/ etc. do not naturally denote an act going 
on ; they denote rather a continuous state, — an act that endures 
rather than progresses. Such verbs stand frequently in the imper- 
fect in Latin where in English we more commonly use the simple 
past. Examples : 

a) scibam, nescibam, Amph. 22, etsi pro imperio vobis quod dictum 
foret scibat facturos ; 385, scibam nullum esse nobis nisi me servom 
Sosiam; As. 300; Aul. 754; Bacch. 676; Poen. 509; Pseud. 499; 
500; 501; Trim 657; H. T. 309; Eun. 113; 155; 736; 1004 ; Phor. 
529 ; 582 ; Ace. 37 ; Eibb. Trag. p. 285, 87 ; Turp. 16 ; Cass. Hem. 
Peter, p. 70, 7 ; cf . Eun. 1089, isti te ignorabant. 

b) censebam: Aul. 667, Eide censebam maxumam multo ficlem 
esse ; As. 385 ; Bacch. 342, censebam me ecfugisse a vita marituma : 
Men. 605; 636; 1072; 1136; Merc. 196; 815; Pers. 171; 415. 

c) putabam : And. 91, spectatum satis putabam ; 113 ; cf. Amph. 
1095, aedis primo ruere rebamur; And. 110, sic cogitabam. 

d) credebam : Amph. 597, neque credebam primo mihimet Sosiae ; 
Merc. 212 ; Pers. 477 ; Kud. 1186 ; H. T. 785; Hec. 713 ; Ad. 693. 

e) videbar : Enn. Epich. 499, nam videbar somniare me lecto esse 
mortuom ; Ann. 28, 7; Turp. 151. 

f) Other verbs : Asin. 315, ego mirabar ; so Phor. 490 ; Ad. 642 ; 
And. 175 ; Peter 73, 27 ; Asin. 392, quid quaeritas ? : : Demaenetum 
volebam ; so 395 ; 452 ; Lucil. 313 ; Bacch. 190 ; Most, 9 ; Trim 195 ; 
Aul. 178, praesagibat mi animus frustra me ire ; Phor. 117, illam 
ducere cupiebat et metuebat absentem patrem ; Men. 420 ; True. 185 ; 
Eun. 433 ; 514, ita turn erat suspicio ; Bacch. 683, Bacchidem suspi- 
cabar ; Capt. 662, non occatorem dicere audebas ? Cas. 674, peccavi : 
illuc dicere volebam ; 702 ; Epid. 138, desipiebam mentis, quom ilia 
scripta mittebam ; Merc. 247, quo magis cura cruciabar ; And. 60, 
gaudebam ; Ad. 152 ; Eun. 587 ; And. 96, id mihi placebat ; Stich. 
329, me quidem harum miserebat ; Ace. 355 ; Eun. 1013, an paeni- 

30 Tenses of the Indicative. 

tebat flagiti ? Hec. 806, denique hercle iam pudebat ; Ad. 274 ; 150, 
iam omnium taedebat ; Phor. 642, a primo insanibat; Hec. 177, 
primos dies bene conveniebat inter eas ; 651, hunc videre optabamus 
diem ; Phor. 83, serviebat lenoni ; Bacch. 959, iam duo restabant 
fata tunc ; Phor. 85 ; Bacch. 12, Praenestinum opino esse, ita glo- 
riosus erat ; And. 62, sic vita erat. 

3. The imperfect is frequently used to denote a customary action 
(Customary Imperfect). This use apparently develops from the 
progressive function of the imperfect. An act that goes on perma- 
nently tends to become habitual. Examples: As. 142, sordido vitam 
oblectabas pane; 143, magnas habebas omnibus dis gratias; 207, 
turn mihi aedes quoque adridebant, quom ad te veniebam ; 209, in 
meo ore usque eratis, meo de studio studia erant vostra omnia, usque 
adhaerebatis . . . quod volueram faciebatis, quod volebam fugie- 
batis . , . neque conari id f acere audebatis ; 889, ille suppilabat me, 
quod ancillas suspicabar ; Bacch. 421, eademne erat disciplina tibi, 
quom tu adulescens eras ? 426 f . ; 429 ; 438 ; Cist. 18, raro dabat 
quod biberem, id merum infuscabat ; Epid. 135, illam amabam olim ; 
587, cur me patrem vocabas ? Men. 717, omnia mala ingerebat quem- 
quam aspexerat ; 1122, uno nomine ambo eratis ? : : minime, nam 
mihi hoc erat quod nunc est, Menaechmo ; ilium turn vocabant So- 
siclem ; M. G. 61, rogitabant : " hicine Achilles est ? " 835, nam nimis 
calebat, amburebat gutturem ; 849, mihi imperabat, ego promebam ; 
850; 854, ea saepe deciens complebatur; 856; Most. 153, victitabam 
volup ; discipulinae aliis eram, optumi quisque expetebant a me 
doctrinam sibi ; 731, immo vita antehac erat ; Pers. 649, servi 
liberique amabant; Pseud. 1171, ego eram domi imperator summus; 
1181 ; Trin. 503, ubi us us nil erat dicto 'spondeo' dicebat ; Plautus, 
Er. 24, nam me puero venter erat solarium ; And. 58, horum nil 
studebat; 74, primo haec pudice vitam agebat; 83 if. ; 107; 109; 
H. T. 1C12, cottidie accusabam ; 110, non amori operam dabam ; 988 ; 
Ean. 118, sororem plerique esse credebant in earn ; 397, vel rex 
semper maxumas mihi agebat, quidquid feceram ; 407 ; Phor. 87, 
nos otiosi operam dabamus Phaedriae ; 363, ruri fere se continebat ; 
ibi agrum colendum habebat ; saepe mihi narrabat ; 789 ; Hec. 60, 
vel hie Pamphilus iurabat quotiens ! 157 ; 426, olim te causae impel- 
lebant leves ; Cato, Agr. Prooem. 2, virum bonum quom laudabant, ita 

Imperfect Indicative. 31 

laudabant; 3, amplissime laudari existimabatur qui ita laudabatur ; fr. 
Jord. p. 29, 3, mulieres nostrae capilluni ciuere unctitabant ; p. 35, 1, 
inter ea unamquam que turmam temptabam; quid facere possent spec- 
tabam ; si quis strenue fecerat, donabam hones te, at que in contione 
laudabam ; 39, 8, quom Eomam veniebant, prorsus devortebantur ad 
amicos; p. 64, 2; p. 82, 10; 11; p. 83, 2; 3; Enn. Ann. 191, noe- 
num ru mores ponebat ante salutem ; Trag. 370 ; Ambr. 495 ; Turp. 
21; Lucil. 691, 'ealix' per castra clnebat; CIL, i, 1011, ille meo 
officio adsiduo tlorebat ad omnis ; Calp. Piso, p. 83, 29 (Peter), Fla- 
vius scriptum 1'aciebat ; Asellio, p. 109, 9 (Peter), annales libri tan- 
turn modo ea demonstrabant; 110, 17; Eutil. Eufus, p. 123, 23 
(Peter) ; Junius Pennus, p. 226 (Meyer), antea trossulos vocabant ; 
C. Gracchus, p. 229, 3 (Meyer). 

The prevalence of the customary usage leads also to the employ- 
ment of the imperfect in the expressions, solebam and mos erat, Epid. 
99, antehac aliis solebas dare consilia mutua; Phor. 89; Carbo, 
p. 282 (Meyer) ; Cato, fr. (Jord.), 83, 1, vestiri in foro honeste mos 
erat. Here the ' Aktionsart ? is aoristic ; it is illogical to speak of a 
custom as being customary. 

4. The imperfect at times is used to denote an act that is persisted 
in by its author. This usage exhibits two or three different phases. 

a) The idea may be that an act is kept up uninterruptedly, as 
Capt. 654, illic servom se adsimulabat, ( kept pretending ' ; Epid. 238, 
dissimulabam earum operam sermoni dare, 'kept pretending not to 
notice ? ; 420, ego med sic adsimulabam ; quasi stolidum me f acie- 
bam ; M. G. 463, sed quo modo dissimulabat ! l how capitally she 
kept up the pretence! 7 Pseud. 421. 

b) The idea may be that an act is repeated (often insistently and 
vigorously) at frequent intervals within a short space of time (Itera- 
tive Imperfect). Some see in this use a resemblance to the custom- 
ary imperfect, but the likeness is only superficial, for the customary 
imperfect always covers a long range of time, and denotes a fixed 
habit of daily life, whereas the iterative imperfect is limited to a 
brief period, and does not denote an habitual practice. Examples : 
As. 931, dissuadebam, ( I kept urging him not to ; ? so 938, dicebam, 
pater, tibi ne matri consuleres male, i I kept telling you, Father, not 

32 Tenses of the Indicative. 

to, etc. ; ' Capt. 917, coquom percontabatur possentne seriae fervescere • 
Epid. o%, ad me ab legione epistulas mittebat ; 239, nee satis exaudi- 
bam, nee sermonis fallebar tain en. To understand the true character 
of this passage, it will help to give another of similar meaning, but 
affirmative in form, since the idiom probably arose in positive sen- 
tences, and the negative disguises its real nature. The Epid. passage 
I conceive to be modelled on something like, amicus meus omnia 
exaudibat, ego auteni sermonis fallebar, in the sense, 'my friend 
kept hearing everything that was said, but I kept missing snatches 
of the talk ; > the passage under discussion is simply a negative ex- 
ample of the idiom. Men. 483, mulier quidquid dixerat, idem ego 
dicebam; Merc. 216, quin quidque ut dicebam, mihi credebat; so 
217; 631, promittebas te os sublinere meo patri; M. Gr. 1410, ita 
ancilla dicebat mihi ; Poen. 478, eo praesternebant folia . . . ; in 
f undas visci indebant grandiculos globos ; i.e. the army as a whole 
kept doing these things ; 486, ut quisque acciderat, eum necabam. 
Eum here is, of course, indefinite. A passive metaphrase may 
make the relation clearer: 'Whoever fell was in each case imme- 
diately dispatched by me. 5 Eud. 540, tibi auscultavi, tu promit- 
tebas mihi illi esse quaestum maxumum ; ibi me conruere posse 
aiebas ditias ; Amph. 383, Amphitruonis te esse aiebas Sosiam, 
may also be of the same nature, — < kept maintaining.' True. 
506, quin ubi natust, machaeram et clupeum poscebat sibi ; Hec 
802, ut quisque venorat, accedebam ; Scipio Min. (Meyer), p. 214, 
haec cum mihi quisquam narrabat, non poteram animum inducere. 

c) In the passages cited under a) and b) we have the reiterated 
act of the same person. Closely related are those instances in 
which we have, not the reiterated act of a single person, but the 
same act repeated by a succession of persons, as, for example, by 
the individuals of a group; as, Hec. 805, omnes negabant, i.e. the 
act of denial was repeated by one after another; so probably 
in Epid. 603, adulescentem equidem dicebant emisse, i.e. the 
statement was repeated by one and another (the regular force of 
J they ' in < they say ') ; Poen. 483, quemquem visco offenderant, tarn 
crebri ad terrain reccidebant quam pira ; i.e. the act of falling was 
repeated by one man after another. 

5. The aoristic use of the imperfect (see p. 26). All recognize the 

Imperfect Indicative. 33 

existence of this usage, but there is much difference of opinion as 
to the range of its occurrence. J. Schneider, De temporum apud 
priscos Latinos usu, p. 17, holds that the imperfect and perfect were 
used promiscuously of aoristic acts. Wheeler, Classical Philology, 
i. p. 389, on the other hand, limits the aoristic imperfect mainly to 
verbs of saying. Similar is the attitude of Schmalz, Syntax und 
Stilistik 4 , p. 485. An examination of the complete material belong- 
ing to the problem will, I believe, convince all that Schneider's view 
is untenable. At the same time I have felt compelled to recognize 
more instances of the aoristic imperfect than do either Wheeler or 
Schmalz. Yet the great limitation of the usage is obvious. Exam- 
ples : 

a) aibam : Amph. 807, te dormitare aibas ; As. 442, aibat reddere ; 
so also Capt. 561 ; 676; Cas. 279; Cist. 143; 585; 607; Cure. 488; 
582; Epid. 254; Men. 532; 936; 1046; 1141; Merc. 635; 637; 638; 
765; 766; 804; M. G. 66; 1107; Most. 806; 1002; 1027; 1028; 
Poen. 464; 900; Pseud. 650; 1083; 1118; Eud. 307; 1130; Stich. 
391; Trin. 428; 875; 944; 956; 986; 1140; True. 757; And. 930; 
932; H. T. 960; Phor. 572; Hec. 238; Ad. 561; Titin. 63; Lucil. 
381, 2. 

Barring a few examples, all of these are taken as aoristic by 
Wheeler, op. cit. p. 389. I cannot find that any of them show 
decisive marks of any of the types of imperfect that we have recog- 
nized above. In the absence of a perfect of aio the imperfect seems 
to have assumed its functions. It is worthy of note that verbs of 
saying by their very nature do not readily lend themselves to im- 
perfect uses. Thus while dico in Plautus is used over 200 times 
in the perfect, it occurs but ten times in the imperfect. It is small 
wonder then that the imperfect forms of aio have aoristic function. 

b) negabas: Men. 729, at mihi negabas dudum surrupuisse te; 
Pseud. 1314, at negabas daturum esse te; Hec. 538, nam negabas 
posse te path Wheeler takes all these as progressive. But I can 
see no trace of action going on in any of these examples. The act 
certainly is not one in process. It is true that in English we can 
translate these by 'you were denying/ 'you were saying that . . . 
not.' But I am inclined to believe that such expressions are purely 
phraseological with us. 'You were saying' seems to me to carry no 

34 Tenses of the Indicative. 

implication of action in process, and to be as good a rendering of 
modo dixisti as of modo dicebas. If that is true, there is need of 
caution in making the English translation a test of the 'Aktionsart.' 

c) eras, erat. 1 It is so difficult for me to see any notion of con- 
tinued action in the imperfect of sum that I have unhesitatingly 
classed as aoristic nearly all of the instances of eram and its com- 
pounds. Thus: Amph. 429, cadus erat vini, inde implevi hirneam ; 
here erat seems to me of the same nature as implevi ; cf. Wheeler, 
op. cit. p. 374. Further examples are: Amph. 1009, (Naucrates) 
in navi non erat; As. 927, modo quom dicta in me ingerebas, odium, 
non uxor, eram. In these the idea corresponding to a i wasn't being ' 
seems very inappropriate. The obvious force of the verb is a simple 
past. Similarly with the following, which I shall net stop to dis- 
cuss in detail : Aul. 375, cara omnia, atque eo fuerunt cariora, aes 
non erat; Bacch. 563; Capt. 273, non fuit molesta servitus, nee mihi 
secus erat quam si, etc.; Cas. 531; 882; 914; Men. 59, ei liberorum 
nisi divitiae nihil erat; 1117, vos turn patri fllii quot eratis? . . . 
liter eratis, tun an ille maior? 1120; 1131; 1135; Merc. 845; M. G. 
99; 181; 755, sat erat; 848; 853; 1323; 1430; 1431; Most. 788, 
seni non erat otium, id opperitus sum; Pers. 262; Poen. 1069; 1180; 
Pseud. 799; Eud. 49; 269, aequius erat ; 502; 841, quin occidisti? 
: : gladius non erat; 1253; Stich. 539, fuit olim senex; ei filiae duae 
erant; . . . erant minori illi adulescenti Micina et tibicina; sed ille 
erat caeleps senex; Trin. 976, postquam me aurum ferre dixi, tu 
factus Charmides; prius non eras, quam auri feci mentionem; True. 
719 ; And. 86 ; H. T. 201 ; 203 ; 629 ; Eun. 97, ita res erat, faciundum 
fuit; 345; 423; 569; 681; 736, nonne id sat erat ? 841; Phor. 36; 
654; 768, sat erat; 945; 1012; 1023; Hec. 283; 340; Ad. 234; 
494; 716; Enn. Ann. 155, 4; Ace. 320; Cn. Gellius (Peter), p. 94, 

d) Compounds of sum: poterat: Aul. 294, quid hie non poterat de 
suo opsonari? M. G-. 911; Pers. 59, neque eos quisquam poterat 
vincere; And. 792; H. T. 785; Hec. 375; cf. Eud. 600, neque eas 
eripere quibat; aderat: Epid. 612, ibi aderat una Apoecides; Poen. 
1178; Phor. 99; 105; 858; Hec. 561; inerat: Eun. 584, ibi inerat 

1 Note that by origin eram is not an imperfect, but an aorist, like the formative 
element -bam (see above, p. 26). 

Imperfect Indicative. 35 

pictura; Naev. Bell. Pun. 20; deerat : Phor. 299, non ratio, verum 
argentun deerat. 

e) oportebat: Men. 195, si amabas, iam oportebat nasum abrep- 
tum ; H. T. 536, haec facta ab illo oportebat. 

f) Barring a few 'shifted imperfects/ for which see below, there 
remain only the following instances in the entire range of Early 
Latin which have not already been considered. None of them seem 
to me to fall under any of the previous categories, but to be aoristic. 
They are: Aul. 179, itaque abibam invitus; Bacch. 673, quid igitur 
stulte, quoniam occasio fuit, sic hoc digitulis duobus sumebas 
prioribus ? 788, orabat quod istic esset scriptum foret ut fieret; Capt. 
504, vix ex gratulando miser eminebam ; Cist. 568, earn suam esse 
filiam adiurabat mihi; Merc. 190, quin apstrudebas? 983 a, vacuom 
esse his decebat noxiis ; Pseud. 421, iam pridem sensi et subolebat 
mihi; 798, si arbitrabare, cur conducebas ? True. 332, non tibi dice- 
bam <i' modo? 333, quid iam revocabas? 813, vir erat, plus valebat; 
And. 89, (gaudebam) ; alio die quaerebam : comperiebam nil ad Pam- 
philum attinere ; 490, non imperabat coram ; Eun. Ill, matris nomen 
dicebat ipsa; . . . mercator hoc addebat; 533, Thais orabat ut redi- 
res; Phor. 595, gaudebat, me laudabat, quaerebat senem dis gratias 
agebat; 652, mihi venibat in mentem eius incommodum; Hec. 94, 
illi haud licebat nisi praefinito loqui ; 498, quam ob rem te orabam ? 
Ad. 809, tu illos duo olim pro re tollebas tua; ISTaev. Praetext. 8, pro- 
veniebant oratores novi, stulti adulesculentuli ; Cass. Hem. (Peter), 
p. 73, 28, ille ita rationem reddebat ; Calp. Piso (Peter), 83, 30, isque 
in eo tempore aedili curuli apparebat; CIL, i, 201, 6, animum nos- 
trum non indoucebamus ita facta esse. 

6. Imperfects denoting a future from a past standpoint. Attention 
has already been called (p. 18) to the use of the present as future. 
Corresponding to that usage, we have in a few instances the imper- 
fect denoting a future act from a past point of view. Thus : Merc. 
884, quo nunc ibas ? 981, ibat in exsulatum ; True. 921, ego ad te 
ibam ; so also, And. 581 ; Phor. 900, nos ad te ibamus ; 902, quid ad 
me ibatis ? Ad. 820, mane : scio ; istuc ibam ; Phor. 298, qua ratione 
inopem potius ducebat domum ? ' was proposing to bring home ? ; 
Hec. 171, interea moritur cognatus senex; ea ad hos redibat lege 
hereditas ; see Wheeler, Amer. Jour. Phil, xxiv, p. 174. 

36 Tenses of the Indicative. 

7. The shifted imperfect Wheeler (Class. Phil, i, p. 376) gives 
this name to those cases in which the imperfect indicative is equiva- 
lent to an imperfect subjunctive with present force, i.e. is equivalent 
to the apodosis of a contrary-to-fact condition in the present. But 
the examples which he cites in illustration of the usage fail in all 
but one instance to conform to his definition. The one instance is 
Lucil. 150, nam si, quod satis est homini, id satis esse potisset, hoc 
sat erat, where sat erat is equivalent to sat esset. Wheeler's other 
examples (in independent sentences) are: Merc. 983, etiam loquere 
larva? vacuom esse istac ted aetate his decebat noxiis; M. G. 911, 
bonus vates poteras esse ; Rud. 269, ergo aequius vos erat candidatas 
venire hostiatasque ; H. T. 785, scite poterat fieri ; M. G. 754, quid 
opus fuit hoc sumptu nostra gratia? insanivisti hercle, nam idem 
hoc hominibus sat erat decern. In all of these examples the imper- 
fect refers to the past, — ' ought to have avoided/ 'ought to have 
come/ 'would have made a good prophet/ 'might have been nicely 
done. 7 We simply have a familiar Latin idiom, whereby in the 
case of certain verbs (possum, decere, debere, etc.) the Latin uses 
a past tense (perfect or imperfect) governing a present infinitive, 
where in English we use the perfect infinitive, as, 'you ought to have 
come'; 'you could have done this.' In this usage the Latin form of 
expression is strictly logical. As Blase well observes (Studien und 
Kritiken, p. 13), the peculiarity is in the English. In Wheeler's 
last example (M. G. 754), there is no peculiarity, however. The 
words are to be taken, I believe, in their literal meaning : ' you were 
crazy ; there was enough here for ten men.' 

Further Peculiarities of Usage. 

Imperfect for present. In the dramatists the speaker sometimes 
puts in the imperfect a thought which belongs to the present as well 
as the past and which in English we more commonly express by the 
present tense; as, As. 392, quid quaeritas? : : Demaenetum volebam; 
394, ubi est ? : : ad tonsorem ire dixit . . . quid volebas ? 452, si domi 
est, Demaenetum volebam ; Bacch. 189, recte valet ? : : istuc ex te 
volebam percontarier ; Most. 9, hoccine volebas? Trin. 195, istuc 
volebam scire; Cas. 674, peccavi: illuc dicere volebam; 702, illud 
quidem volebam; True. 719, hicin tu eras? Phor. 858, tu quoque 

Imperfect Indicative. 37 

aderas? : : aderam; 945, tune is eras? Hec. 340, tun hie eras? so Ad. 
901 ; And. 86, illi id erat nomen. 

Imperfect with iam dudum, iam pridem, iam diu, with the force of 
the pluperfect. I have noted only the following instances in Early 
Latin : Men. 419, iam dudum tibi advorsabar ; Poen. 1391, iam pri- 
dem scivi et expectabam (assuming that the force of iam pridem 
extends also to exspectabam) ; Pseud. 421, iam pridem sensi et subo- 
lebat mihi ; H. T. 758, te mi ipsum iam dudum optabam dari ; Eun. 
1000, iam diu aliquam causam quaerebat senex. 

Imperfect of the immediate past. Wheeler (Amer. Jour. Phil, xxiv, 
p. 168 ; Classical Philology, i, p. 358) recognizes also as a subdivision 
of the progressive imperfect an imperfect of the immediate past, 
and, as a sub-type of that, an interrupted imperfect. Stich. 328 
illustrates both these uses : ego quid me velles visebam ; nam me qui- 
dem harum miserebat. Both visebam and miserebat refer to the 
immediate past, and in visebam the action is interrupted. In both 
cases the distinction is real, yet it can hardly be regarded as of vital 
syntactical importance. 

The inceptive and conative imperfects. As Wheeler has shown 
(Amer. Jour. Phil, xxiv, p. 173), the inceptive force occasionally 
noticed in passages like Men. 1116, nam tunc dentes mihi cadebant 
primulum, " arises from the combination of tense and particle. Xo 
inceptive function can be proved for the tense alone. 77 There are no 
certain cases, either, of the conative use in Early Latin (Wheeler, 
ibid. p. 179). In Epid. 215, eos captabant, the conative force lies in 
the meaning of the verb itself. 

A review of the material under the foregoing categories substan- 
tiates the traditional definition of the imperfect indicative as the 
tense of description, as opposed to the perfect, the tense of narra- 
tion. But it should be clearly borne in mind that the imperfect is 
the tense of description by virtue of its dominant progressive char- 
acter. While, therefore, we may speak of a " descriptive imperfect," 
we should remember that it is but a common illustration of the basal 
progressive use. 

In Latin, as in Sanskrit and Greek, the imperfect is frequently 
used in referring to occurrences within the recollection of the speaker 

38 Tenses of the Indicative. 

or of the speaker and the person addressed. This is sometimes 
called the " reminiscent imperfect." But again we have but a 
phase of the progressive use, and a perfectly natural one, since the 
visualizing tense of situation is by its nature adapted to the recital 
of personal experiences. 


There are two future formations in Latin, one in -am, another in -bo. 
The former of these is an Indo-European subjunctive; the latter is a 
new formation (peculiar to Italic and Celtic), which, however, shares 
the functions of the future in -am. Both sets of forms exhibit clear 
traces of subjunctive influence. Thus we find a variety of uses 
strongly tinged with volitive meaning ; while other uses seem to be 
developed from the pure future force inherent in one of the phases 
of the Indo-European subjunctive (see p. 152). There are traces 
too of optative functions, though these in all probability do not go 
back to any association of the -am subjunctive with optative func- 
tions, but are rather an outgrowth of the future force itself. 

Another outgrowth of the pure future force is the gnomic or 
achronistic use. The so-called potential force recognized by some 
does not seem to rest upon any adequate foundation. 

Classification of Future Uses. 

The following classification includes volitive, pure future, opta- 
tive, and achronistic uses as its major categories. Under the voli- 
tive and pure future headings a number of minor categories will be 
considered. Eor the less usual types the material will be found 
fairly complete, viz. for the jussive, deliberative, optative, and 
achronistic uses. Eor the other and common categories the 
examples are drawn from two plays, the Mostellaria and the Andria. 

I. Volitive uses of the future indicative. In the volitive forces of 
the future indicative the notion of willing is usually much less pro- 
nounced than in the volitive uses of the subjunctive. The first per- 

1 Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Sprache, iii, p. 112 ff. ; Neumann, H., De futuri in 
priscorum Latin orum vulgari vel cotidiano sermone vi et usu, 1888; Sjogren, Zum 
Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen, 1904, p. 72 ff. ; Schneider, Jos., De tem- 
porum apud priseos scriptores Latinos usu, 1888, p. 18 ff. ; Rodenbusch, De temporum 
usu Plautino, 1888, p. 37 ff. ; Van Wijk, Die altitalischen Futura, Indog. Forsch. 
xvii, p. 465 ff . 

Future Indicative. 39 

son (usually singular) predominates. In a fair number of instances 
there is a clear idea of resolve or determination. In other cases (and 
these are much more numerous) the notion is merely of an intended 
course of action, including threats and promises. We have also 
permissive futures and futures denoting compliance or assent. 

a) Resolves, e.g. And. 276, non faciam ; 380, quid vis patiar; 384, 
numquam faciam; 415, hoc agam; 775, non hercle faciet (Hie will 
not do it ') ; Most. 229, venibit multo potius ; 238, nam neque edes 
neque bibes; 846, errabo potius quam perductet; 914, numquam 
sinam ; 1133, non enim ibis. 

b) Compliance, a yielding of the will of the speaker, as, And. 45, 
die quid est ! : : ita faciam ; 388, ducas volo liodie uxorem. : : ducam ; 
420, neque erit usquam in me mora ; 597, faciam hercle sedulo ; 681, 
restitue locum ! : : faciam ; 713, veniam ; 739, manebo ; Most. 246, 
tibi adsentabor ; 398, intro abi et tu ! : : morigerae tibi erimus ; 
401, curabitur ; 661, dicam ; 857, hand usquam a pedibus apscedam 
tuis ; 898, faciam ; 928, faciam ut iubes. 

c) Commands (Loch, Zum Gebrauch cles Imperativus bei Plautus, 
1871, p. 23) : Amph. 15, ita huic facietis fabulae silentium itaque 
aequi et iusti hie eritis arbitri; Asin. 373, tu cavebis ne me attingas 
Aul. 401, tu istum gallum, si sapis, glabriorem reddes; Bacch. 48 
Cure. 728, tu, miles, aput me cenabis ; Men. 122, malo cavebis, si sapis 
virum observare desines ; 692, non feres ; Merc. 584, atque hercle in 
venies tu locum illi, si sapis ; Most. 75, ne tu hercle praeterhac mihi 
non facies moram ; 515, non me appellabis, si sapis ; M. Gr. 571, ne 
tu hercle linguam comprimes posthac ; Poen. 675; 1036; H. T. 870, 
cautim et paulatim dabis, si sapies ; 833, tu hie nos opperibere ; Hec. 
590, hand facies, neque sinam ; Stat. 145, qui sapiet, de me discet ; 
176, patiere quod dant quando optata non danunt ; Afran. 129, me auc- 
tore, mater, abstinebis ; Cato, Agr. 14, 3, quae opus sunt, dominus 
praebebit et ad opus dabit; 90, id ubi excluserit, depsito bene . . . 
postea magis depset ; CIL, i, 198, 8, de hisce ioudicium non net. 

It is a mistake to believe, as is sometimes done, that the future 
indicative, when used in this function, denotes per se any particular 
kind of command, either mild or peremptory. As a matter of fact 
it may denote any kind of command, either mild or peremptory. 
In this it is exactly like the jussive subjunctive and the imperative. 

40 Tenses of the Indicative. 

d) Deliberatives. All of the logical values of the deliberative 
subjunctive (see p. 228 f£.) may be expressed by the future indic- 
ative. Thus : 

1) Inquiry after a command or advice, Merc. 915, paullisper 
mane ! quid, manebo ? M. G. 1242, adibon ? Eud. 1370, propera ! : : 
quid, properabo ? 

2) Duty or Fitness, Epid. 151, quid fiet ilia ndicina? (' what's 
to be done ? ') So also Phor. 219 ; Ad. 288 ; 996 ; M. G. 973,quid ilia 
f aciemus ? So also Eim. 837 ; Hec. 66S ; Most. 392, ubi ero ? Eud. 189, 
hancine ego ad rem natam miseram me memorabo ? 249, quo, amabo, 
ibimus ? 251, sicine hie cum uvida veste grassabimur ? 748, tune 
. . . liberos parentibus sublectos habebis atque indigno quaestu 
conteres ? 1140, idne habebit hariola ? 1270, patri etiam gratulabor ? 
Stich. 428, ad cenam ibon ? 599, solus cenabo domi ? True. 205, ibo 
igitur intro ? 741, meane inimici mei bona istic caedent ? And. 453, 
quern vocabo ad cenam meorum aequalium potissimum ? 612, quid 
ego nunc dicam patri ? negabon velle me ducere ? H. T. 700, nam 
quo ore appellabo patrem ? Phor. 536, itane hunc patiemur, Geta, 
fieri miserum ? 538, quin beneficium rursum ei experiemur reddere ? 
917, nam quo redibo ore ad earn ? Hec. 671, eho ! an non alemus ? 
prodemus potius ? Cato (Jord.) f r. 23, 17, ea nunc derepente tanta 
beneficia, tantam amicitiam relinquemus ? quod illos dicimus voluisse 
facere, id nos priores facere occupabimus? 

3) Helplessness, Hec. 628, quid respondebo his ? aut quo pacto 
hoc operiam ? 516, quid again ? quo me vortam ? quid viro respon- 
debo ? 

4) True Deliberative, only Capt. 535, quid loquar ? quid fabula- 
bor ? quid negabo ? aut quid fatebor ? 

5) Eepudiating Question or Exclamation, Men. 197, salta sic cum 
palla postea ! : : ego saltabo ! sanus hercle non es ; M. G. 1021, quid ! 
ego astabo hie tantisper frustra! Hec. 671, ego alam ! Turp. 153, 
ego praestolabo illi ante ostium ! Pseud. 847, tibi nummum dabo ! 

A few other examples are brought by some scholars under the 
head of the deliberative. Thus Bacch. 824, atqui iam dabis. : : dabo? 
And. 617, at iam expediam. : : expedies ? H. T. 1012, nilo minus ego 
hoc faciam tamen. : : facies ? are regarded by some as examples of 
the repudiating future. But these are rather scornful inquiries as 

Future Indicative. 41 

to the purpose or intention of the person addressed. They seem to 
me different from the examples which I have cited under the head 
of the repudiating future. Even less entitled to rank as delibera- 
tives seem to me Bacch. 145, tu amicam habebis ? Cure. 205, quo 
usque ad hunc modum amore utemur subrepticio ? Bud. 817 ; Trin. 

e) Permissive uses, e.g. Most. 392, cum hae, cum istac eris ; 884, 
illi erunt bucaedae potius quam ego sim restio; Cato, Agr. 147, si 
non exportaverit, dominus vino quid volet faciet. 

f) Threats, e.g. Most. 4, te ruri ulciscar ; 240, nee recte si dixeris, 
vapulabis ; 384, occidam patrem ; 386, vos pro matula, liabebo ; 587, 
illunc nominabo; 1114, iam iubebo ignem cireumclari; 1167, verberi- 
bus caedere pendens ; 1168, interimam te ; And. 199, te in pistrinum 
dedam ; 776, hunc in viam provolvam ; 864, ego te commotum red- 
dam ; 866, tibi ostendam erum quid sit pericli fallere ; 920, ea quae 
non volt audiet. 

g) Promises, e.g. Most. 253, dabo aliquid hodie peculi; 359, ego 
dabo ei talentum ; 387, istum medicabo metum ; 388, ego qui istaec 
sedem meditabor; 580, reddeturne f aenus ? : : reddet; 612, is tibi et 
faenus et sortem dabit; 745, e me nil sciet; 1024, non negabo et 
dabo ; 1131, ibo pro te ; 1160, sortem nos dabimus, nos conf eremus ; 
And. 171, sat est. curabo; 327, dabo operam; 403, curabitur; 617, 
at iam expediam ; expedies ? 622, iam aliquid dispiciam ; 684, ubi 
erit, inventum tibi curabo ; 703, hoc effectum reddam ; 898, feram. 

Under the head of promises falls also the idiomatic use of amabo 
(Blase, Archiv fur lat. Lexikographie und Grammatik, ix, p. 485 ; 
Hist. Gramm. iii, p. 115). Amabo, in the sense of "please" is a 
very common feature of comic diction, occurring some 90 times in 
Plautus and 11 times in Terence. The usage originated apparently 
in connection with imperatives. Thus die, amabo! meant origi- 
nally, " tell me ! I will love you (for it)." When once it had estab- 
lished itself in this environment, it naturally extended to other 
combinations, particularly questions ; but it also occurs occasionally 
in other connections. Examples : 

1) With imperatives and equivalent subjunctives : 

Present 2d singular, Cas. 137, sine, amabo, ted amari ; 641, 
obtine auris, amabo; Men. 541, amabo, mi Menaechme, inauris cla 

42 Tenses of the Indicative. 

mihi ; 678, pallam illam, amabo, mihi earn redde ; Eun. 838, vide, 

Present 2d plural, Cist. 643, amabo, accurrite; Stich. 752, 
date mi locum, ubi accumbam, amabo; Eun. 130. 

Negative present, Am ph. 540, noli, amabo, irasci ; Cure. 137, 
ne plora, amabo; Poen. 370; Xaev. Com. 82, cave (ne) cadas, amabo. 

Future 2d singular, As. 939, de palla memento, amabo ; Cas. 
832 ; Titin. 109. 

Jussive, Bacch. 44, id, amabo te, huic caveas ; Bud. 427. 

2) In questions, Cure. 110 b, amabo, quoia vox sonat procul ? 
Most. 343, quin, amabo, accubas ? Poen. 263, eho, amabo, quid illo 
nunc properas ? 399 ; H. T. 404, amabo, quid tibist ? Titin. 80. 

3) In other connections, M. G. 1084, iam iam sat amabost ; Cist. 
110, sed, amabo, tranquille ; True. 873 ; Bacch. 1149 ; 1197. 

The purely formulaic character of the expression is indicated by 
the fact that te, which logically should be present, is usually lacking. 
Amabo is regularly used only by women, addressing men, occasion- 
ally by men addressing women, never by men to men. 

h) Announcements or declarations of intention. The volitional 
element here sinks to its lowest terms. Examples : Most. 82, nunc 
rusabibo; similarly, 317; 540; 849; And. 374; 594; 599; Most. 
94, f aciam ut credatis ; 174, te donabo aliqui ; 338, iam revortar ; 
344, dormiam ; 405, hasce ego aedis occludam ; 426, ego occludam 
. . . ludos faciani . . . concedam, hinc speculabor; 445, pultabo; 
543, accedam atque appellabo ; similarly, 689 ; 717 ; 566, occupabo 
adire ; 614, f eram, si quid datur ; 683, te opperiar ; so also And. 235 ; 
Most. 741, eloquar ; so also, 945 ; And. Alt. Ex. 6; Most. 757, dicam ; 
so also, 888 ; 931 ; And. 615 ; Most. 783, congrediar ; 963, pergam 
percontarier ; 1061, praeoccupabo atque anteveniam et foedus fe- 
riam; 1066, ilium praestolabor ; 1070, non illi extemplo hamum 
ostendam, sensim mittam lineam, dissimulabo me horum quicquam 
scire; 1074, adgrediar, appellabo; 1094, interim hanc aram occu- 
pabo ; 1096, hie praesidebo ; And. 48, rem omnem a principio audies 
et consilium cognosces ; similarly 103 ; 579 ; 116, scies ; so also, 585 ; 
312, hunc ipsum orabo, huic supplicabo, amorem huic narrabo; 431, 
renuntiabo ; 527, nunc Chremem conveniam, orabo gnato uxorem ; 
701, id faciam ; 705, quid facies (inquiry after intention) ; 670, alia 

Future Indicative. 43 

adgrediemur via; 708, ego hanc visam ; 715, iam hie adero; 734, ab 
dextera venire me adsimulabo ; 893, quid dices mihi ; 974, conloquar. 
II. Pure future uses. As already stated, these apparently go back 
to the pure future use of the Indo-European subjunctive (see p. 154). 
We distinguish : 

a) Expressions of expectation, e.g. Most. 98, haud aliter dicetis ; 
228, sat ero dives; 231, magis amabunt quom me videbunt ; 383, 
pater aderit iam meus ; 510, hanc conturbabunt fabulam ; 776, quid 
mihi fiet? 870, probe tectum habebo ; 882, mane castigabit eos; 997, 
verum iam scibo ; 1077, Philolaches iam aderit ; 1099, tanto condem- 
nabo facilius; And. 112, quid hie mihi faciet? 247, nullon pacto 
adfmitatem effugere potero? 208, me aut erum pessum dabunt; 313, 
credo, impetrabo; 379, culpam in te transferet; tunc istae turbae 
fient; 389, cedo quid iurgabit tecum? 396, inveniet inopem ; 398, 
aliam quaeret; 441, deinde desinet ; 571, tibi generum firmum et 
flliae invenies virum ; 674, geminas conficies nuptias ; 773, si viderit, 
gnatam non dabit: tanto hercle magis dabit; 837, ubi causa erit 
adempta, desinent. 

b) Predictions, e.g. Most. 18, cis paucas tempestates augebis 
numerum; 56, ita te forabunt; 196, te ille deseret aetate; 217, male 
querere; 559, turn facile vinces; 712, nil erit quod accusites ; 1087, 
numquam edepol dabit; 1179, ibi poteris ulcisci probe; And. 389, 
reddes omnia consilia incerta ; 395, propulsabo facile uxorem ; dabit 

c) Statements of what one knows is sure to happen, e.g. And. 178, 
numquam verbum fecit ; at nunc faciet ; 507, puerum hue deferent ; 
980, intus despondebitur ; intus transigetur. 

III. Optative uses. The future indicative is also used in wishes : 
Am ph. 563, malum quod (= aliquod) tibi di dabunt; Pseud. 1130 ; As. 
623, salve ; dabunt di quae velitis vobis ; Trin. 576, di fortunabunt 
vostra consilia : : ita volo ; Pers. 16, O Sagaristio, di ament te. : : O 
Toxile, dabunt di quae exoptes; 205, Sophoclidisca, di me amabunt; 
Men. 278, Menaechme, salve. : : di te amabunt ; Pud. 107, at di dabunt. 
: : quisquis es, magnum malum. Under this head falls also the form- 
ula, ita me amabit (amabunt) : Capt. 877 ; Merc. 762, ita me amabit 
Iupiter, ut ego illud numquam dixi ; Cure. 326, ita me amabit, quam 
ego amo, ut ego haud mentior; True. 276 ; Aul. 496 ; 761 ; Men. 278 ; 

44 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Poem 439 ; 869 ; 1219 ; Most. 520, ita me di amabunt, mortuom credidi 
expostulare ; Trin. 447 ; H. T. 463, sic me di amabunt, ut me tuarum 
miseritumst f ortunarum ; 749 ; Hec. 106. 

Sjogren, Zum Gebraucli des Futurums im Altlateinisehen, p. 73 f 
denies the optative character of this usage. To his mind, ita me 
amabit luppiter is not equivalent in meaning to ita me Iuppiter amet, 
the former being rather merely an expression of confident assurance. 
But he does not mention, and apparently does not consider, all the 
material above cited. Passages like As. 623 and Pers. 16 seem to 
me decisive. I can account for the subjunctive in these only on the 
theory of attraction, dabunt being felt to be equivalent to an optative 
subjunctive. So also in Trin. 576, we cannot ignore the significance 
of ita volo following di fortunabunt vostra consilia. 

IV. The achronistic use of the future indicative (Neumann, p. 57). 
The future indicative is occasionally used without reference to time, 
but to express a general truth belonging to all time (Schneider, p. 
18 ; Blase, Hist. Gramm. p. 120), as, Most. 289, pulchra mulier nuda 
erit quam purpurata pulchrior; 1041, qui homo timidus erit in rebus 
dubiis, nauci non erit ; Pers. 365, virgo atque mulier nulla erit quin 
sit mala ; Amph. 173, nee aequom anne iniquom imperet cogitabit ; 
Men. 90, dum tu illi quod edit et quod potet praebeas, numquam 
fugiet; facile adservabis; And. 10, qui utramvis recte norit, ambas 
noverit; Ad. 55, qui mentiri aut fallere insuerit patrem tanto magis 
audebit ceteros ; 72, ille quern benencio adiungas praesens absensque 
idem erit ; Afran. 7, haut f acul, ut ait Pacuvius, femina invenietur 
bona; Naev. Com. 90, numquam quisquam amico amanti arnica nimis 
net fidelis, nee nimis morigera et devota quisquam erit; Lucil. 777 
nonnumquam dabit ipsa aetas quod prosit habendo j Cato, Agr. 135, 
3, (fiscinae) optimae erunt Romae. 

V. The potential future. Some scholars (Blase, Neumann) recog- 
nize a so-called potential use of the future, designated also as " Futu- 
rum der Wahrscheinlichkeit " (Blase, p. 119). As examples of this 
usage are cited passages like Pseud. 677, sed profecto hoc sic erit : 
centum doctum hominum consilia sola haec devincit dea Fortuna; 
As. 734, hie inerunt viginti minae ; Bacch. 273, porro etiam ausculta 
pugnam quam voluit dare ... em, accipitrina haec erit ; Cure. 473, 
ibidem erunt scorta exoleta ; 493, et quidem meminisse ego haec 

Perfect Indicative. 45 

volam te ; Epid. 291, quern hominem inveniemus ad earn rem utilem ? 
: : hie erit optumus ; 658, memento suppetias mihi ferre. : : facile 
istuc erit ; Pers. 437, cape hoc sis. : : nummi sescenti hie inerunt ; 
645, haec erit bono genere nata ; Plaut. Frag. Incert. 123, tene crumi- 
nam ! inerunt triginta minae ; H. T. 1014, subditum ain tu ? : : sic 
erit; similarly Eun. 1058; Phor. 801; Ad. 182. 

But I can discover nothing potential about these expressions, 
which are typical of those usually referred to this class. They are 
idiomatic uses, to be sure, but their peculiarity is not connected with 
the potential. The tense in each of the foregoing passages seems 
to me to be a true future. Only, the idea is inexactly expressed. 
"When in As. 734, for example, the speaker says, hie inerunt viginti 
minae, he means that the person addressed will find twenty minae in 
the bag when he comes to count the money. Similarly in the other 
passages above cited. See especially Sjogren, p. 109 ff., who shows 
the lack of ground for recognizing a potential future. 

M. G-. 395, narrandum ego istuc militi censebo, sometimes cited as 
a potential future, is probably to be taken as an illustration of formal 
assimilation of the tense of censeo to the time of narrandum. Logi- 
cally, the idea would be expressed by censeo. An analogous case of 
attraction is seen in M. G. 651, plus dabo quam praedicabo ex me 
venustatis tibi, where logically the idea of praedicabo would be 
expressed by praedicavi or praedico. Trin. 606, non credibile dices, 
is regarded by Sjogren, p. 117, as an error for dicis; cf. also p. 233. 


As in form, so in meaning the Latin perfect indicative represents 
both the Indo-European perfect and aorist. The force of the former 
is seen in the present perfect; that of the latter in the historical 

A. Present Perfect. 

Besides its common function of denoting an action completed at 
the present time, the present perfect also denotes the continued 
state resulting from a completed act, as in memini, odi, novi, peril, 
occidi, interii. Most of these are so common as to call for no special 

1 Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 160 ff . ; Delbriick, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 314 ff. 

46 Tenses of the Indieative. 

citations. Less frequent in this use are: actum est (Cist. 685-, 
Pseud. 85 ; 1221 ; Stick 751 ; And. 465 ; Eun. 54) ; Kud. 683, acta 
haec res est ; Most. 365, absumpti sumus ; Amph. 1058, corrupta 
sum atque absumpta sum; M. Gr. 172, occisi sumus ; Bacch. 161; 
M. G. 202, astitit severo fronte curam cogitans. 

The perfect also, like the present, serves as future, especially in 
the apodosis of conditional sentences, e.g. Amph. 428, victus sum si 
dixeris: Asin. 360, si ille argentum prius adfert, continuo nos exclusi 
sumus ; Epid. 82, nisi quid in tete auxili est, absumptus es ; M. G. 
163, disperiistis, ni mulcassitis ; Trin. 595, id si alienatur, actum est 
de collo meo ; Capt. 539 ; Eun. 1064, si offendero, periisti ; And. 961, 
immortalitas partast, si nulla aegritudo intercesserit. — As future 
perfect : Most. 827, boni sunt, si sunt inducti pice. 

At times also the perfect has an achronistic force, as, Epid. 425, 
nihil amicost opportuno amicius; sine tuo labore quod velis actum st 
tamen ; Trin. 308, si animus hominem pepulit, actumst ; Capt. 256, 
saepe is cautor captus est ; Ad. 855. 

Eeferable to an original present perfect use is probably also the 
type represented by the Yirgilian fuimus Troes, Ilium fuit, e.g. 
Pseud. 311, ilico vixit amator, ubi supplicat; Pers. 637, omne ego 
pro nihilo esse duco quod fuit, quando fuit. 

Following the analogy of novi, we find also the perfect scrvi with 
the force of ' I know/ e.g. Poen. 724, scitis ? : : scivimus ; so 725. 
Similarly nescivi, Capt. 265, si quid nescivi (Acidalius, 7iescibo), id 
nescium tradam tibi ; Poen. 629 ; Pseud. 977. 

B. Historical Perfect. 

Besides the ordinary uses of the historical perfect, we have to 
note especially the use of the perfect indicative as the equivalent of 
the pluperfect subjunctive : M. G. 803, non potuit reperire lepidiores 
duas ; 1076, hanc vendere potuit operam ; Most. 573, numquam 
potuisti magis opportunus advenire ; 1162, non potuit venire orator 
magis impetrabilis ; Poen. 583, non potuisti adducere homines; 
Pseud. 669, non potuit opportunius advenire ; 793 ; Stich. 301, qui 
potuit scire ? True. 635, quo pacto excludi potui planius ? Cure. 
110 b, canem esse hanc quidem magis par fuit ; Epid. 388, fuit con- 
ducibile hoc quidem mea sententia; M. G. 725, aequom fuit deos 

Pluperfect Indicative. 47 

paravisse uno exemplo ne onmes viverent ; Pseud. 688, aurichalco 
contra non carum fuit ; M. G. 730, itidem divos dispertisse vitani 
humanam aequom fuit; 1112, tu quidem ad equas fuisti scitus 
admissarius; True. 140, si rem servassem, fuit ubi negotiosus 

Common to both the present and historical perfects is the frequent 
use in Early Latin of the auxiliary fid instead of sum. But this 
peculiarity belongs rather to the formal than the syntactical field. 
See Neue-Wagener, Formenlehre der lat. Spr. iii, p. 135 ff.; Blase, 
Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 173. 


It is uncertain whether the pluperfect indicative is a descendant 
of the Indo-European aorist or is a new formation by proportional 
analogy, videram being formed from videro (which is Indo-European) 
after the relationship between ero and eram. At all events the 
notion of priority in past time inhering in this tense in classical 
Latin cannot have been original. In Indo-European there were no 
tenses for relative time. The time-sphere of every tense was present, 
past, or future with reference only to the speaker's (or thinker's) 
present, not with reference to any other past, or future, act or state. 
Originally in Indo-European, priority in past time must have been 
indicated by the aorist. But the aorist did not of itself denote prior 
action in past time. This relation was purely a suggestion of the 
context. So in Latin the perfect, not only originally, but occasion- 
ally in the classical period as well, served as the less accurate tense 
of prior past action, e.g. Cist. 611, quam duxit uxorem, ex ea natast 
haec; Livy, quosque fors obtulit, interfecere. So regularly with 
postquam, ubi, id, etc. But for the more precise designation of prior 
action in past time, the pluperfect came to be used. At first this 
tense could have been no more pluperfect in character than the 
aorist, but in time it was differentiated. To what extent its original 
aorist character still persists in Early Latin will be considered 

1 Blase, Geschichte des Plusquamperfekts im Lateinischen, 1894 ; Hist. Gramm. 
der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 210 ff . ; Delbriick, Yergl. Syntax, ii, p. 317 ff. ; Brugmann, Kurze 
Vgl. Grammatik, p. 569 ff.; 576; Rodenbusch, De temporum usu Plautino, 1888, p. 
27 ff. ; J. Schneider, De temporum apud priscos scriptores Latinos usu, 1888, p. 28 ff. 

48 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Classification of Pluperfect Uses. 

1. The pluperfect denotes an action prior to another past act or to a 
past point of time explicitly mentioned in the immediate context, e.g. 
Asin. 211, quod iusseram, quod volueram faciebatis ; Aul. 427 ; 
Baccli. 959, iam duo restabant fata tunc nee magis id ceperam oppi- 
dum ; Capt. 305, me, qui liber fueram, servom fecit ; Cas. 580 ; 912, 
non fuit quicquid liolerum, nisi, quidquid erat, calamitas numquam 
attigerat; Cure. 602, pater istum meus gestitavit; mater ei utendam 
dederat ; Men. 29, Tarenti ludi forte erant ; mortales multi convene- 
rant ; 483, mulier quidquid dixerat, idem dicebam ; 717, omnia mala 
ingerebat quemquam aspexerat; 986, postquam conlocavi ut iusse- 
rat; M. G. 26, ei pugno praefregisti bracchium. :: at indiligenter 
iceram ; Most. 185, quod promiseram perdidisti ; Poen. 63, pollinctor 
dixit qui pollinxerat ; 483, quemquem offenderant, reccidebant ; 486, 
ut quisque acciderat, eum necabam ; Pseud. 53, prius quam abiit, xv 
minas dederat ; 676, cuncta in ordine, ut volueram, habebam ; 1091, 
attulit sumbolum qui convenerat ; 1117 ; Eud. 47, flocci non fecit 
fidem neque quod iuratus adulescenti dixerat ; 59, adulescenti qui 
puellam ab eo emerat, ait sese velle votum solvere ; 65, ad portum 
adulescens venit ; navis longe in altum abscesserat ; 1186 ; 1253 ; 
Stich. 542, erant minori illi fidicina et tibicina, peregre advexerat ; 
540, erant duobus nuptae fratribus ; Trin. 161, alium me fecisti ; 
alius veneram ; 827, placido te usus sum ; banc tuam gloriam iam 
ante acceperam; 1056, talentum quoi dederam, talento inimicum 
emi; 1083, quis emit? : : Callicles, quoi tuam rem commendaveras ; 
True. 648, argentum debebat qui ovis erat mercatus ; 821, loquere quis 
stupraverit : : Diniarchus, quoi desponderas ; And. 238, uxorem de- 
crerat dare ; nonne oportuit praescisse me ante ? 241, Chremes, qui 
denegarat, id mutavit? H. T. 600, fuit quaedam anus; huic haec 
argenti mille dederat mutuom ; 661, quid renuntiavit ? : : f ecisse id 
quod iusseram ; Eun. 114, addebat, e praedonibus unde emerat se 
audisse abreptam e Sunio; 125, miles qui me amare occeperat in 
Cariamst profectus ; 234, conveni quendam hominem qui abligurri- 
erat ; 397, rex semper maxumas mihi agebat quidquid egeram ; 404, 
si quando odium ceperat; 412, unus tamen impense (invidit) ele- 
phantis quern praef ecerat ; 428, tuomne hoe dictum erat ? vetus 

Pluperfect Indicative. 49 

credidi. : : audieras ? 451, bene dixti ac mi istuc non in mentem ve- 
nerat. : : ridiculum ; non enim cogitaras ; 633, praeterii imprudens 
villain, longe abieram, quom sensi ; 654, quam erae dederat, virginem 
vitiavit ; 672, si cessassem, non offendissem ; ita iam adornarat 
fugam ; Phor. 84, neque (erat) quod daretur quicquam ; id curarant 
patres ; 575, venisse eas audivi ex nauta qui illas vexerat ; 594, vix- 
dum dimidium dixerat; intellexerat ; Hec. 4, ita populus studio 
stupidus in funambulo animum occuparat; 130, ubiquomque datum 
erat spatium solitudinis ; 181 ; 802 ; 862, recte amasti uxorem tuam ; 
nam numquam ante hunc diem earn videram ; Ad. 306, neque ilium 
misericordia repressit quoi per vim vitium obtulerat ; 435 ; 618, ut 
forte erat missa, ilico accedo ; 629, non me banc rem patri, ut ut 
erat gesta, indicasse ! 676, advorsumne ilium dicerem quoi veneram 
advocatus ! CIL, i, 541, quod in bello voverat, banc aedem dedicat. 
Tbe following examples show the auxiliary fueram, instead of eram, 
in the passive form: Amph. 430, earn ego vini, ut matre natum 
fuerat, eduxi meri; Merc. 232, (capram) posterius quam mercatus 
fueram, visus sum simiae concredere; Most. 486, condormivimus ; 
lucernam forte oblitus fueram exstinguere; Eun. 569, erat quidam 
eunuchus quern mercatus fuerat. 

The name 6 rhetorical pluperfect ? is sometimes given to those in- 
dependent pluperfects which are followed by a perfect indicative or 
historical present ; see Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 213, 
e.g. Cure. 644, ea me spectatum tulerat; postquam illo ventum est, 
exoritur ventus ; Aul. 312, ipsi pridem tonsor unguis dempserat; 
conlegit, omnia apstulit praesegmina; Bacch. 631, militis parasitus 
modo venerat; eum reppuli; Merc. 616, iam addicta atque abducta 
erat, quom ad portum venio ; Phor. 101, commorat omnis nos ; ibi 
continuo Antipho (dixit) ; Hec. 297, vix me abstraxi, vixque hue 
contuleram ; em, nova res ortast ; passive with auxiliary fueram : 
Hec. 640, abducta a vobis praegnas fuerat fllia neque scivi. 

2. The pluperfect refers to an act prior to another past act or point of 
time implied in the context, e.g. Asin. 450, non te provideram, i.e. at 
the time I noticed you ; so And. 183, erus est, neque provideram ; 
Ad. 373, haud aspexeram te ; Eun. 1030; Cas. 898, memora, ut occe- 
peras, i.e. before you were interrupted; so Pers. 809, perge ut coe- 
peras; Asin. 125; similarly Epid. 389, qui dudum coeperam me 

50 Tenses of the Indicative. 

excruciare ; Men. 807, spinter quod ad hanc detulerat, nunc, quia 
rescivi, refert ; Rud. 864, equidem me dixeram praesto fore, i.e. be- 
fore I set sail ; Stich. 516, at apud me perendie ; nam ille lieri me 
iam vocaverat; True. 393, me habebat, dum hie fuit. : : senseram ; 
And. 733, repudio quod consilium primum intenderam ; H. T. 1053, 
video non licere ut coeperam hoc pertendere ; Eun. 665, amatores 
auclieram mulierum esse eos maxumos ; verum non in mentem ve- 
nerat, i.e. before he came ; Phor. 422, nam tua praeterierat ad ducen- 
clum aetas ; 814 ; with fueram for eram : Eun. 280, fortasse tu profec- 
tus alio f ueras, i.e. at the time I stopped you ; Ad. 174, non innueram, 
i.e. at the time you struck him. 

3. The pluperfect refers to a past act not conceived as prior to 
another past act. 1 This is the most frequent use of the tense in 
Early Latin, and the one that probably expresses its original force. 
Examples : 

a) Dixeram : Am ph. 691, qui non abiisti ita ut dixeras ; 761 ; 916, 
ioco ilia dixeram ; 918, quin adducis ISTaucratem, quern te aclducturum 
dixeras? Aul. 287, istuc aliovorsurn dixeram; Bacch. 957, dudum 
primo ut dixeram nostro seni mendacium, ibi signum ex arce apstuli ; 
Capt. 17, fugitivos ille, ut dixeram ante, vendidit; 194, quo ire 
dixeram mox ivero ; Cas. 599, nempe dixeras tuam arcessituram esse 
uxorem ; Men. 57, ille quern dudum dixeram ; 592, aut plus aut 
minus quam opus erat dicto dixeram ; 889, quid esse illi morbi 
dixeras? 1095, Menaechmum te vocari dixeras; Merc. 467, is se ad 
portum dixerat ire ; 760, nempe uxor rurist tua, quam dudum 
dixeras te odisse; 975, ille quidem ill am se matri emisse dixerat; 
Pers. 576 ; Pseud. 406, iam pridem huic daturum dixeram et volui 
inicere tragulam in nostrum senem ; 565^ neque sim f acturus 
quod dixeram; Eud. 95; True. 133; Phor. 612, audistin quae 
facta ? : : omnia. : : tun dixeras huic ? 

b) Iusseram : Amph. 469, neque credet hue profectum ut ius- 
serat; Asin. 714, istunc amoves atque ilia quae hie iusserat mihi 
statuis ? Aul. 697, miror ubi sit, quern iusseram hie opperiri ; 
679, observabo aurum ubi abstrudat, quamquam iusserat; Cas. 147, 
prandium iusserat senex parari; Cure. 42, nempe obloqui me 
iusseras ; 425; 560, iusseram salvere te; Merc. 698, demiror non 

1 Liibbert, Syntax von Quom, p. 1G8; Brix on Capt. 17; Ussing on Amph. 379. 

Pluperfect Indicative. 51 

venire ut iusseram ; Pseud. 961, in id angiportum me devorti 
iusserat. — Not in Terence. 

c) Fueram : Am ph. 458, imaginem meam, quae antehac fuerat, 
possidet; Cure. 637, milii dedit, ut aequom fuerat; Merc. 972, te 
haud aequom filio fuerat amicam eripere ; M. G. 131, ad meum erum, 
qui Athenis fuerat; Poen. 64, ei filius unicus qui fuerat; And. 587, 
non f uerant nuptiae f uturae ; so 543 ; Eun. 869, ut earn non possim, 
ita ut aequom fuerat atque ut studui, tradere ; Plior. 400, si falsum 
fuerat, quor non refellit ? 651, ita ut aequom fuerat, volui uxorem 
ducere ; 781, praesens quod fuerat malum, in diem abiit ; Hec. 570, 
hoc mi unum relicuom fuerat malum ; 648, etiam si fuerat ambiguom, 
nunc non est ; 812 ; 867, quos fuerat par resciscere, sciunt ; Ad. 686, 
virginem vitiasti, quam te non ius fuerat tangere. 

d) Dederam : Men. 426, pallam quam dudum dederas ad phrygi- 
onem ut deferas; Pseud. 617, servos eius qui hinc a nobis est 
mercatus mulierem, qui xv dederat minas, v debet; H. T. 660, 
vivitne ilia quoi tu dederas ? 

e) Volueram ; nolueram : Cas. 461, me, quom veneram, facere atri- 
ensem voluerat ; Bacch. 150, video plus quam volueram ; Rud. 707, 
hue respice! : : optume, istuc volueramus ; H. T. 866; Hec. 711, ipsa 
narravit mihi. id hoc praesente tibi nolueram dicere. 

f ) Eeliqueram : Capt. 938, postulo ut mihi ilium reddas servom 
quern hie reliqueram ; M. G. 1347, animus hanc modo hie reliquerat. 

g) Other verbs : Amph. 22, scibat quippe qui intellexerat ; 383, 
Araphitruonis te esse aiebas Sosiam. : : peccaveram, nam ( Amphitru- 
onem socium' dudum me esse volui dicere; Aul. 33, quo ille 
earn facilius ducat qui compresserat ; 635, illud quod apstuleras 
cedo ; so also 766 ; 683, obsecro quod dudum obsecraveram ; Capt. 
156, fugitant hanc provinciam quoi optigerat; Cist. 187, si possiet 
illam invenire quam olim tollere ex insidiis viderat ; 547, vicli exeun- 
tem mulierem — : : illam quae meam gnatam sustulerat ? M. G. 474, 
earn osculantem hie videras ; Most. 519, an tu appellaveras ? 52i>, cur 
tanto opere extimueras ? 547 ; 786, quod me miseras adfero ; 821, eo 
pretio empti f uerant olim. : : audin ' f uerant ' dicere ? 822, quanti 
hosce emeras ; Pers. 108, sed ecquid meministi here qua de re men- 
tionem feceram ? Pseud. 148, heri edixeram omnibus dederamque 
eas provincias ; 549 ; 743, meo ludo lamberas ; Rud. 554, si me 

52 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Plesidippus viderit, quo ab arrabonem acceperam ; 850, is nunc cum 
servis servat. : : ego mandaveram ; Stich. 251, ianme cocta sunt ? 
quot agnis f ecerat ? 651, sed arnica mea curaest ut valeat ; Sticlio 
mandaveram ut nuntiaret ; H. T. 330 ; Eun. 258, quibus et re salva 
et perdita profueram et prosum saepe ; 856, quid feceras ? : : paulum 
quiddam; Phor. 913, ferme eadem omnia quae dudum ineusaveras ; 
Hec. 142, ille invitus illam duxerat; Ad. 26, non rediit Aeschinus 
neque servolorum quisquam qui advorsum ierant ? 347, testis mecum 
est anulus quern amiserat ; with, fueram as auxiliary : Phor. 536, si 
pote fuisset exorarier, promissum fuerat. 

Barring the examples with fueram, 1 Blase (Geschichte des Plus- 
quamperfekts, p. 9 ff. ; Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 211 ff .) 
takes the foregoing examples as referring to an act prior to a point 
in past time more or less clearly defined in the mind of the speaker. 
In this he is followed by Delbriick, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 318 ff. Cf. also 
Eodenbusch, op. cit. p. 30 ff. But the explanations of these scholars 
seem to me far-fetched and unnatural. To my mind it is much 
simpler in view of the facts not to attempt to explain the pluperfect 
of Early Latin as necessarily denoting an act prior to another past 
act, but to recognize that it is generally used without such connota- 
tion. If it be asked wherein the pluperfect, when so employed, 
differs from the simple perfect, I would suggest that possibly it 
often denoted an act completed in past time ; i.e. it bore the same 
relation to the imperfect that the present-perfect bore to the present. 
As an outgrowth of this was the force of the pluperfect referring to 
the remoter past (cf. Ltibbert, Syntax von Quom, p. 168). Out of 
these uses there ultimately grew up the use of the pluperfect refer- 
ring to an act prior to some other past act definitely alluded to in 
the immediate context. Evidently this use developed in the period 
from Plautus to Terence, for the six plays of Terence have more 
instances of such pluperfects than the twenty plays of Plautus, 
while instances of the use which I hold to be original are much less 
abundant in Terence than in Plautus. 

4. Satius fuerat, aequius fuerat, par fuerat, etc. in the sense of < would 
have been preferable/ i would have been fairer/ etc. : 2 Cist. 42, satius 

1 This B. regards as arising from a contamination in use of fui and eram, and to 
be equivalent to either eram or fui ,• Hist. Gramm. p. 217 ff. 

2 Blase, Hist. Gramm. iii, 1, p. 222 f.; Delbriick,Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 320. 

Future Perfect Indicative. 53 

fuerat earn viro dare nuptum ; Cure. 266, namque incubare satius te 
f uerat Iovi ; Stich. 512, inagis par fuerat me vobis dare cenam ; Trin. 
119, ei rei operam dare te fuerat aliquanto aequius, si posses, etc. ; 
1039, ad parietem sunt fixae, ubi rnalos mores adfigi nimio fuerat 
aequius ; Hee. 284, quanto fuerat praestabilius agere aetatem ; 561, 
aderam, quoius consilio par fuerat ea prospici ; And. 691, quibus 
quidem quam facile potuerat quiesci, si hie quiesset. 

Blase, I.e., includes under this head also Cure. 638; Eun. 
870 ; Phor. 651 ; Hec. 867 ; Ad. 6S6. But all of these seem to me 
different from the examples just cited. I have classified them above 
(3, c) as illustrations of the pluperfect referring to the simple past. 
Delbriick, 1. c, would interpret all instances of satius fuerat, aequom 
fuerat, etc. as normal pluperfects. 

5. Different from the instances included under (4) is M. G. 52, 
quingentos simul, ni liebes machaera foret, occideras. Here occideras 
by a rhetorical exaggeration is used for occidisses. 

6. The pluperfect is also used to denote the state resulting from a com- 
pleted past act, e.g. Capt. 306, me qui imperare insueram; Epid. 
223, quid erat induta ? Pseud. 913 a ubi restiteras ? Catulus, 
Baehrens, p. 276, constiteram Auroram salutans, quom subito Eoscius 


The Latin future perfect is by origin an aorist subjunctive. As sucli 
its < Aktionsart ' was momentary (' punktuell '). Its time was future. 
The future perfect indicative, therefore, differed originally from the 
future only in the kind of action it denoted ; it did not differ in the 
time-sphere. In subordinate clauses, however, the future perfect, 
like the Greek aorist subjunctive under the same conditions, devel- 
oped secondarily a genuine future perfect force, i.e. it came to desig- 
nate a future act which was prior to another future act. This true 
future perfect function was in Early Latin at times transferred to 
principal clauses also. 

1 Madvig, De formarum quarundam verbi latini vi et usu, Opuscula Academica, 
1835, ii, p. 60 ff. ; P. Thomas, La syntaxe du futur passe dans Terence, Revue de 
l'instruetion publique Beige, 1876, p. 365 ff. ; 1878, p. 17 ff . ; Meifart, De futuri exacti 
usu Plautino, 1885; Fr. Cramer, Das lat. Futurum Exactum, Arch, fur lat. Lexikogr. 
iv, p. 594 ff. ; Blase, Hist, Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 176 ff. ; Delbriick, Vergl. Synt. 
ii, p. 321 ff.; Sjogren, Zum Gehrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen, 1904, p. 135 ff. 

54 Tenses of the Indicative. 

Madvig, 1. a, recognized the true future perfect force as original 
in the tense, but I agree entirely with Meifart, Delbriick, Blase, and 
Sjogren that this view is inconsistent with the obvious facts of usage 
in Early Latin, as well as with the origin of the formation itself. 
We may even go further than this. In the first and second conjuga- 
tions it is clear that the future in -bo is a new formation historically 
later than the future perfect. In these conjugations, therefore, the 
future perfect was not only originally a future, but for a time, at 
least, the only future of which we have any record. 

Classification of Future Perfect Uses. 

I. The Future Perfect with the Force of the Future. 

1. ist singular: Amph. 53, deus sum, commutavero ; 198, solens 
meo more fecero ; so As. 705 ; Cas. 869 ; Men. 424 ; Merc. 497 ; Poen. 
857 j Stich. 351 ; Phor. 882 ; Amph. 930, com item mihi Pudicitiam dux- 
ero ; 1000, illuc susum escendero ; As. 327, mansero tuo arbitratu ; 439, 
sic dedero ; so also Bacch. 49 ; Most. 1103 ; Poen. 1286 ; As. 839, ne 
dixis istuc ! . . . ilico non clixero ; so also Pers. 185 ; Pseud. 755 
Trin. 465 ; Phor. 681 ; Aul. 570, at ego iussero cadum vini adferrier 
so also Cas. 613; Epid. 657; Stich. 607; Aul. 666, hue concessero 
Most. 687; Pers. 50; Trin. 1007; Bacch. 211, immo hercle abiero 
so also Epid. 515; Most. 590; Poen. 442; Pers. 250; Ad. 127 
Bacch. 363, aufugero; 774, accessero; so also Pers. 575 ; Bacch. 1066 
revenero; so also M. Gr. 863; Bud. 779; Capt.l94,adfratremmoxivero 
so also Stich. 484 ; Capt. 293, eadem ex hoc quae volo exquaesivero 
so Bud. 330 ; Capt. 314, uti tu me hie habueris, proinde ilium illic 
curaverit; 340, hunc mihi des quern mittam. : : immo alium potius 
misero; 495, sic egero; Cas. 297, ego pol istam iam aliquovorsum 
tragulam decidero ; 545, post convenero ; 781, ego ruri cenavero ; 
so Most. 1007 ; Cas. 787, eras habuero tamen convivium ; 966, nunc 
ego tecum aequom arbitrum captavero ; so Turp. 86 ; Men. 270, id 
utrumque cavero ; so Pseud. 478 ; Men. 545, poste reddidero tibi ; 
670, at placuero huic Erotio ; Merc. 413, quid ilia nunc net ? : : ego 
emero matri tuae ancillam; 448, istanc rem ego recte videro; so also 
450; And. 456; Hec. 701; Ad. 538; 845; Merc. 548, vino et amore 
delectavero ; M. G. 200, ego hinc abscessero aps te interim ; Most. 

Future Perfect Indicative. 55 

526, ego mihi providero ; 921, vel mihi denumerato ! ego illi porro 
denumeravero ; 1039, sume ! : : eademque opera haec tibi narravero 
so also Pseud. 721 ; Afran. 72 ; Most. 1143, surge ! ego isti adsedero 
1174, ego ilium ut sit quietus subegero ; Pers. 135, tun illam vendas ! : 
immo alium adlegavero; 568, venient ad te comissatum. : : at ego 
intromitti votuero ; Poen. 1286, sic dedero ; aere militari tetigero 
lenunculum ; 984, si non, turn ad horum mores linguam v r ortero ; 
Pseud. 333, eadem duo greges virgarum ulmearum adegero ; 376, cum 
illo perdidero fidem ; 630, vinctam potius sic servavero ; 647, rediero ; 
Pud. 788, recessero ; Stich. 93, vos sedete ! ego sedero in subsellio ; 
593, quin turn stans obstrusero aliquid strenue; Trin. 607, si hoc 
non credis, ego credidero ; 655, omnia . . . scio, vel exsignavero ; 
True. 547, mox cubitum venero; so also 883; And. 641, moles tus 
eerte ei f uero atque animo morem gessero ; H. T. 86, aut consolando 
aut consilio aut re iuvero ; 108, ego quod me in te sit facere dignum in- 
venero ; Hec. 599, et illis morem gessero ; Atta, 5, aquae ita muginantur 
hodie. : : atqui ego f ontem occlusero. Faxo is particularly frequent in 
this use, e.g. Aul. 578, ego faxo et operam et vinum perdiderit 
simul ; Capt. 801, qui mi opstiterit, faxo vitae is opstiterit suae ; Poen. 
346, faxo constiterit lymphaticum. Por further examples, see p. 225. 
2. 2d singular : Amph. 313, quid si ego ilium tangam ut dormiat ? : : 
servaveris ; Bacch. 49, eadem biberis ; Capt. 296, haec eadem si con- 
fiteri vis, tua ex re feceris ; so also 1028 ; Cure. 665 ; Men. 272 ; 
661; Merc. 139; M. G. 1243; Poen. 1216; 1218; Pseud. 512; Trin. 
279 ; And. 397 ; Phor. 430 ; cf . Bacch. 695, effeceris ; Capt. 344, 
at nihil est ignotum mittere ; operam luseris ; M. G. 297, si falso in- 
simulas, perieris ; 572, quod scies, nesciveris; Most. 1151, optumas 
frustrationes dederis in comoediis; Trin. 60, faxo haud tan- 
tillum dederis verborum mihi. : : namque enim tu credo me impru- 
dentem obrepseris ; Eud. 1151, nugas magnas egeris ; Trin. 379, eo 
pacto addideris nostrae f amain familiae ; 760, ne tu illud verbum 
actutum inveneris ; And. 640, nil promoveris ; H. T. 487, dare dene- 
garis ; Eun. 379, perculeris iam tu me ; Hec. 401, et illi miserae 
indigne factam iniuriam contexeris ; Ad. 602, illi ita animum rele- 
vabis et tuo officio fueris functus ; 819, et mi et tibi et illis dempseris 
molestiam ; 844, eo pacto prorsum illi adligaris filium ; Erin. Trag. 
165, facile Achivos flexeris. 

56 Tenses of the Indicative. 

An examination of the complete context of the foregoing examples 
of the 2d singular shows that in the large majority of instances the 
future perfect is the apodosis of a conditional sentence. 

3. 3d singular. Here also the usage is largely confined to apodoses 
of conditional sentences; e.g. As. 446, peril hercle ; iam hie me abege- 
rit suo odio ; Aul. 656, hunc si amitto, hie abierit ; Merc. 140, at edepol 
tu calidam picem bibito ; aegritudo abscesserit ; similarly 372 ; 389 ; 
Most. 711, abitus tuos tibi, senex, fecerit male ; so also Poen. SS6 ; 
Eud. 180 ; Yid. 36 ; Pers. 269, verberibus caedi iusserit, compedes 
impingi ; Pseud. 350, nam hunc fames iam occiderit ; 573 a, tibicen 
vos interibi hie delectaverit ; Trin. 139, crede huic tutelam ; suam 
rem melius gesserit ; 856, conductor de me nugas conciliaverit ; 
True. 876, si auferes, a milite omnis spes animam efflaverit ; And. 
213, si lubitum fuerit, causam ceperit; 381, invenerit aliquam cau- 
sam; 398, inter ea aliquid accident boni; H. T. 584, hie prius indi- 
cant quam ego argentum effecero; 621, ne ista hercle magno iam 
conatu magnas nugas dixerit ; Phor. 516, hie tibi quod boni pro- 
meritus fueris, conduplicaverit ; also the following examples with 
faxo : Aul. 578, ego faxo et operam et vinum perdiderit simul ; Capt. 
801, qui mi opstiterit, faxo vitae is opstiterit suae ; Poen. 346, faxo 
constiterit lymph aticum. 

4. Plural forms. These do not occur at all in the first and second 
persons, while of the third person plural but a single example is 
noted : Poen. 617, interibi attulerint exta. 

As throwing light on the pure future character of the forms above 
cited, one may instance the frequent occurrence in apparently the 
same meaning of future and future perfect of the same verb, e.g. 
Bacch. 610, sed hue concedam ; Trin. 1007, lubet observare quid agat ; 
hue concessero ; Poen. 805, abscedam hinc intro ; Trin. 710, eodem 
pactoquohuc accessi abscessero; Aul. 176, conveniam Euclionem, si 
domi est ; Cas. 545, post convenero ; 547, ubi nuptiae fuerint, turn 
istam convenibo ; Stich. 351, convorre ! : : ego f ecero ; 354, humum 
consperge ante aedis ! : : faciam ; Bacch. 95, eo tibi argentum iubebo 
ecferri ; Cas. 613, ego iam per hortum iussero meam transire uxorem ; 
Men. 545, ego post reddidero tibi . . . : : ego post tibi reddam duplex. 
In all of these passages it seems impossible to detect any difference 
between the force of the future and that of the future perfect. 

Future Perfect Indicative. 57 

Cramer (Arcliiv fur lat. Lexikographie, iv, p. 595), following G. 
Hermann, seems to advocate the recognition of a difference of mean- 
ing wherever we have different forms of speech. But if there be a 
difference of force between the tenses in the forms just cited, no 
one has ever stated it. It is in fact extremely doubtful whether 
Hermann's dictum is more than a half truth. In view of the not 
uncommon equivalence of different forms of expression in modern 
languages, it seems methodically superfluous to insist on a difference 
in the ancient languages under similar conditions. If the difference 
exists and is tangible, it should be recognized and stated ; but we 
are under no necessity of attempting to distinguish differences that 
do not exist. 

In addition to the foregoing examples of the parallel use of the 
future and future perfect of the same verb, it may serve also to cite 
instances of the use of the future and future perfect of different verbs 
in the same passage. Thus : Amph. 930, ibo egomet ; comitem mihi 
Pudicitiam duxero ; As. 280, erum in obsidione linquet, inimicum 
animos auxerit; Cas. 780, vos tamen cenabitis, cena ubi cocta erit; 
ego ruri cenavero; Men. 544, cedo aurum ! ego manupretium 
dabo. : : da sodes aps te ; poste reddidero tibi ; Poen. 983, si respon- 
debunt, Punice pergam loqui ; si non, turn ad horum mores linguam 
vortero; Pseud. 332, lanios inde accersam duo, eadem duo greges 
virgarum ulmearum adegero ; Stich. 351, cape illas scopas ! : : capiam. 
: : hoc egomet, tu hoc convorre. : : ego fecero ; 484, ivero . . . loquar ; 
Eun. 723, hac re te omni turba evolves et illi gratum feceris ; Phor. 
681, inde sumam; uxori tibi opus esse dixero ; Hec. 599, et me hac 
suspicione exsolvam et illis morem gessero ; Ace. Praet. 15, patrio 
exemplo et me dicabo atque animam devoro (= devovero) hostibus. 

The use of the future perfect instead of the future seems in many 
cases to have been encouraged by metrical convenience. The future 
perfect was especially adapted to the close of the trimeter or the 
septenarius, and it is there that it occurs with the greatest 

While by origin aoristic (< punktuell J ), the future perfect, to judge 
from the foregoing examples, seems to have lost in a large number 
of cases its specific aoristic force and to have become indistinguish- 
able from the simple future. 

58 Tenses of the Indicative. 

II. The Future Perfect with Future Perfect Force. 

The true future perfect force of the future perfect seems to have 
originated in subordinate clauses, particularly those introduced by 
conditional particles. Thus in a sentence like Bacch. 49, eadem 
declero tibi, ubi biberis, savium, the connection of thought implies 
that the idea involved in biberis is prior to that in dedero. 1 In this 
way a true future perfect force is evolved, and is the regular value of 
the tense in subordinate clauses. By a natural transference it 
appears also in principal clauses, though the pure future meaning is 
in Early Latin very much commoner. Illustrations of the future 
perfect meaning are seen in the following: 

1. In principal clauses unaccompanied by a dependent clause. This 
type is rare. Examples: Men. 521, faxo haud inultus prandium 
comederis ; Epid. 282, iam igitur amota erit omnis consultatio ; Phor. 
888, nam idem hoc argentum, ita ut datumst, ingratiis ei datum erit. 
Epid. 298, occupatum erit; Most. 235, iam ista quidem apsumpta res 
erit, cited by Sjogren as true future perfects, do not seem to me clear 
cases. In both instances erit is future and the participle has adjec- 
tive force. Men. 295, perieris, regarded by Sjogren as future perfect, 
I take (with Brugmann, Kurze Yergl. Gramm., p. 570) as an optative 

2. In principal clauses which are accompanied by a dependent clause : 
Pseud. 629, dum tu sternuas, res soluta erit ; 640, si dare vis mihi, 
magis erit solutum ; Trin. 783, ubi thensaurum ecf oderis, suspicionem 
ab adulescente amoveris; Pers. 402, quod si non dederit atque hie 
dies praeterierit, ego argentum, ille ius iurandum amiserit ; Men. 54, 
nam nisi qui argentum dederit, nugas egerit; Poen. 81, nisi qui dederit, 
nugas egerit ; qui dederit, magis maiores nugas egerit ; Capt. 695, si 
istuc faxis, haud sine poena feceris; M. G. 573, nee videris quod 
videris ; Most. 210, ille te nisi amabit ultro, id pro tuo capite quod 
dedit perdiderit; Bud. 1135, si falsa dicam, frustra dixero ; Pseud. 
512, si abstuleris, mirum et magnum facinus feceris ; 531, si istaec 
opera perfeceris, virtute regi Agathocli antecesseris ; H. T. 478, si 
tuom animum intellexerit, quantam fenestram ad nequitiem patefe- 

1 Cf. also Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik, p. 571, who suggests that 
pluperfects in -eram (denoting a prior past act) may have helped the future perfect 
to develop the notion of a prior future act. 

Future Perfect Indicative. 59 

ceris! Ad. 232, si hoc omitto, refrixerit res. The foregoing are the 
surest examples of the future perfect used with future perfect force. 
Possibly some scholars may see even in these passages only a future 

The So-called ' Shifted ' Future Perfect. 1 

In his Historische Syntax der lat. Sprache, iii, p. 189 ff., Blase 
recognizes a i shifted ' (' verschobenes ? ) future perfect. His reasoning 
is as follows: Just as fid of ten means, 'I am no longer/ so fuerit 
should have meant ' he will no longer be.' But as a matter of fact 
numerous instances occur where fuerit cannot have this meaning, but 
clearly has the future force of erit. Such uses represent the ' shifted 7 
function. Without going into the details of Sjogren's refutation of 
this view, I will here content myself with referring the reader to 
his discussion, which seems to me to show conclusively the unten- 
ability of Blase's position. The relatively few instances of the use 
recognized by Blase have already been classified under the use of the 
future perfect as future. Blase confines the use to fuerit, and a very 
limited number of other words, e.g. habuero (Cas. 787) and placuero 
(Men. 670). 

Future Perfect as Imperative. 

In Bacch. 49, eadem biberis, and M. G. 572, quod scies nesciveris, 
nee videris quod videris; the future perfect has imperative force. 

x See especially Sjogren, p. 173 ff., for a criticism of Blase's view. 





Probably the earliest form of the conditional period consisted 
simply of two paratactic indicatives ; cf. Schmalz, Syntax und 
Stilistik 4 , p. 580. Yet traces of this are not frequent in Early Latin. 
The only examples that are at all clear are : Most. 873, boni sunt, 
bonust (Bergk's conj.); inprobi sunt, mains fit (improbis sunt, malus 
fait, codd.; fit is Cam.'s conj.); Pseud. 863, si iste ibit, ito; stabit, 
astato simnl; Stat. 5, actutum, voltis, emptast; noltis, non emptast; 
Com. Incert. P. p. 142, tutare amici causam, partis suscipe ! Obicitur 
crimen capitis ; purga fortiter (p . . . . codd.) ; Eun. 252, negat quis, 
nego ; ait, aio. The other examples cited by Eothheimer, op. cit. p. 
12, and Brugmann, op. cit. p. 30, ftn., do not seem to me to belong 

Classification of Indicative Protases. 

I. Protasis In Present Indicative. 

Protases in the present indicative fall into two classes, according 
as the reference is to present or future time. 

A. protasis in present indicative referring to present time 


1. The apodosis is also in the present indicative (293), referring 
usually to present time, but occasionally to the future. 

a) Introduced by si (209), e.g. Amph. 1105, si istaec vera sunt, 
non metuo ; As. 242, si adf ers, turn patent ; Merc. 185, ego nugor, si 

1 Rothheimer, De enuntiatis conditionalibus Plautinis, 1876 ; Liebig, Die hypothe- 
tischen Satze bei Terenz, 1863 ; Lindskog, de enuntiatis apud Plautum et Terentium 
condicionalibus ; O. Brugmann, Gebrauch des condicionalen NT in der iilteren 
Latinitiit, 1887 ; Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 580 ff. ; Sven Tessing, Syntaxis 
Plautina, 1892, p. 43. 


Protasis in Present Indicative. 61 

respondeo? And. 973, salvos sum, si haec vera sunt; H. T. 105, 
erras, si credis ; Cato, Agr. 5, 7, si inpluit, fieri solet. 

b) Introduced by si modo. Only Most. 927, sat sapio, si modo 
caveo ; Trin. 1182, bene re gesta salvos redeo, si tu modo frugi esse 

c) Introduced by nisi (31), e.g. As. 108, eo ad forum nisi quid 
vis; Men. 1082, nisi animus me fallit, hi sunt gemini ; Trin. 439, 
nequam illud verbum est, nisi qui bene facit; H. T. 614, nisi me 
animus fallit, hie profectost anulus ; Enn. Ann. 330, non est victor, 
nisi victus fatetur; Amph. 902; Aul. 579; Bacch. 651; 654; Capt. 
88; Cas. 731 ; Poen. 190; 232 ; And. 950 ; H. T. 935. 

d) Introduced by nisi si (6) : Amph. 825, nescio quid dicam, 
nisi si quispiamst alius Amphitruo ; Cure. 51, pudica est, nisi si est 
osculando impudicior; Cato, Agr. 138, asinis feriae nullae, nisi si in 
f amilia sunt ; Men. 247 ; Most. 769 ; Pers. 833. 

e) Introduced by nisi forte. Only Stich. 356, quid sit nil scio, nisi 
forte hospites venturi sunt. 

f) Introduced by si non (21), e.g. Amph. 438, quis sum, si non 
sum Sosia ? Aul. 207, salvom est, si quid non perit ; Capt. 81, suo 
sibi suco vivont, si ros noncadit; And. 237, quid est, si haec non 
contumeliast ? H. T. 666, non licet, si res non sinit ; Cist. 297 ; 
Cure. 400; Ep. 460; Most. 770; Pers. 578; Trin. 1062; Eun. 35; 
Ad. 733. 

g) Introduced by ni : Poen. 286, non potis est fieri, ni sumptus 
sequitur ; Enn. Ann. 371 a, ni metus tenet, quiescunt. 

h) Introduced by si minus: M. G-. 876, minus si tenetis, denuo 
volo percipiatis ; Lucil. 145, si minus delectat, non operam perdo. 

i) Introduced by si nihil, si nusquam: Pers. 585, si tibi subiti 
nihil est, tantundem est ; Pseud. 845, si nusquam is coctum, quidnam 
cenat ? 

j) Introduced by sin (12), e.g. Men. 579, sin dives malust, frugi 
habetur ; Merc. 589, sin f oris sum, animus domist ; M. G. 889, sin 
bene faciundumst, deveniunt obliviosae ; H. T. 45, sin lenis est, ad 
alium def ertur gregem ; Pers. 454 ; Stich. 521 ; Eun. 104 ; Hec. 255 ; 780. 

k) Introduced by si . . . sive (sen) (5) : Pud. 629, te oro, si spe- 
ras seu confidis . . . ut ne pigeat ; True. 833, si bibit sive adeo caret 
temeto ; And. 216 ; Cist. 645. Sive alone : And. 190. 

62 Conditional Sentences. 

2. The apodosis stands in the imperfect indicative : As. 452, sed si 
domist, volebam ; Phor. 1023, iairi turn erat senex, senectus si vere- 
cundos facit ; in both of which the expression is obviously elliptical ; 
Enn. Trag. 115, si improbum esse Chrespontem existumas, cur me 
huic locabas nuptiis ? 

3. The apodosis stands in the future indicative (70). 

a) With si (08) : particularly in the formulas si vis, si voltis, si 
sapis, as: Amph. 54, si voltis, faciam; As. 453; 654; Aul. 155; 401, 
tu si sapis, reddes ; Cas. 780 ; 838 ; Capt. 269, si frugist, admutilabit ; 
897, aeternum tibi dapinabo victum, si vera autumas ; Cas. 998 ; Cist. 
682 ; And. 737 ; H. T. 334. 

b) With nisi : And. 670, alia adgrediemur, nisi putas ; H. T. 668, 
nisi me animus fallit, haud multum a me aberit infortunium. 

c) With si non (3) : Most. 1131, ego ibo, si tibi non lubet ; Poen. 
371 ; H. T. 995. 

d) With sin (4) : Epid. 545, sin east quam autumo, congrediar ; 
Trin. 715; 1064; Ad. 492. 

e) With sed si (3) : As. 281, sed si studet, pariet ; Ilea 397 ; Ad. 

4. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative (16). 

a) With si (12), e.g. Stich. 398, provenisti futile, si neque adest 
neque subvenit; Phor. 296, si cognatast maxume, non fuit necesse 
habere; Eaev. Trag. 7. Frequent is the occurrence of perii, occidi, 
or actum est in such apodoses; e.g. Epid. 510; Most. 9G3; And. 465. 

b) With nisi (3): Pseud. 1213, nisi mirumst, perdidisti; so Stat. 
255 ; Trin. 458, nisi aliud vis, respondi. 

c) With sin : Plec. 559, sin est ut nolit, recte consului. 

5. The apodosis stands in the pluperfect indicative : Capt. 309, hoc te 
monitum, nisi forte non vis, volueram. 

6. The apodosis stands in the future perfect indicative (4) : M. G. 
298, si verum est, periveris; Poen. 442, si nequeo facere, abiero; 
Trin. 607, si hoc non credis, ego credidero; Poen. 80; Pseud. 640. 

7. The apodosis is an independent subjunctive, hortatory, optative, etc. 

a) Hortatory (2) : Merc. 578, si censes, arripiamus ; Ad. 601. 

b) Jussive (19). With si (15), e.g. Capt. 63, si quis exspectat, 
litis contrahat; M. G. 1037, adeat, si quid volt; Eun. 5; Phor. 12; 

Protasis in Present Indicative. 63 

Ad. 514 si is est, faciat; Afran. 355. — With si non, Poen. 24, si 
id facere non queunt, domum abeant! — With sin (4): Phor. 925, 
sin est ut velit, dos hie maneat! Hec. 502; 637; Ad. 515. 

c) Permissive (3): As. 460, ne duit, si non volt; Bacch. 90, tu 
nullus adf ueris, si non lubet ; Epid. 584. 

d) Optative (6) : Pseud. 272, si dignu's, neque anient neque faci- 
ant! Eud. 569, Iupiter te perdat, et si sunt et si non sunt; Trin. 
992; Hec. 102, ita di faxint, si in rem est Bacehidis; Bacch. 505, 
mihi numquam creduat, ni illam — amo; Ad. 700, di me oderint, ni 
te amo. 

e) Potential (5) : Aul. 747, si istuc ius est, deripiamus; Phor. 656, 
si volt, nullam malim dari; Pud. 744, tanta esset, si vivit; Bacch. 
914, si non est, nolis esse. 

8. The apodosis is an imperative, usually present, but sometimes 
future (123). 

a) With si (99) : e.g. XII Tab. 1, si in ius vocat, ito; ibid, si ealvi- 
tur pedemve strait, manum endo iacito ! ibid. 4 ; 5 ; As. 354, si erum 
vis, adduce; Bacch. 870, illoc pacisce, si potest; Eud. 1177, hunc si 
potes, fer intro; And. 546, si in remst, iube! As. 645; 701; Aul. 161 ; 
Bacch. 998; 1025; Capt. 219; 603; 893; 978; H. T. 1031; 1051; 
Eun. 106; Phor. 197; 387; 527. 

b) With si modo : only True. 890, sine, si is est modo. 

c) With nisi (13): e.g. Bacch. 1118, iube aperiri fores, nisi mavol- 
tis comminui; Men. 992, facite illic homo ablatus siet, nisi vos ni- 
hili penditis; 1066; M. G. 182; H. T. 880, desine, nisi iudicas; Eun. 
796, Pamphilam redde, nisi mavis ; Ad. 806. 

d) With si non (5) : Men. 534, redde, si non meministi ; And. 327, 
si id non potest, saltern aliquot dies prof er ! 692 ; Eun. 503 ; Phor. 994. 

e) With si minus: only True. 900, si minus (mihi, codd.) credis, 

f) With ni, nive: Cas. 75, id ni fit, mecum pignus dato; Epid. 
700, ni matris filiast, in meum nummum pignus da! Pers. 186, da 
pignus, ni omnia memini et scio et si scis; Eud. 712, habe iudicem, 
si tuas esse oportet nive eas esse oportet liberas neu te in carcerem 
compingi aequom est. For a discussion of the origin of the use of 
ni, nive in sentences of this kind, see Bennett, Transactions of Amer. 
Philol. Assoc, xxxi, p. 242 ff. 

64 Conditional Sentences. 

9. Type quid si (10), e.g. Cist. 273, quid si amo ? Merc. 890, quid 
si mi animus fluctuat ? Rud. 1086 ; Phor. 661, quid si animam debet ? 
— Quid si non : Pers. 613, quid si non volt ? Asm. 195 ; Poen. 722. 

10. Verb of protasis understood from the context (4) : Amph. 446, si 
tergum cicatricosum, nil hoc similist similius ; M. Gr. 631 ; Stich. 
521; Phor. 211. 

11. Mirum ni (7) mira sunt ni (2) mirum si (2): Cas. 554, mirum 
ni subolet; Amph. 319; And. 598; H. T. 663; Eun. 344; Pseud. 
1216, mira sunt, ni Pseudolust ; so Trim 861 ; True. 305, nil mirum 
lateres si ruont ; And. 755, mirum si f acit. 

12. The apparent apodosis is not the logical apodosis, which is under- 
stood (14), e.g. Amph. 427, si tu Sosia's, quid fecisti? i.e. 'If you 
are S., then tell me what you did!' Similarly Amph. 1024, sum 
Sosia, nisi me esse oblitum existumas ; Epid. 448, quern quaeris, ego 
sum, si quid vis ; Merc. 767; Most. 1075; Poen. 1047; Phor. 1023, 
iam turn erat senex, senectus si verecundos f acit ; Men. 566. 

13. There is no formal apodosis, but one is suggested by the context 


a) With si (19), e.g. Cure. 672, quid cessas dare?:: si haec volt; 
Most. 986, amburet ei misero corculum carbunculus. : : si quidem 
istaec vera sunt; Poen. 311, suspende te!::si quidem tu es mecum 
f uturus ; Pseud. 877 ; Eun. 76, itane suades ? : : si sapis ; 410. 

b) With nisi (5) : Cure. 82, eine sinus fertur ? : : nisi nevis ; Men. 
787 ; M. G. 185 ; Most. 807 ; Trin. 1156. 

c) With nisi si : And. 249, quam ob rem (repetor), nisi si id est 
quod suspicor ? Eun. 160. 

d) With sin (2) : Pseud. 253, non lubet. : : sin tuamst in rem ; Trin. 

14. The apodosis consists not of a verb, but of some other part of 
speech (9). 

a) With si (7) : e.g. Asin. 384, ohe, si quid audis ; M. G. 649, O 
lepidum senem, si habet ; Poen. 207, em amores tuos, si vis spectare ; 
Ad. 992, sed si voltis, ecce me qui id faciam. 

b) With sin: Merc. 143, sin saluti quod tibi esse censeo, id con- 
suadeo ; Pers. 227, sin te amo ? In these last two the apodosis con- 
sists of the adversative element contained in sin. 

15. Aposiopesis (5). 

Protasis in Present Indicative, 65 

a) With si (3) : And. 790, si pol Glycerio non omnia haec — ; Ad. 
137, si obsto ... em desino ; 969. 

b) With sin : Epid. 543, sin est homo ; Cas. 981. 

16. The phrase si dis placet (4). This is not properly a protasis, 
but has become purely formulaic. Capt. 454, expedivi, si dis placet ; 
True. 647 ; Eun. 919 ; Ad. 476. 


1. The apodosis also stands in the present indicative, and, like the 
protasis, usually refers to future time (68). 

a) With si (34), e.g. Asin. 320, si obtines, salvi sumus; Capt. 
446, satin habes, si refero ? Cas. 338, melius res tibi habet tua, si 
impetramus ; 955 ; Cure. 328, invenire possum, si mi operam datis ; 
374 ; Men. 126, si f oris cenat, me ulciscitur ; Stich. 535, si conficio, 
transeo ; And. 244, si fit, pereo ; H. T. 930, si pergo, ad rastros res 
redit; Phor. 604; 856. 

b) With nisi (26), e.g. Cas. 715, eo nunciam, nisi remorare ; 
Epid. 83, nisi suffuleis firmiter, non potes supsistere ; Men. 150, non 
pergo, nisi scio ; Most. 539, manufesta res est, nisi quid occurro ; 
Pseud. 70, vastities venit, nisi in test salus ; 381 ; H. T. 669, in 
angustum meae coguntur copiae, nisi aliquid video ; Phor. 179 ; Ad. 

c) With nisi si : Capt. 529, nee copia est, nisi si aliquam machi- 
nor astutiam. 

d) With si non (3) : Cure. 69, si non adfert, quo me vortam 
nescio ; 373 ; Pseud. 375. 

e) With ni : Capt. 103, ni recipit, nihil est quo me vortam ; 
Pseud. 600 a. 

f) With quod si : Phor. 201, quod si eo meae fortunae redeunt, 
nullast mihi vita expetenda. * 

g) With sin: And. 210, sin opitulor, huius minas (timeo). 
2. The apodosis stands in the future (121). 

a) With si (61), e.g. Amph. 1005, deludetur, si quidem vos voltis 
operam dare ; Asin. 193, si dantur, dabo ; Aul. 489, quo nubent, si 
istud ius ponitur ; 573, te reddam, si vivo ; Bacch. 570, si pergis, 
tollam ted; 766, vorsabo illunc, si vivo; Capt. 331, si reddis, te 
amittam ; 409, si rebito, faciam ; 587 ; Eud. 1125, si tacet, tacebo ; 

66 Conditional Sentences. 

And. 866, si vivo, tibi ostendam 5 H. T. 696, si abis et Bacchidem 
relinquis, senex resciscet; Phor. 628; Hec. 112; Ad. 880. 

b) With si modo, modo si : Amph. 646, id modo si datur mihi, 
satis esse ducam; Pud. 951, dicam, si fidem modo das. 

c) With nisi (42), e.g. Amph. 357, faciam te superbum, nisi abis ; 
Asin. 532, nisi adfert xx minas, trudetur; Aul. 644, id net, nisi 
fatere; 759; Bacch. 1147, nisi producuntur, truces erimus; Capt. 
593, insectabit, nisi iubes ; Cas. 643 ; 729 ; Cist. 463 ; Cure. 575 ; 718 ; 
Pud. 431, nisi oras, non feres ; 999 ; 1004 ; 1289 ; And. 776, nisi 
tollis, hunc provolvam ; H. T. 33, plura dicet, nisi fineni facit; 730; 
932 ; 1003 ; Eun. 803 ; Ad. 173. 

d) With si non (6) : Amph. 929, si non iubes, ibo egomet ; M. G. 
268, si non reperio, ibo; 920; Stich. 646; And. 208, si non provi- 
dentur, me pessum dabunt ; Lucil. 559. 

e) With ni (10), e.g. Amph. 440, vapulabis, ni abis ; Asin. 474, 
crura diffringentur, ni percies; 670; 706; Bacch. 858, ni exsolvor, 
hominem opprimet; Cure. 723; Pud. 1009; True. 286. 

3. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative (25). The most 
frequent form of the apodosis is peril, intern, occidi, or some similar 

a) With si (7), e.g. Asin. 360, si adfert, nos exclusi sumus; 
Merc. 530, animus rediit, si mecum servatur fides ; 593 ; M. G. 306, 
si indicium facio, interii ; Poen. 915; Ad. 458, si deseris tu, periimus. 

b) With nisi (15), e.g. Asin. 287, perii, nisi Libanum invenio : 
Capt. 539, occisa est res, nisi reperio; 749; Cist. 671; Epicl. 82, nisi 
quid auxili est, apsumptus es ; M. G. 295 ; 828 ; Pud. 683, nisi quid 
apparas, acta haec res est; 1415; Yid. 66; And. 642. 

c) With si non : Asin. 243, interii, si non invenio. 

d) With ni: Asin. 918, ni impetro, regem perdidi; Stich. 401, ni 
ex pell 0, occidi. * 

4. The apodosis stands in the future perfect indicative (5). 

a) With si (4): Aul. 606, hunc si amitto, hie abierit; Capt. 296, 
si confiteri vis, ex tua re feceris ; M. G. 297 ; Ad. 127, si pergis, abiero. 

b) With si 7ion : H. T. 107, si id non facis, invenero. 

5. The apodosis stands in the imperative (25). 

a) With si (15), e.g. Asin. 383, si est intus, evocato ; Men. 1093, 
liber esto, si invenis ; M. G. 255 ; Pers. 659, age, si quid agis (so fre- 
quently) ; Poen. 1237 ; Cato, Agr. 157, 10, si dolent, lavito. 

Protasis in Present Indicative. 67 

b) With nisi : Cure. 535, nisi properas dare, vitam propera ponere ; 
Phor. 988, nisi sequitur, pugnos in ventrem ingere. 

c) With si non (3) : Men. 199, si non saltas, exue ; M. G. 1394, si 
non sequitur, rapite sublimem; Cato, Agr. 2, 2. 

d) With ni (5) : XII Tab. 1, ni it, antestarnino ; ibid, ni pacunt, 
caussam eoiciunto ; 3, ni iudicatum f acit, secum ducito ; ibid, ni suo 
vivit, dato ; 8, ni testimonium f ariatur, inprobus esto. 

6. The apodosis is a jussive subjunctive. Only Cato, Agr. 2, 1, 
eodem die si potest, circumeat ! 

7. The apodosis is a deliberative subjunctive (4) : And. 528, si 
impetro, quid malim ? Ad. 531 ; Cato, fr. Jord. 27, 5, si volo augu- 
rium optime tenere, ecquis me ob earn rem augurem capiat ? Pers. 
370, at si non licet, quid again ? 

8. Type quid si (7) : Amph. 849, quid si adduco tuom cognatum? 
Bacch. 1184 ; Cas. 269 ; 270 ; Men. 844, quid si servos cito ? H. T. 
719, quid si recleo ? Phor. 210. 

9. The apodosis is either a verb to be understood from the context, or 
is contained in some other part of speech (8) : Pseud. 519, mortalem 
graphicum, si servat fidem; True. 923, malo tuo, nisi ego aliqui 
gaudeo; Amph. 793, cum cruciatu, nisi apparet, tuo; Asin. 471; H. 
T. 331, quid aliud vis ? : : siquidem hoc fit; Phor. 805, numquamne 
concedes mihi ? : : si tu nil narras ? 492, sin fidem do ? Cato, Agr. 

10. Aposiopesis (4) : And. 516, nisi fit , . . ; Eun. 990, si vivo . . . ; 
Ad. 135 ; Phor. 937. 

II. Protasis in the Imperfect Indicative. 

a) With si (9) : Asin. 143, ea si erant, magnas habebas omnibus 
dis gratias; M. G. 1326, nil miror, si lubenter hie eras ; Poen. 526, si 
properabas, magis, pridie nos hue duxisse oportuit; Pseud. 286, si 
amabas, invenires ; 798, si arbitrabare, cur conducebas ? 800, cur se- 
debas, si eras coquos ? True. 748, si volebas, auferres dimidium 
domum ; Turp. 21, si flabat Aquilo, inopia turn erat piscati ; Cato, 
fr. Jord. 83, 3, si quis in ea re studebat, aut sese ad convivia ad- 
plicabat, grassator vocabatur. 

b) With nisi: Stich. 130, nisi placebant, non datas oportuit. 

c) W T ith si minus : Phor. 361, nihil est quod suscenseam, si ilium 
minus norat. 

68 Conditional Sentences. 

III. Protasis in the Future Indicative. 

1. The apodosis stands in the present indicative (34), which usually 
refers to the future. 

a) With si (30), e.g. Bacch. 911, satin est, si plura audiet ? Capt. 
209, si erit occasio, haud dehortor; 625, si secus reperies, nullam 
causam dico ; Epid. 37, modo videndum est, si dabit; Merc. 526; 
M. G. 249, sed si volet, quid agimus ? 694 ; Eun. 382, an id flagiti- 
umst, si dedncar et f allam ? Ad. 347, si infitias ibit, testis mecum est 
anulus ; Cato, Agr. 3, 4, fieri potest, si facies ; 14, 1 ; 43, 1, si erit, 
oportet ; 157, 7, purgat, si edes. 

b) With nisi: Men. 694, nisi feres argentum, me ductare non 
potes ; Trin. 919. 

c) With si non : Trin. 793, si non feret, dici non potest. 

d) With ni: Eud. 578, an te paenitet, ni eluam? 

2. The apodosis stands in the future indicative (115). 

a) With si (100), e.g. Asin. 109, si quid te volam, ubi eris? 237; 
597, si voles, manebo ; Bacch. 1001, non dabis, si sapies ; Capt. 196, 
si id facietis, levior labos erit; 497; Epid. 647, si quid erit du- 
bium, inmutabo; Merc. 207 ; M. G. 195, istaec, si erit hie, nuntiabo; 
1239; 1365; Eud. 417; 788; 1401; Trin. 300, si mea imperia 
capesses, multa bona consident; And. 920, si perget, audiet; 
H. T. 217 ; 748 ; 872, domi ero, si quid me voles ; Phor. 359 ; Ad. 
565, continebit, si sapiet, manus; Cato, Agr. 1, 7, si me rogabis, 
sic dicam ; 4, si videbit, f acilius vendes ; 5, 2; 157, 6 ; 158, 2, 
si voles, licebit; Liv. And. Trag. 1, si imitabo, turn tu pretium 
pro noxa dabis. 

b) With nisi (11), e.g. Capt. 179, nisi qui meliorem (condicionem) 
adferet, me addicam ; Cas. 123, nisi erunt semper plena, te implebo ; 
Men. 662, numquam introibis, nisi feres ; M. G. 450 ; Pers. 430 ; Poen. 
14 ; Trin. 612 ; Ad. 454, nisi f acient, haud sic auf erent. 

c) With si non (3) : M. G. 1240, si non quibo, consciscam letum ; 
Pseud. 555 ; And. 700. 

d) With si neminem : Pseud. 120, si neminem alium potero, tan- 
gam patrem. 

e) With ni: Eud. 753, ni offerumentas habebis pluris, turn ero 

Protasis in Future Indicative. 69 

3. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative : Eim. 51, si incipies, 
actumst ; 717, actumst, siquidem me ludificabere. 

4. The apodosis stands in the future perfect indicative (13). 

a) With si (10) , e.g. Capt. 695, hau sine poena f eceris, si rebitet ; 
968 ; M. G. 1243, te vilem f eceris, si te ultro largiere ; Pseud. 949 ; 
Trin. 279 ; And. 397, sed si te aequo animo f erre accipiet, neclegentem 
f eceris ; Ad. 817. 

b) With nisi : Most. 210, nisi amabit, quod dedit perdiderit ; Stich. 

5. The apodosis stands in the imperative (116). This form of con- 
ditional sentence is especially common in Cato's De Agr., in which two 
thirds of all the examples occur. 

a) With si (96), e.g. XII Tab. 3, si volet, suo vivito; ibid. 1, si 
nolet, arceram ne sternito ; 3, si volet, plus dato ; Leg. Eeg. ii, 2, si 
tanget, (tangit, Gell. iv, 3, 3), agnum caedito ; Asin. 165, ductato, si 
dabis; Aul. 94, dicito, si quis petet; 340; Capt. 114, sinito ambulare, 
si foris, si intus volent; Cas. 146; Epid. 264, si placebit, utitor; 
658 ; Stich. 148, si veniet nuntius, facito ut sciam ; And. 863, si 
invenies, occidito ; H. T. 865, si voles, dicito ; 972 ; Eun. 596 ; 768 ; 
Hec. 76, si quaeret, dicito; Cato, Agr. 5, 7, stramenta si deerunt, 
f rondem legito ; 9, si habebis, facito ; 18, 1, si voles, componito ; 18, 
9; 22,1; 24; 54,4; 64, 2; 99; 108; 112; 132,2; 156,1; 157,16; 
Pacuv. 341, me occide, si probitam. 

b) With si no7i (16), e.g. Epid. 264, si non placebit, reperitote 
rectius; Eun. 503, si id non poterit, ad me adducito; Cato, Agr. 
9, si non habebis, facito; 18, 5, duplices indito, si solidas non 
habebis; 43, 1, si lapis non erit, consternito; 54, 2; 93; 146, 3, 
si non reddet, aequom solvito ; 151, 4, si quando non pluet, inrigato ; 
157, 9 ; CIL i, 199, 25, sei Langenses earn pequniam non dabunt, 
turn debento. 

c) With si minus : Cato, Agr. 141, 4, si minus in omnes litabit, 
sic verba concipito. 

d) With sin : Eud. 815, sin ipse abitere hinc volet, amplectitote ; 
Enn. Trag. 301, sin fracebunt condiciones, repudiato et reddito. 

e) With sive : Cato, Agr. 52, 2, sive calix erit, conquassato. 

6. The apodosis is an independent subjunctive (12) : 

a) With si (11), e.g. M. G. 936, hoc si efficiam, quid tibi mittam ? 

70 Conditional Sentences. 

Poen. 1409, si reddes, compingare; Pers. 786, ut non eogam, si 
vivam ? Eun. 441, si quando ilia dicet, Pamphilam cantatum pro- 
vocemus ; Hec. 78, si quaeret, uti dicas ; Cato, Agr. 1, 3, si poteris, 
sub radice montis siet ; 144, 4, si volent, iurent; 146, 3; 156, 6; 
Lucil. 809, pistricem validam, si nummi suppeditabunt, addas. 
b) With si non : Hec. 79, si non quaeret, nullus dixeris. 

7. Type quid si (6) : Amph. 392, quid si falles? Merc. 908, quid si 
optabo? Most. 582; H. T. 676; Phor. 320; Hec. 442. 

8. The verb of the protasis is understood (6) : 

a) With si (3) : And. 713, at tamen, si quid ; ibid, veniam, si quid ; 
Eun. 889, tamen si pater quid? 

b) With si non: Poen. 984, si non, turn vortero (si respondebunt 
has preceded) ; Cato, Agr. 157, 9, si non, dato panem purum (si 
poterit has preceded). 

c) With sin secus : Cas. 377, sin secus, patiemur aequis animis (si 
illuc quod volumus eveniet has preceded). 

9. The apodosis is either a verb to be supplied from the context, or else 
is contained in some other part of speech (8). 

a) With si (7) : Eun. 443, si laudabit illius form am, tu hums 
contra (sc. lauda) ; Ad. 539, si quid rogabit, nusquam tu me ; 
Cato, Agr. 22, 4, si orbes parabis, medios crassos pedem unum ; 
43; 61,2; 136. 

b) With si non : Cato, Agr. 126, ad tormina, et si alvos non consis- 
ted et si lumbrici erunt. 

c) With si modo : Trin. 1187, dicis ; si facies modo. 

10. Mirum ni: Eun. 230, mirum ni me turpiter hie dabo. 

11. Aposiopesis (4): Phor. 51, si quis me quaeret; 319; Hec. 765; 
M. G. 527, si non videbit. 

IV. Protasis in the Perfect Indicative. 

1. The apodosis stands in the present indicative (73). The perfect 
indicative of the protasis is regularly a present perfect. 

a) With si (57), e.g. Amph. 853, si deliqui, nulla causa est; Asin. 
224, si papillam contrectavit, haud est ab re ; Bacch. 192, si ilia in- 
ventast, vivit ; 528; Capt. 117, si datast occasio, satis est; 195; 
Merc. 774, si quid evenit, non est mea culpa ; 821 ; Pseud. 905, si 
umquam di voluere, turn me servatum volunt; Bud. 192; And. 

Protasis in Perfect Indicative. 71 

504, si occepi, censes; 572; Phor. 273, si quis fecit, nostran culpa 
est? Hec. 552) Ad. 976, si cledit, haud dubiumst quin aequom 
siet; Cato, fr. Jord. 42, 6; Turp. 175, miserum puto, si etiaui istuc 

b) With nisi (5) : Amph. 765, demiror qui sciat, nisi convenisti ; 
M. Gr. 272, nisi ambulavi dormiens, certo scio; 638; Most. 953; 
Pers. 838. 

c) With nisi si (4) : True. 669, mirum videtur non rediisse, nisi si 
conlapsus est; H. T. 391, nisi si prospectum aliquid est, desertae 
vivimus ; Eun. 661 ; Ad. 594, officium facio, nisi si me in illo 
credidisti esse numero. This last and possibly the first belong 
only formally under this head, the logical apodosis being under- 

d) With ni: Pers. 839, nee sat honest us, ni id ecfecit; Eud. 

e) With si non : Asin. 907, si non didicisti, non mirandumst; 
Bacch. 193, si non inventast, minus valet ; Cas. 306. 

f) With si minus: M. Gr. 602, surripitur, si minus cum cura locus 
lectus est. 

g) With si neque (= si non) : Cato, Agr. 141 ; 4. si quid tibi neque 
satisfactum est, te piaculo. 

h) With sed si = sin : Eud. 193, sed si curavi, turn hoc indecore 
datis. Si me impiavi has preceded. 

2. The apodosis stands in the future indicative (6). 

a) With si (4) : Epid. 362, uno modo persuadebit, si illam ademp- 
sit Orcus; Eun. 924, quod si astu rem tractavit, quantam laudem 
capiet Parmeno ? Cato, Agr. 157, 4. 

b) With nisi : Pseud. 178, nisi penus convenit, prostituam vos. 

c) With siparum: Eud. 1103, si parum intellexti, denuo dicam. 

3. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative (17) . 

a) With si (16), e.g. Amph. 817, quid deliqui, si tecum fui? 
Asin. 272 ; 942 ; Cas. 997, si feci, feci nequiter ; Epid. 91 ; 630 ; 
Pseud. 910, interii, si ille abiit; True. 43; H. T. 631, si peccavi, 
insciens feci; Eun. 27; Hec. 709, non mirum fecit, si hoc aegre 

b) With sin : Merc. 594, sin fecit, non abiit salus. 

4. The apodosis is an independent subjunctive (10). 

72 Conditional Sentences. 

a) With si (8), e.g. Cas. 246, di me infelicent, si in os meum vini 
guttam indidi ; Asin. 537, si animus occupatust, quid f aciam ? Ad. 
690, si te puduit, qua resciscerem ? Asin. 770, si quern aspexit, caeca 
siet ; Aul. 645, di me perdant, si quicquam abstuli ; M. Gr. 833. 

b) With si non: Amph. 572, merito maledicas mi, si non id ita 
factum st. 

c) With si nemo : Cist. 683, si nemo praeteriit, hie iaceret. 

5. The apodosis stands in the imperative (16). 

a) W 7 ith si (13), e.g. XII Tab. 3, si plus minusve secuerunt, se 
fraude esto ; ibid. 8 ; 12 ; Aul. 396, confige fures, si (cui codd.) sub- 
venisti antidhac ; Cas. 3, si verum dixi, signum date ; Poen. 1320 ; 
Hec. 253, siquid est peccatum, profer ; Ad. 184 ; Cato, Agr. 157, 4, 
luxatum si quid est, foveto; Naev. Com. 13, si unquam quicquam 
feci, carnificem cedo. 

b) With nisi : Ad. 483, extorque, nisi ita f actumst ; Cato, Agr. 
144, 2. 

c) W 7 ith si numquam : H. T. 48, si numquam statui et in animum 
induxi, exempluni statuite in me. 

6. Type mirum est ni (nisi) (7) : Capt. 824, mirum est ni fecere ; 
805, mira sunt ni sumpsit ; so Bacch. 450 ; Amph. 432 ; Amph. 283, 
mira sunt nisi invitavit ; Poen. 839, mira sunt nisi erus hunc here- 
dem fecit ; Stat. 101, mirum nisi f rater turbam aliquam dedit. 

7. Type quid si (5): Epid. 599, quid si servo aliter visum est? 
Pseud. 539 ; Eun. 875, quid si hoc quispiam voluit deus ? Amph. 
701 ; Pseud. 286, quid si non habui ? 

8. Various idiomatic forms. 

a) Expressions of which Amph. 457, an egomet me reliqui, si forte 
oblitus fui, is the type. Similarly Most. 941, nihil ad me attinet ? : : 
nisi forte factu's praefectus novos ; Epid. 22, ubi is ergost ? nisi si 
in vidulo attulisti ; Poen. 514, nisi cum pedicis condidicistis grassari ; 
Cas. 637, timeo quid sit, nisi se percussit flore Liberi. 

b) The apodosis is either understood from the context, or else is 
contained in some other part of speech : Cas. 305, si id factum est, 
ecce me nullum senem ; Eud. 776, maxumo malo suo, si attigerit 
sive occeptassit. 

c) The perfect indicative of the protasis is equivalent to a future 
perfect : Most. 827, satis boni sunt, si sunt inducti pice. 

Protasis in Future Perfect Indicative. 73 

V. Protasis in the Pluperfect Indicative. 

The pluperfect indicative in the protasis of conditional sentences 
is extremely rare. The only examples I have noted are : Aul. 427, 
quid tibi erat negoti, nisi iusseram ? Bacch. 423, nisi in palaestram 
veneras, poenas penderes ; Phor. 400, id si falsum fuerat, quor non 
fefellit ? Hec. 181, si quando ad earn accesserat, f ugere ; Cato, Frag. 
Jord. 35, 3, si quis strenue fecerat, donabam. In the last two ex- 
amples si has a pronounced temporal force. 

VI. Protasis in the Future Perfect Indicative. 

1. The apodosis stands in the present indicative (39), which often has 
future force. 

a) With si (23), e.g. Asin. 154, non potest auferre, si quis venerit ; 
Bacch. 364, si ero reprehensus, macto ilium inf ortunio ; Cist. 147, si 
usus venerit, meminisse vos volo ; Cure. 85 ; 555 ; H. T. 437, pessume 
consulis, si ostenderis ; Phor. 347, si sustinueris, ludas licet ; 579 ; 
Cato, Agr. 157, 10, si quando usus venerit, potest. 

b) With nisi (9), e.g. Asin. 94, quoi nil est, nisi defrudaveris ; 
Poen. 1208, nisi f axint, qui sperem haud scio ; Pseud. 100, nisi dacru- 
mis fleveris argenteis, non refert ; 781 ; And. 565, qui scis, nisi 
periclum feceris ? 

c) With ni : Men. 471, non is sum qui sum, ni hanc iniuriam ultus 

d) With nisi si : Eun. 901, non credo, nisi si commissum non erit ; 
Pacuv. 7, non intellegimus, nisi si aperte dixeris. 

e) With si non: Aul. 250, si non dedero, impero; Pseud. 533, si 
non faxis, numquid causaest ? 

f) With si . . . sen; sive . . . sive: Merc. 311, si movero me seu 
secari sensero, auctor sum ut me enices; Cato, Agr. 139, sive ego 
sive quis meo iussu fecerit, precor. 

2. The apodosis stands in the future indicative (159). 

a) With si (133), e.g. Asin. 370, ilium oblectabo, si advenerit; 
837, credam, si videro ; Capt. 124, si faxis, te in caveam dabo ; 809 ; 
M. G. 701, si amiseris libertatem, haud facile restitues; 859; Eud. 
1083, suppetias feret, si dederit; And. 773, si viderit, non dabit; 
H. T. 698, si abduxeris, eelabitur; Eun. 299; Phor. 637, si dixeris, 

'4 Conditional Sentences. 

tria non commutabitis verba ; Cato, Agr. 5, 5, si f ecerit, scibit ; 94 ; 
148, 2 ; Enn. Trag. 224, si offenclero, moriere ; Pore. Licin. Baehr. 
p. 279, si attigero, incendam omnem silvam; Lucil. 660. 

b) With quod si: H. T. 724, quod si me deceperit, frustra veniet. 

c) With nisi (11), e.g. Asin. 487, numquam feres, nisi iusserit; 
817; Capt. 724, nisi confeceris, nomen indetur tibi ; Epid. 728, num- 
quam, nisi orassis, solves; Men. 256, nisi revorteris, gemes; Pers. 
218; Phor. 220, ego plectar, nisi quid me fefellerit; Naev. Com. 8, 
eos vendam, nisi tu viceris. 

d) With si non (10) : Pseud. 212, si mihi non oleum deportatum 
erit, te faciam; Cato, Agr. 5, 6, si non caveris, fructum amittes; 
144, 3 ; 144, 5 ; 147 ; 148 (ter) ; Plaut. f r. 74, peribo, si non f ecero ; 
Eun. 888. 

e) With ni (4) : M. G. 156, ni diffregeritis talos, vostra faciam 
latera lorea ; Bud. 731 ; True. 624. 

f) With sin : Phor. 584, sin spreverit, sciet. 

3. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative (io), which often 
has future force; peril and similar expressions are common in the 

a) With si (7), e.g. Amph. 320, perii, si me aspexerit ; 428, victus 
sum, si dixeris ; Men. 416, periisti, si intrassis ; Merc. 909 ; And. 
213 ; Eun. 1064 ; Phor. 248. 

b) With si nulla: And. 960, mi immortalitas partast, si nulla 
aegritudo huic gaudio intercesserit. 

c) With ni: M. G. 163, disperiistis, ni mulcassitis ; Most. 212, 
perii, ni enicasso. 

4. The apodosis stands in the future perfect indicative (18). 

a) With si (14), e.g. Amph. 198, si dixero mendacium, more meo 
fecero; Bacch. 363, aufugero, si usus venerit; Capt. 695; Men. 112; 
Pseud. 376, si attuleris, fidem perdidero; Eud. 1150, si tantillum 
peccassis, nugas egeris; Trin. 855; And. 213, si lubitum fuerit, 
causam ceperit; H. T. 478, si intellexerit, quantam fenestram pate- 
feceris ! Cato, Agr. 4, si aedificaveris, bene posiveris. 

b) With nisi (3): Men. 54, nisi dederit, nugas egerit; Most. 1006; 
Poen. 81. 

c) With si non : Pers. 402, si non dederit, ius iurandum amiserit. 

5. The apodosis is an independent subjunctive (23). 

Protasis in Future Perfect Indicative. 75 

a) With si (12) : Amph. 672, si situlam cepero, numquam creduis ; 
Asin. 782, si religiosa fuerit, tibi dicat ; 854 ; Cist. 497, di me per- 
dant si duxero; 499 ; Eud. 789, si te offendero, numquam quisquam 
me lenonem dixerit; 1383, haud ausim (aut sini, codd.), si condemna- 
vero ; Cato, Agr. 5, 1, si quis deliquerit, vindicet ; 5, 2 ; si passus 
erit, ne sinat ; 144, 4, si quis fecerit, iurent ; 149, 2 ; Turp. 26, si 
iceris me posthac, credas mihi velim. 

b) With nisi: Cist. 522, di faxint, nisi te optruncavero ; Most. 
193, di me interficiant, nisi illam interfecero. 

c) With ni (6) : Asm. 764, ni abalienarit, tuos arbitratus sit ; 
Bacch. 847 ; Most. 222 ; Stich. 191, lumbos diffractos velim, ni vere 
perierit ; True. 307. 

d) With si non (3) : Pers. 164, sibi habeat, si non abduxero ; Phor. 
514, si non dedero, ne oppertus sies ; Cato, Agr. 146, 3, si non sol- 
vent, solvat. 

6. The apodosis stands in the imperative (43). 

a) With si (35), e.g. XII Tab. 8, si iniuriam faxsit, xxv poenae 
sunto ; ibid, si fraudem fecerit, sacer esto ; Leg. Peg. ii, 3 (Fest. p. 178, 
M), si hominem fulmen Iovis occisit, ne tollito ; Asin. 228, remeato, 
si nactus eris ; 231; 371; 800; Men. 156, oculum ecfodito mihi, si 
ullum verbum f axo ; Pseud. 510 ; And. 752, verbum si f axis, cave ; 
H. T. 550 ; Eun. 853 , si aliam admisero, occidito ; Cato, Agr. 44, si 
quid ventus interfregerit, eximito ; 65, 1 ; 146, 2. 

b) With nisi (3) : Capt. 896, nisi mantis cinatus probe ero, fusti 
pectito ; Pseud. 950 ; Stich. 436. 

c) With ni (3) : XII Tab. 7, ni delapidassint, qua volet iumento 
agito; M. G-. 927, ni ludificata ero, culpam in me imponito; Pseud. 
520, servitum me abducito, ni fecero. 

d) With si non : Poen. 1280, si non ultus f uero, me habento ludi- 
ficatui ; Bacch. 5o5, si non fecero, me esse dicito ignavissumum. 

7. Type quid si (7) : Asin. 105, quid si in insidias devenero ? 720 ; 
Cas. 345, quid si sors aliter evenerit ? Pseud. 514 ; Pud. 721 ; H. T. 
718, quid turn si pater resciverit ? M. Gr. 1417, quid si id non faxis ? 

8. Various idiomatic forms : 

a) The apodosis is either a verb to be supplied from the context, 
or else is contained in some other part of speech : Pers. 579, si qui- 
dem hanc vendidero ; Poen. 1360, perii. : : immo hau multo post, si 

76 Conditional Sentences. 

veneris ; Pseud. 513, si non apstuleris ? Bud. 775, maxumo malo suo, 
si attigerit sive occeptassit; Trin. 483, non hercle longe, nisi me 
vicerit ; Phor. 440, si quid opus f uerit, heus domo me ! Cato, Agr. 
110, si demptus erit odor, id optime. 

b) The verb of the protasis is omitted : Cato, 110, si non, saepius 
facito. Si demptus erit has preceded. 

c) Aposiopesis : Pers. 787, si redierit . . . ; Poen. 428 ; And. 164, 
quern quidem si sensero ; 860 ; Eun. 1019. 

VII. Protases exhibiting a Combination of Two Tenses 
in Coordination. 

The examples I have noted are : Capt. 1034, si placet et si placu- 
imus, signum hoc mittite ; Pseud. 143, nisi animum advortetis, nisi 
somnum exmovetis, faciam; True. 40, itidem est, amator si dedit 
atque est benignus ; And. 41, si quid feci aut facio, habeo gratiam ; 
Hec. 560, siquidem non volt et tu sensti, aderam ; Ad. 232, si hoc 
omitto ac turn again, nil est ; 979, processisti pulchre. : : siquidem 
tu ofneiurn facies atque dederis. 

Dependent Conditional Sentences. 
Many conditional sentences are dependent either upon an infini- 
tive (especially of indirect discourse) or upon a subordinate clause. 

a) Dependent upon an infinitive : Asin. 97, promitto tibi non ob- 
f uturum, si eff eceris ; Aul. 344, te scio posse, si nil obviamst ; 593 ; 
Bacch. 1195; Capt. 575, et me confido, si reconciliasso ; Epid. 7, 
spondeo ... me accepturum, si dabis ; Men. 423, neque si venerit, 
eum volo intromitti ; Merc. 797, eloquar me istanc protracturum esse 
in viam, nisi hinc abducit ; M. G. 326 ; 453, nisi das fidem te hue, si 
omisero, ituram; 915; Trin. 53, credo te gaudere, si quid mihi 
mali est; And. 611, incolumem scio fore me, si devito hoc malum; 
H. T. 591 ; 881 ; Ad. 382, an laudi putat fore, si perdiderit ? Cato, 
Agr. 39, 2, cogitato, si nihil net, nihilo minus sumptum futurum ; 
And. 372, quasi necessus sit, si huic non dat, te illam ducere ; Cato, 
Agr. 122, vinum concinnare, si transibit. 

b) Dependent upon a subjunctive clause : Amph. 635, est placi- 
tum, plus mali adsit, boni si optigit quid; Capt. 747, quaeso, si 
rebitet, ut facias; 920, dicam ut ornet, si volet; Cure. 33, nemo 

Substantive Si-Clauses. 77 

proliibet quin, si argentum est, emas; Epid. 310, metuo, si resciverit, 
ne ulmos parasitos faciat ; Men. 880, onines quaeso, si revenerit, ni 
indicetis; Merc. 586; Poen. 395; Pseud. 1019; End. 1257; 1294; 
Trin. 1012; 1042, metuo ne, si compellabo, aliam rem occipiat loqui; 
1168 ; True. 780, edico ne habeatis, nisi si voltis ; Eun. 501, fac cures, 
si forte advenerit, ut ores ; Phor. 825 ; Hec. 387. 

c) One protasis is frequently qualified by a second : XII Tab. 8, 
si membrum rupsit, ni cum eo pacit, talio esto ; ibid, si nox fur turn 
f axsit, si im occisit, iure caesus esto ; Asin. 405, siquidem minis 
animisque expletus cedit, si med iratus tetigerit, iratus vapulabit; 
Aul. 442, si accesseris, nisi iussero, ego faciam ; Bacch. 1001, si das, 
ille alium gerulum quaerat, si sapiet ; Epid. 543, quid si adeam, si 
haec east ; Merc. 819, si vir scortum duxit, id si rescivit uxor, in- 
punest viro ; M. G-. 306, (interii) si taceo tamen, si hoc palam fuerit ; 
341, si ea domist, si facio, dignun es ? 1251, si amavit aut si sapien- 
tiam habet, per amorem si quid fecero, ignoscet ; Pers. 294 ; Pseud. 
723 ; Pud. 329, eadem, si scit, si videro, exquisivero ; 727, si autem 
Yeneri complacuerunt, habeat, si argentum dabit ; 789, si te offen- 
dero, numquam quisquam me lenonem dixerit, si te non ludos 
dimissero ; 810, si attigerit, ni invitassitis, periistis ; Trin. 95, si 
scis me fecisse, si id non accusas, tnte obiurigandus es. 

d) Dependent upon a purpose clause : Epid. 279, ut amoveas, nisi 
tuast secus sententia ; Men. 428 ; M. G-. 248, ne titubet, si exquiret ; 
Poen. 26 ; Pud. 700 ; And. 159, si quid consili habet, ut consumat ; 
316 ; Titin. 58 y sin forma odio sum, tandem ut moribus placeam viro ; 
Cato, Agr. 12. 

e) Dependent upon an indirect question : Pseud. 109, scis, mea si 
commovi sacra, quo pacto soleam ; Eun. 438, scin, si quando ilia 
mentionem facit, te ut urat; Hec. 567; Turp. 129. 

f) Dependent upon a temporal clause : Pseud. 1146, quom libella 
nusquamst, nisi leno hie subvenit tibi ; 1261, ubi mammicula op- 
primitur aut, si lubet, corpora conduplicant ; Enn. Ann. 262. 

Substantive &i-Clauses. 

Substantive ^/-clauses occur especially with miror and mirum, and 
as appositives of pronouns : Amph. 29, mirari non est aequom, sibi 
si praetimet ; M. Gr. 1326, nil miror si lubenter hie eras ; Bacch. 409 ; 

1 8 Conditional Sentences. 

Capt. 545; Cure. 265; Merc. 784; Pers. 619; Pseud. 442; H. T. 525, 
minime miror, hanc si deperit ; 383 ; Cato, fr. Jord. 25, 5, idne iras- 
cimini si quis superbior est quam yos ? M. G. 1041, hau mirum si 
te habes carum; Amph. 590, istaec miseriast si vi verum vincitur; 
Asin. 830, numquidnam tibi molestumst si liaec accubat ? M. G. 
947, volup est si procedit ; H. T. 1054, ea lege hoc adeo faciam, si 
f acit ; Eun. 382 ; Phor. 1040, adeone indignum tibi vicletur, si habet 
unam amicam ? Ad. 255, id demum iuvat, si is bene facit ; 357. 

" Concessive " /Si-Clauses. 1 

Many ^'-clauses in Plautus, and a few in Terence and other Early 
Latin writers, are " concessive," i.e. adversative, in character. It is 
not always easy to determine with precision what clauses have the 
adversative force. Nutting adds to Kriege's list, and I have felt 
constrained to do the same, though not accepting all of Nutting's 
examples. The following instances, will, I believe, be fairly com- 
plete for the early period. In many cases the adversative character 
is emphasized by the presence of an adversative particle (at, tamen, 

a) With at, tamen, or saltern in the apodosis (18) : Bacch. 365, si 
illi sunt virgae, at mihi tergum domist; 887, si tibist machaera, at 
nobis vervinast ; Capt. 224, si erus tu mini's, tamen viso opus est ; 
683, si peribo, at erit ; Cas. 298, si sic nihil impetrare potero, saltern 
sortiar ; Cist. 67, si non est, tamen dolet ; Cure. 4, si media nox est sive 
prima vespera . . . tamen est eundum ; Men. 746, si me derides, at 
pol ilium non potes ; Merc. 636, ubi habitaret invenires saltern, si 
nomen nequis ; Poen. 51, sin odiost, dicam tamen ; Eud. 1361, si 
Iovis fuit, meus est tamen; True. 615, si tu bellator clues, at ego 
clueo; 832, qui inprobust si quasi bibit sive adeo caret temeto, 
tamen inprobust ; Eun. 639, si illud non licet, saltern hoc licebit ; 
865, si digna sum, at tu indignus ; Ad. 950, si multumst, tamen 
faciundumst ; Lucil. 590, si maluerit, privabit tamen ; Ace. 619, si 
a me regnum Portuna eripere quivit, at virtutem nee quiit. 

b) Without particle in the apodosis (23) : Amph. 908, si dixi, nilo 
magis es; 929, si non iubes, ibo egomet; Capt. 529, neque Salus 

1 Kriege, De enuntiatis concessivis apud Plautum et Terentium, 1884 ; Nutting, 
Studies in the ^-Clause, University of California Publications, Classical Philology, 
Vol. I, No. 2, p. 35 ff. 

Qaom-Clauses. 79 

servare, si volt, me potest; Epid. 599; Men. 670 ; 751, idem dicam 
si avom vis adducere ; 1060 ; M. G. 519 ; 631 ; Most. 42, non omnes 
possunt olere unguenta exotica, si tu oles ; 229; 914; Poen. 374, si 
ante quid mentitust, nunciam dehinc erit verax tibi; Eud. 1014, si 
tu proreta es, ego gubernator ero ; 1075; 1353, si maxume mi ilium 
redcliderit vidulum, non ego debeo triobolum ; 1400, non istoc me 
intervortes, si aliam praedam perdidi ; Sticli. 287; Trin. 465, si sic 
non licebit, luscus dixero ; 507 ; 607 ; Phor. 295, verum si cognatast 
maxume, non fuit necesse habere ; Eim. 638, si non tangendi copiast, 
ne videndi quidem erit ? 

It is worthy of note that the adversative force of the ,s/-clause is 
occasionally emphasized by the presence of maxume. Thus : Eud. 
1353 ; Phor. 295. 


Quom, ' when.' 


Instances of the descriptive gwom-clause are not frequent. Exam- 
ples are : Bacch. 417, iam aderit tempus quom se oderit ; cf. Hec. 
543, pol iam aderit, se quom oderit; Capt. 518, hie illest dies quom 
nulla salus sperabilest ; True. 380, tempestas fuit quom inter nos 
sordebamus (sorderemus P) ; Ad. 384, videre videor diem ilium 
quom profugiet ; Enn. Ann. 262, nunc est ille dies quom gloria 
maxuma sese nobis ostentat; Capt. 303, memini quom haud audebat; 
Poen. 924, nunc est quom me commoror ; And. 152, prope adest 
quom alieno more vivendumst mihi; Eun. 551, nunc est profecto 
interfici quom perpeti me possum; Stat. 119, nunc enim vero est 
quom meae morti remedium reperibit nemo. 


1. With the present indicative (ioo). 

a) Referring to a single action in present time (18). 

1) With, nunc: Asin. 144, nunc quom est melius me ignoras ; 

1 Autenrieth, Jahrbiicher fur Classische Philologie, Supplemented, vi, p. 273 ; 
Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 71 ff. ; Hoffmann, Modus im lateinischen Zeit- 
satze ; Lubbert, Die Syntax von Quom. The last two works are characterized by a 
perverted method. 

80 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

Aul. 629, nunc quom compares, peris ; Capt. 1022, nunc in memo- 
riam regredior quom recogito ; Merc. 178; Most. 588] Stich. 116; 
Trin. 504; Hec. 649, nunc non est (ambiguom) quom earn sequitur 
alienus puer; Ad. 738 ; H. T. 448. 

2) Without nunc: Am ph. 416, mihi non credo, quom illaec autu- 
mare ilium audio; M. G. 1324, non queo quom te video; Poen. 283, 
quom ornatum aspicio, paenitet ; Eud. 1279, non censet quom volo ; 
True. 566] Ace. 346, me miserum, quom recordor, quom reminiscor. 

b) Achronistic quom-clauses in expressions of general truths (60), 
e.g. Bacch. 548, se quom frustrant, frustrari alios existumant ; Capt. 
73, tales quom iacit scortum invocat ; 78 ; 80; 255; 463; Epid. 147, 
mihi dolet quom vapulo ; Men. 226, voluptas nullastnavitis maior quam 
quom terrain conspiciunt ; M. G. 646, tacere quom aliena est oratio ; 
Pseud. 747, quid quom tenetur ? 804 ; Stich. 124, quae, quom res 
secundae sunt, se poterit gnoscere ; Trin. 523, terra quom proscin- 
ditur, boves moriuntur; And. 309, quom valemus, recta consilia 
aegrotis damus ; Eun. 498, rideo, quom in mentem venit ; Phor. 241 ; 
Cato, Agr. 17, 1, quom semen maturum habet, turn tempestiva est ; 
54, 5, quom edunt, exspectant ; Lucil. 371, quom tecum est, quidvis 
satis est. 

c) Historical presents (19), e.g. Amph. 668, gravidam reliqui 
quom abeo; Capt. 282, vivom, quom inde abimus, liquimus ; 887; 
Epid. 217, quom venio, atque illam video ; Men. 1115, quot eras 
annos gnatus quom te pater avehit ? Merc. 616, addicta erat quom 
venio ; Stich. 511 ; True. 401, mater ancillas iubet, quom decumus 
mensis adventat, aliam aliorsum ire ; Aud. 362, quom advenio, soli- 
tudo ante ostium ; H. T. 650, quom exponendam do, de digito 
anulum detraho ; Eun. 342 ; 345 ; 792 ; Stat. 225, te, quom ad nos 
venis, subfarcinatam vidi. 

d) Present with future force (3) ; Capt. 724, quom alii octonos 
ecfodiunt, nisi confeceris, Sescentoplago nomen indetur tibi ; M. G. 
891 ; Ad. 946, ego dicam, quom confit. 

2. With the imperfect indicative (33). 

a) With moclo, olim, turn, in the main clause (7) : Amph. 199, 
quom pugnabant maxume, turn fugiebam maxume ; Asin. 205, longe 
aliam (linguam) praebes nunc atque olim quom dabam atque olim 
quom inliciebas me ad te ; 207 ; 927, modo, quom dicta in me in- 

Quom-Clauses. 81 

gerebas, odium eram ; Cist. 186 ; Trin. 1092, res quom animam 
agebat, turn esse offusam oportuit ; And. 545, alium esse censes nunc 
me atque olim quom dabam ? 

b) Without particle in the main clause (26), e.g. Bacch. 421, erat 
haec disciplina quom tu adulescens eras ? 469, quom peribat vidi ; 
Capt. 247, ne me secus honestes quam quom servibas ; Cure. 541, 
quom credebam, credidi te nihil esse redditurum ; Epid. 432, quod 
factitavi in adulescentia, quom militabam; Men. 632; 1145; Merc. 
753, quam te amare dixti quom opsonabas ; Pseud. 500 ; True. 733 ; 
Eun. 308, scis te mihi saepe pollicitum esse, quom ad te congerebam ; 
Plaut. Boeot. 6 ; Turp. 167 ; Cato, Agr. prooem. 2, quom laudabant, 
ita laudabant ; Jord. 39, 7, quom Eomam veniebant, prorsus devorte- 
bantur. This last example is the only instance of quom iterative 
with the imperfect indicative that I have noted in Early Latin. 

3. With the future indicative (62). 

a) Referring to a single act (30), e.g. Bacch. 518, turn quom nihilo 
pluris referet; Cas. 134, quom ilia dicet, quom haec dicentur, turn 
tu in medio pariete vorsabere; Poen. 726, volo vos commeminisse 
mox quom usus veniet; Asin. 749, horrescet quom audiet ; Bacch. 
825, orabis me quom rescisces ; Men. 996, praesto ero, quom ven- 
ietis ; M. G. 859 ; Pseud. 163, haec quom revortar facite ut offen- 
dam ; H. T. 801, videbitur magis veri simile, quom dabit ; Eun. 52, 
quom nemo expetet, venies ; Phor. 695 ; Ad. 665, quid illi creditis 
fore quom videbit ? Ace. 153. 

b) In expressions containing general truths (32), only in Cato, de 
Agr. viz. 1,4, ad villain quom venies, videto; 5, 8, quom exportabis, 
purgato; 17, 1, quom glubebit, turn tempestiva est; 23, 1, quom 
pluet, quala parentur ; 94, quom ver adpetet, terrain exaggerato. 

4. With the perfect indicative (50). 

a) Present perfect (6) : Capt. 142, turn denique nostra intellegi- 
mus bona, quom ea amisimus ; 256, etiam quom cavisse ratus est, 
saepe captus est ; Epid. 227, tributus quom imperatus est, negant ; 
Most. 277, itidem olent quasi quom una multa iura confudit coquos ; 
Pers. 436 ; Pseud. 401. 

b) With the historical perfect (44). 

1) With some temporal particle or phrase (turn, tunc, ibi, inde, 
olim, etc.) in the main clause (10), e.g. Bacch. 960, ibi occidi Troilum 

82 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

quom censuit; Men. 447, numquam feci peius quam hodie quom 
contionem me inmersi ; Bud. 846, in ara tunc sedebant quom ad me 
profectu's ire ? And. 883, olim quom ita animum induxti tuom, 
eodem die istuc verbum in te accidit ; H. T. 54, incle adeo quom agrum 
mercatus es ; 262-, Phor. 912; Hec. 411, ea me abstinuisse in 
principio, quom datast ; 537 ; Lucil. 175, quom id nil visus facere 
est, turn retia nexit. 

2) Without temporal particle in the main clause (34), e.g., 
Amph. 91, histriones quom Iovem invocarunt, venit; Poen. 723, 
vidistis quom accepit? 904, adoptavit hunc quom diem obiit suom ; 
1070; Trin. 194, posticulum hoc recepit quom aedes vendidit ; 872; 
Phor. 9, si intellegeret, quom stetit olim nova, actoris opera stetisse ; 
31 ; 815, perliberalis visast quom vidi ; Hec. 1, quom datast nova, inter- 
venit vitium ; 572 ; Enn. Trag. 189, quom illuc ventumst, ire illuc 
lubet ; Pacuv. 65 ; 328. 

5. With the pluperfect indicative. 

I have noted but four examples of this tense in Early Latin : 
Bacch. 426, id quom (quoi, codd.) optigerat, hoc etiam accersebatur ; 
Cas. 461, quom ei advorsum veneram, facere atriensem voluerat sub 
ianua; And. 517, quom intellexeras, quor non dixti? 838, egomet 
vidi iurgantem ancillam. : : scio. : : vero voltu, quom neuter prae- 

6. With the future perfect indicative (32). 

a) Referring to a single action (22), e.g. Bacch. 359, quom sciverit, 
quid fiet postea ? Poen. 405, mox dabo, quom rediero ; Amph. 197, 
meditabor quo modo illi dicam quom illo advenero ; 466 ; Bacch. 
358, quid futurumst quom resciverit ? Capt. 434; Merc. 649, quom 
veneris, aufugies ? 1003; Eud. 766, quid quom inveneris ? H. T. 
484, quod quomque incident in mentem, volet; 557; Eun. 1067, 
quod quom dixero, f acitote ; Phor. 185; Hec. 300, quod quom ita 
esse invenero, quid restat ? 474; 694; Enn. Praet. 5, quom spolia 
detraxeritis, quam inscriptionem dabitis ? Lucil. 590, hoc quom 
feceris, non derit; Afran. 228, ea, quom venero, confecta ut offen- 
dam; Turp. 193. 

b) In expressions containing general truths (10), only in Cato, 
de Agr. e.g. 22, 4, quom advexeris, temperato ; 38, 4, quom sub- 
dideris, oblinito ; 96, quom detonderis, unguito ; 98, 2. 

Quom- Clauses. 8 3 

In the following the future is combined with the future perfect, 
H. T. 726, quom dixero et constituent quom is certe renuntiarit, 
Clitipho quom in spe pendebit animi, decipiam ac non veniam ; Cato, 
Agr. 25, quom vinum coctum erit et quom legetur, facito; 98, 2, 
quom unxeris, quom uti voles, extergeto. 

Quom extemplo. 

a) With the present : Amph. S65, hue autem quom extemplo ad- 
ventum adporto, ilico Amphitruo fio ; Bacch. 303, tristes ilico quom ex- 
templo vident, subducunt lembum ; Merc. 295, senex quom extemplo 
est, iam nee sentit. 

b) With the future : M. Gr. 933, hanc ad nos, quom extemplo a foro 
veniemus, mittitote. 

c) With the perfect : Most. 101, aedes quom extemplo sunt para- 
tae, laudant fabrum ; Trin. 242, quom extemplo perculsust, ilico res 
foras labitur ; 492, quom extemplo emisimus, aequo mendicus eense- 
tur censu. 

d) With the future perfect : Capt. 786, quom extemplo advenero, 
loquentur; M. G. 1176, quom extemplo hoc erit factum, ibi tu ilico 
facito ; Trin. 725, quom extemplo arcum sumpsero, — dormibo. 

Quom primum. 

Quom primum, i as soon as/ occurs Eun. 509, me video ab ea labe- 
factarier iam turn quom primum iussit ; Hec. 33, quom primum coepi, 
fecere ut exirem. In a different sense : Cas. 17, haec quom primum 
acta est, vicit omnis ; And. 1, quom primum animum ad scribendum 
adpulit, id sibi negoti credidit solum dari. 

Quom puto, quom cogito, etc., in Elliptical Expressions. 

In quom puto and many similar expressions the gwom-clause de- 
pends not upon the main clause of the sentence, but upon something 
to be supplied in thought. Thus Amph. 441, quom ilium contemplo 
et formam cognosco meam, nimis similist mei ; i.e. 'when I look at 
him and consider my own figure, I find that he is like me.' So in the 
following: Amph. 447, quom cogito, idem sum qui semper fui; 
Bacch. 449, quom huius dicta intellego, mira sunt ni ; 597, quom 
huius verba interpretor, niihi cautiost; Capt. 51,homunculi quanti sunt 
quom recogito ! Cas. 555, quom puto, si quid eius esset, esset mecum 

84 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative 

postulatio ; 910, quom cogito, non habuit ; Cist. 316, quom interpre- 
ter, haec est quae ; Cure. 375, quom reeogito, sufferam ; 583, verba 
mini dedit, quom cogito ; Men. 254, quom inspicio marsuppium, via- 
ticati aestive sumus ; 1064, haud est dissimilis, quom form am noscito ; 
Merc. 742; M. Gr. 1375; Eud. 771, quom coniecturam facio, haec est 
ilia simia ; Stich. 301 ; 448 ; Trin. 256, haec quom reputo, apage te ; 
404; True. 452; H. T. 387, quom considero, mirabilest. 

Quom Inversum. 

I have noted only the following instances of quom inversum : Aul. 
520, hos absolutos censeas quom incedunt ; Men. 1054, tu clamabas 
quom accurro ; Eun. 633, longe abieram quom sensi ; Enn. Com. 3, 
quom desubito me orat mulier; Catulus, Baehr. p. 276, constiteram 
forte salutans, quom subito a laeva Eoscius exoritur. 

Quom Explicative. 

I have noted about forty instances of quom explicative, the some- 
what inexact traditional name for those g^om-clauses which indicate 
that one act or condition is identical with another. Examples : 

a) Present (27), e. g. Aul. 194, petit quom pollicetur ; Capt. 615, 
Aiacem, hunc quom vides, ipsum vides ; Cist. 692, memet nioror 
quom hoc ago; Epid. 344, mihi cesso quom sto; 691; Men. 156, te 
morare mihi quom obloquere; 298, pro sano loqueris, quom me 
appellas nomine ; Merc. 468 ; M. G. 1070 ; Poen. 589, bene facitis 
quom operam datis ; 760 ; Pseud. 931, occidis me quom rogitas ; 
Trin. 342, quom illi dico, praemonstro tibi ; True. 273, nunc places, 
quom mi inclementer dicis; And. 18, quom hunc accusant, ISTaevium 
accusant ; 421, f acis ut te decet, quom impetro ; Ad. 96, quom illi 
dico, tibi dico. 

b) Imperfect : Epid. 138, desipiebam, quom mittebam ; Com. 
Erag. p. 138, Eibb. quom simulabat, turn detulit. 

c) Perfect (12), e.g. Bacch. 166, fecisti furtum in aetatem malum 
quom istaec flagitia me celavisti ; 677, errasti quom parum immersti 
ampliter ; 925, cluent fecisse facinus maxumum quom Pergamum 
subegerunt ; Capt. 297, fecit ofheium quom tibi est conf essus ; 452, 
rem constabilivi quom illos emi ; Cas. 841, bona multa mihi dedisti, 
quom huius copiam mi dedisti; Men. 668; 701. 

Quoin-Clauses. 85 

Substantive Qiz 0222-Clauses. 

In a few instances the g?*om-clause has substantive force, viz. : 
Cas. 39, abhinc annos factum est xvi quom conspicatust puellam ex- 
poni ; Most. 694, non forte visum f uit quom dedit ; Poen. 1203, hoc 
maxumumst (sc. vitium), quom sibi placent; Hec. 308, saepe est 
quom eadem causast factus inimicissumus. 

Quom, 'since' ('seitdem'). 

In the following passages quom has the force of ' since': Am ph. 
302, iam diust quom (codd. quod) victum non datis, ' it is a long time 
that you have refused me sustenance ; J Aul. 4, iam multos annos 
est quom possideo ; Merc. 533, biennium est, quom mecum rem 
coepit; 535, iam biennium est quom tecum rem habet; 541, haud 
diust quom dentes exciderunt; Most. 470, quia vn menses sunt 
quom in hasce aedes pedem nemo intro tetulit ; Pers. 137, non vi 
menses hue est quom commigravit; Trin. 402, minus xv dies sunt 
quom xl minas accepisti; Cato fr. (Jord.), p. 15, 9, non longinqua 
memoria est quom in arbore ensem viderunt quern Orestes reliquisse 

Apparently related, though logically obscure, are the three follow- 
ing examples: Asin. 251, iam diust factum quom discesti atque 
abistii ; 890, iam dudum factumst quom primum bibi ; Trin. 
1010, iam dudum factumst quom abiisti domo. Logically these seem 
substantive clauses, serving as the subject of factum est. 

Quom, 'while.' 

I have noted but a single instance of this usage, viz. Bacch. 1122, 
pastor dormit, quom eunt palit antes. 

Quom interea, quom interim. 

In the three following passages quom interea {quom interim) is used 
to introduce a circumstantial clause : Men. 446, plus xxx annis natus 
sum, quom interea loci numquam quicquam feci peius quam hodie ; 
Pers. 172, te iam sector quintum annum quom interim nondum 
edidicisti ; Hec. 421, dies xxx in navi fui quom interea semper mor- 
tem exspectabam. 

86 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

Quom magis . . . {magis). 

In the following passages quom magis {magis quom) is used with 
the force of quo magis : M. Gr. 935, magis quom periclum facies, magis 
nosces ; Most. 702, quom magis cogito, . . . neminem sollicitat ; 
Pers. 564, quom magis contemplo, magis placet. 


1. With the present indicative (79). 

a) Beferring to present time: Rud. 441, ut timeo, ubi intueor; 
Ad. 444, ubi video, vivere etiam nunc lubet. 

b) In expressions of general truths (41). 

1) With correlative particle in main clause (12) : Aul. 197, 
ubi man um inicit, ibi onerat aliquam zamiam ; Epid. 166 a, ubi puden- 
dumst, ibi eos deserit pudor; Most. 105, ubi illo inmigrat nequam 
homo, hie iam aedibus vitium additur ; 379, miserum est opus igitur 
demuni fodere puteum ubi sitis faucis tenet; Pers. 304, ubi se ad- 
iuvat, ibi me adiuvat; 614, tibi ibidem das, ubi tuom amicum ad- 
iuvas ; Pseud. 311, ilico vixit amator, ubi supplicat ; Stich. 733, tecum 
ubi est, mecum ibi est ; And. 631, ubist tempus promissa iam perfici, 
turn se aperiunt ; 638, nil pudet hie ubi opus est ; ibid, ubi nil opust, 
ibi verentur ; Cato, Agr. 45, 3, ubi trimae sunt, turn denique maturae 

2) Without correlative particle (29), e.g. Bacch. 251, cor meum 
finditur, ubi fit quomque mentio ; Capt. 234, ubi habent, pessumi 
Hunt; 500, ubi vident, eunt obviam; Pers. 313, ubi qui tangit, do- 
lores eooriuntur ; Pseud. 819, ubi coquont, condimentis non con- 
diunt ; Stich. 732, mecum ubi est, tecum est ; H. T. 154, quod fit, ubi 
non vere vivitur ; Eun. 600, ita ut fit ubi domini absunt ; 630 ; Phor. 
715, ut cautus est, ubi nil opust; Cato, Agr. 6, 1, ubi ager crassus est, 
sic observari oportet ; 114 ; 157, 7. — Ubi quando : Capt. 290, ubi 
quando sacruficat, Samiis vasis utitur. 

c) With the historical present (26). 

1) With correlative particles : Cist. 160, is ubi scit, ilico auf ugit ; 
And. 356, ubi non invenio, ibi ascendo ; H. T. 276, ubi aperit, continuo 
se coniecit intro. 

1 Schubert, Temporalkonjunktionen bei Plautus, 1881, p. 20 f£. 

Clauses Introduced by TJbi. 87 

2) Without correlative particles (23), e.g. Am ph. 1061, ubi 
parturit, deos invocat ; Bacch. 289, ubi eximus, homines sequi ; Cas. 
922 ; Poen. 1284, ubi nee leno nee illae redeunt, abii ; H. T. 128, ubi 
video, haec coepi ; 303, quid ait, ubi me nominas ? 304 ; Eun. 260, ubi 
videt, homo eoepit ; 414; Phor. 862, ubi ire occipio, puer ad me 
adcurrit ; Ace. 602, ubi adveniunt, nitidantur ; Enn. Ann. 45 ; Turp. 

d) Eef erring to the future (10) : XII Tab. 1, rem ubi pacunt, 
orato ; Bacch. 995, ubi lubet, recita; Epid. 39, tu ipse ubi lubet, 
finem face ; Eun. 460, ubi vis, non moror ; 464 ; 814 ; 1088 ; Phor. 
907, ubi voltis, uxorem date ; Cato, Agr. 158, 1, ubi incipit, addito. 

2. With the imperfect indicative (5). 

Examples : Bacch. 685, quid, ubi reddebas aurum, dixisti patri ? 
M. G. 856, ubi bacchabatur aula, cassabant cadi ; Trim 503, ubi usus 
nil erat, dicebat ; Eun. 405, requiescere ubi volebat, quasi . . . nostin ? 
Plaut. Fr. 26, ubi is te monebat. Of the foregoing examples, M. G. 
856 ; Fr. 26 ; and Eun. 405 exhibit iterative force. 

3. With the future indicative (73). 

a) Beferring to a single act (31). 

1) With correlative particles (13) : Epid. 595, ubi voles pater 
esse, ibi esto; 423, ubi erit otium, revortere ad me extemplo; 154, 
ubi scibit, continuo orabit : Pers. 653, actutum, ubi sciet, aderit ; 728, 
ubi videbis, turn facito ; Poen. 298 ; Bud. 426 ; 930, iain ubi liber 
ero, igitur demum instruam agrum ; True. 871 ; H. T. 972, ubi scies, 
turn istoc utitor ; Eun. 440, ubi nominabit Phaedriam, tu Pamphilam 
continuo ; Ad. 526, ubi non videbit, iam hue recurret. 

2) Without correlative particles (18), e.g. Capt. 341, alium 
misero, ubi erunt indutiae ; Men. 257, ubi nihil habebis, gemes; Pers. 
468, ubi videbis, id erit acleundi tempus ; Bud. 933 a, ubi nobilitas 
mea clara erit, oppidum communibo ; True. 189 ; II. T. 754, ubi 
videbit, optabit rursum; Eun. 52, ubi non poteris, venies; Phor. 48. 

b) In general expressions — chiefly in Cato — (42), e.g. True. 879, 
ubi metues malum, f ugito ad me ; And. 848, ubi voles, accerse ; Cato, 
Agr. 18, 6, aram ubi facies, fundamenta facito; 48, 1, ubi seres, 
vortito ; 53-, 54, 3 ; 127, ubi florebit, conligito. 

4. With the perfect indicative (85). 
a) Present perfect (36) . 

88 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

1) With correlative participles (8) : Aul. 525, ubi res solutast, 
ibi cedit miles ; Capt. 77, ubi res prolatae sunt, simul prolatae res sunt 
nostris dentibus; Most. 131, ubi emeritum est stipendium, turn 
specimen cernitur ; 276, ubi sese sudor consociavit, ilico olent ; 
Poen. 106, ubi est ingressus, ilico omnes meretrices invenit; Phor. 
1010, ubi ad uxores ventumst, turn hunt senes ; Cato, Agr. 3, 1, ubi 
aetas accessit, turn aedificare oportet. 

2) Without correlative particle (28), e.g. Asin. 304, ubi manus 
manicae complexae sunt, nee dependes nee propendes ; Aul. 198, ubi 
tetigerunt, tenent ; Bacch. 471 ; Cure. 60 ; 293 ; Kud. 984, ubi demisi 
retem, extraho; True. 301; H. T. 220, ubi adbibit plus paulo, sua 
quae narrat facinora ! 390 ; 392 ; Hec. 242, ubi duxere, easdem 
exi gunt ; Cato, Agr. 2, 1, ubi venit, ubi salutavit, circum eat ; 2, 2, 
ubi cognovit, vocet ; ibid, ubi dixit, revoca ; 157, 7. 

It will be noted that none of these perfects are true present per- 
fects, i.e. they do not denote an action completed in present time. 
They are either achronistic, or, where the main clause refers to the 
future, serve as future perfects, as in Cato, Agr. 2, 1 ; 2, 2. 

b) Historical perfect (49). 

1) With correlative particles (15), e.g. Amph. 216, haec ubi 
legati pertulere, castris ilico producit exercitum; 242, hoc ubi con- 
spicatus est, ilico equites iubet inducere ; Bacch. 960, ubi tabellas ad 
senem detuli, ibi occidi Troilum ; Capt. 559, credidi esse insanum 
extemplo, ubi te appellavit ; Cas. 881, ubi deduxi, recta via abduxi; 
Cist. 137; 577, ubi elocutast, ego continuo interrogo ; Cure. 363; H. T. 
279, hie sciri potuit, ubi de improvisost interventum mulieri; 616, 
dixi, ubi mi ostendisti, ilico : 891 ; Eun. 1015, quid illi credis turn 
animi fuisse, ubi vidit? Stat. 160, ubi domum adveni, adsedi, 
extemplo savium dat. 

2) Without correlative particles (34), e.g. Aul. 15, ubi is mor- 
tem obiit, coepi observare ; 708, ubi ille abiit, ego me duco de arbore ; 
Bacch. 265, quid, ubi ostendit symbolum? M. G. 123, ubi aspexit 
me, mihi signum dedit ; Trin. 853, ubi conduxit, abduxit domum ; 
True. 506, ubi natust, machaeram poscebat ; And. 173, ita sensi, ubi 
audivit ; H. T. 199 ; 121, ubi comperi, domum revortor ; Eun. 165, 
nonne ubi dixti quaesivi ? Phor. 866; Hec. 20, ubi sunt eognitae, 
placitae sunt ; Enn. Trag. 72 ; Lucil. 626. 

Clauses Introduced by TJbi. 89 

5. With the pluperfect indicative (3). 

Examples : Asin. 209, ubi quid dederam, quasi columbae pulli in 
ore meo eratis ; Phor. 572, quid tarn diu commorabare, ubi id audie- 
ras? Hec. 130, ubi quomque datum erat spatium solitudinis, "Par- 
meno," (inquit). The first and third of these examples have 
iterative force. 

6. With the future perfect indicative (130). 

a) Eeferring to a single act (60). 

1) With correlative particle (12), e.g. Bacch. 708, hoc ubi 
egero, turn istuc agam ; Cas. 547, ubi nuptiae fuerint, turn convenibo ; 
Men. 142, iam sciam, ubi videro ; M. G. 1176, ubi abierit, ibi tu 
ilico facito 5 Pers. 162, ubi ego accepero, continuo tu adserito ; Poen. 
188, ubi expolivero, magis turn demum dices ; Pud. 818, ubi advene- 
rit, itote extemplo ; Stich. 594, ubi convivae abierint, turn venias ; 
Hec. 813; Ad. 203, ubi dixero, testis faciet ilico; 232, si . . . turn 
agam, ubi rediero. 

2) Without correlative particle (48), e.g. Aul. 623, ego mihi 
bibam, ubi id f ecero ; Bacch. 757, ubi erit accubitum, ne quoquam 
assurgatis ; 765 ; M. G. 946, ne quid, ubi miles venerit, titubet ; 
1169 ; Pseud. 750, ubi te aspexerit, narrabit ; And. 837, ubi causa 
erit adempta, desinent ; Eim. 55, eludet, ubi senserit ; 596, ubi nos 
laverimus, lavato ; Phor. 47, ferietur alio munere, ubi era pepererit; 
143 ; 718 ; 892 ; Hec. 155, illam spero, ubi cognoverit, abituram deni- 
que ; 791 ; Ad. 226 ; 378 ; Trabea, 3. 

b) In general expressions (70), only in Cato, de Agr. 

1) With correlative particles (3) : Cato, Agr. 38, 3, ubi f oderis 
turn facito ; 83, ubi res divina facta erit, statim consumito; 112, 2, 
ubi pluerit, turn delegito. 

2) Without correlative particles (67), e.g. Cato, Agr. 17, 1, ubi 
solstitium fuerit, tempestiva est ; 21, 2, ubi feceris, circumplectito ; 
26, ubi erit lectum, oblinito ; 38, 4, ubi combusseris, serito ; 50, 2 ; 
57, ubi facta erit, bibant. 

7. With combinations of two tenses: Poen. 853, tibi reddam 
operam, ubi voles, ubi iusseris ; Pseud. 1259, ubi amans complexust 
amantem, ubi labella adiungit, etc. ; Cato, Agr. 45, 3, ubi trimae 
sunt, turn denique maturae sunt, ubi liber vortet. 

90 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

Ubi primum. 

I have noted the eight following examples of ubi primum: Amph. 
203, ubi primum terrain tetigimus, continuo Amphitruo delegit viros 
prineipes ; Cist. 137 ; Men. 599, ubi primum est licitum, ilico pro- 
peravi ; M. G. 109, ubi primum evenit occasio, sublinit os ; Poen. 1419, 
quando ire cogitas ? : : ubi primum potero, ilico ; Plaut. Frag. 30, ubi 
primum aceensus clamarat meridiem ; Eun. 628, ubi primum poterit, 
se subdueet ; Cato, Agr. 17, 2, ubi primum incipiunt, turn legi oportet. 

Extemplo ubi. 

Extemplo ubi occurs : Bacch. 977, vendam extemplo ubi oppidum 
expugnavero ; Capt. 559; Cure. 80, extemplo ubi vino has conspersi 
fores, adesse me scit ; cf . Stat. 160. 

Ubi with Conditional Force. 

In a few instances ubi seems to have nearly or quite the force of 
si, viz. Cas. 825, malo maxumo suo, ubi tantillum peccassit ; Most. 
2oo, ubi tu commoda es, capillum commodum esse credito ; H. T. 
208, ubi se enpiditate devinxit, necessest consilia consequi consimilia; 
Ace. 418, qui potis est refelli quisquam, ubi nullust causandi locus? 
Afran. 33, parentum est vita vilis liberis, ubi malunt metui quam 
vereri se ab suis ; M. G. 915, hoc cogitato, ubi probus est architectus, 
facile esse navem facere ; Capt. 955. 

Substantive Clauses introduced by Ubi. 

In the two following passages the iibi-clause has substantive force : 
Aul. 184, non temerariumst ubi dives blande appellat pauperem,- 
Cato, Agr. 38, 4, hoc signi erit, ubi calx cocta erit. 

1. With the present indicative (25). 

a) Kef erring to present time, M. G. 1328, quom ego, quando 
aspicio, lacrumo; True. 817, nunc non tacebo quando adest. 

b) Achronistic in general expressions (17) : Amph. 123, vorsipel- 
lem se f acit quando lubet ; 862, Mercurius fit quando commodumst ; 864, 

1 Scherer, De quando particula, Studemund's Studien, ii, p. 130 ff . ; Schubert, 
Teraporalkonjunktionen bei Plautus, 1881, p. 16 if. ; Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, 
1892, p. 76. 

Clauses Introduced by Quando. 91 

fio Iupiter quando lubet; Asin. 289, pro inonstro est quando qui sudat 
tremit. Here the quando-cl&xise is almost conditional in force and 
has substantive value. Asin. 301, centum pondo es quando pendes ; 
323, quando usus est, qui malum fert fortiter ; Capt. 336, quam imber 
est quando pluit; Men. 78, quia mensam quando edo detergeo; 302, 
qui cyathisso quando potas; 926, quando essurio, turn crepant; 
Stich. 201, quando quern auctionem facturum sciunt, adeunt, perqui- 
runt; 217, ridiculus aeque nullust, quando essurit; Trin. 671, quando 
eius copiast, turn non velis; True. 241, quando sterilis est amator, 
soli credimus; Titin. 128, quando fervit, confutat; Naev. Com. 26, 
ille ipse astat, quando edit. In Cas. 206, sine amet, quando tibi domi 
nil delicuom est, quando seems to be used in the sense of quam diu. 
C) Referring to the future (6): Bacch. 224, veniat quando volt; 
Cas. 829, age, quando vis, uxorem accipe; Men. 215, quando vis, veni; 
422, quando vis, eamus ; M. G. 363, age, quando lubet ; Pseud. 546, 
indice ludos, quando lubet. 

2. With the imperfect indicative: only Pseud. 1180, in vigiliam 
quando ibat miles, conveniebatne in vaginam tuam machaera militis ? 

3. With the future indicative (19). 

Examples : Capt. 231, scire memento, quando . . . habebis ; 406, quando 
sciet, numquam erit tarn avarus quin; Men. 73; 270; 430, auferto 
tecum, quando abibis; 547; 984, prope est quando pretium exsolvet. 
This last is a descriptive clause. Men. 1034, quando ibis, una tecum 
ibo; M. G. 772, quando habebo, rationem dabo; 810; Most. 98, 
quando audietis, haud aliter dicetis; 403, neu quisquam responset, 
quando pultabit senex ; Pseud. 257 ; ibid, ducito quando habebis ; 646, 
quando eum censebo domi, rediero; Stich. 475; Trin. 788, epistulas 
quando adferet, nonne arbitraris ? Liv. And. 12, quando dies ad- 
veniet; Enn. Ann. 281, nox quando volabit. 

4. With the perfect indicative (19). 

a) Present perfect (18) : Asin. 216, quando auceps concinnavit 
aream, offundit cibum; 303, ad pedes quando adligatumst centum- 
pondium, nee dependes nee propendes; Aul. 249, quando occasio 
periit, post sero cupis; 753; Capt. 86, quando res redierunt, (sumus) 
Molossici; Merc. 169; M. G. 753; Most. 87, disputavi hominem quoius 
rei, quando natus est, similem esse arbitrarer; 91; Pers. 637, omne 
ego pro nihilo esse duco quod f uit, quando fuit ; 638, tamquam homi- 

92 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

nem, quando animam ecflavit; Pseud. 831, cocilendrum quando 
indidi, se patinae fervefaciunt; True. 36, quando abiit rete pessnm, 
adducit lineam; 101; 750; Pacuv. 38, canis quando est percussa 
lapide, non appetit. In the two following, quando has the force of 
' now that ? : Stich, 723 a, quando bibisti, refer ad labeas tibias ; Trin. 
616, ut agro evortat, quando evortit aedibus. 

b) Historical perfect: Poen. 458, quando noluit, pausam feci. 

5. With the pluperfect indicative : Epid. 434, eradicabam hominum 
auris, quando occeperam (an iterative use). 

6. With the future perfect indicative (13). 

Examples : Amph. 1097, absolvito me quando satis deluseris ; Aul. 
77, quam ut faciam, quando obstrinxero; Capt. 691, quando te excru- 
ciaro, vel te interiisse praedicent ; Cas. 109 ; 120 ; Cure. 364, laudato, 
quando illud quod cupis effecero; Men. 664, opera reddetur quando 
quid tibi erit surruptum; M. G. 524, quando exierit, cito transcurrito; 
Most. 689, turn accedam, quando invenero; Pers. 730; Eud. 755; 
Stich. 382; True. 417, quid me futurumst quando venerit? 


A single instance of quandoque occurs in Cato fr. (Jord.), 77, 4, 
quandoque ista gens suas litteras dabit, omnia conrumpet. 


1. Present tense (16). Most of the examples are of the historical 
present, viz. : Aul. 9, quoniam m oritur, numquam indicare id fllio 
voluit suo ; Bacch. 290, quoniam sentio, navem extemplo statuimus ; 
292, quoniam vident, occeperunt navem tardare ; 299, quoniam vi- 
demus, capimus consilium ; Men. 481, quoniam sentio errare, coepi 
adsentari ; Poen. 68, quoniam videt, conicitur in morbum ; 665, au- 
f ugit, quoniam capitur oppidum ; Kud. 67, quoniam video virginem 
asportarier, tetuli ei auxilium ; Stich. 411, quoniam videt, in amici- 
tiam convortimus ; Trin. 112, quoniam iturust, mihi commendavit ; 
149, quoniam hinc est profecturus peregre Charmides, tbensaurum 
demonstravit; Pacuv. 392, quoniam ille interit, imperium Cefalo 
transmissum est; Cas. 583; Trin. 14; True. 402. 

In the following passage the ^cw/ara-clause refers to the future : 
Eud. 1050, quoniam adsum, faciet nemo iniuriam. 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, 1892, p. 22. 

Clauses Introduced by Ut. 93 

2. With the perfect tense (7) : Asin. 350, quoniam ille elocutus 
haec — — ; Bacch. 673, quid, quoniam occasio ad earn rem f uit ? 
Capt. 30, quoniam indaudivit, nihil pretio parsit; M. G. 129, quoniam 
inspexi mulieris sententiam, cepi tabellas ; Most. 1050, quoniam 
convocavi, atque segregant ; Stich. 676, quoniam nuntiatum est, fes- 
tinamus; Aec. Praetextae, 17, quoniam corpus dedi, visum est. 
Here quoniam has the force of postquam. 

All of the foregoing examples are of the historical perfect. 


Ut temporal has different meanings as follows: (1) 'when'; 
(2) < since' ('seitdem'); (3) < after,' = postquam. 

A. Ut, 'when.' 

1. With the present indicative : Men. 522, satin ut quemque con- 
spicor, ita me ludiflcant ? Merc. 100, ut imus, ecce ad me advenit. 

2. With the imperfect indicative (5) : Asin. 343, in tonstrina ut 
sedebam, infit ; Men. 63, rus ut ibat, rapidus raptori subduxit pedes ; 
Merc. 216, quidque ut dicebam, mihi credebat ; Ad. 406, ut nume- 
rabatur argentum, intervenit homo ; Vid. 92, ut piscabar, ici vidulum. 

3. With the perfect indicative (25). 

a) Present perfect : M. G. 1264, omnes te amant ut quaeque as- 
pexit ; Most. 220, eundem animum oportet nunc mihi esse gratum, ut 
impetravi. In the second of these ut has the force of 'now that.' 

b) Historical perfect (23) : Amph. 203, ut illo advenimus, con- 
tinuo delegit viros principes; 602, ut me praemisisti, ante aedis 
stabam ; Aul. 705, ut dudum hinc abii, adveni ; Bacch. 278, ut adsedi 
in stega, atque conspicor ; 374 ; 388 ; Capt. 478, ut dudum abii, 
accessi ; Epid. 14 ; Men. 1112 ; Merc. 187 ; Poen. 650, ut processimus, 
atque videmus ; Rud. 914 ; And. 590, ut hinc te intro ire iussi, hie 
fit mi obviam ; Phor. 617 ; Hec. 251, ut veni, incertum amisti ; 345 ; 
365 ; Liv. And. Trag. 2, ut Pergama accensa et praeda partita est ; 
Naev. Trag. 41 ; Enn. Ann. 28, ut attulit lumen, memorat. — With ut 
semel (semel ut) : Turp. 161, te semel ut nacta est, semper studuit 
perdere; Vole. Sedig. p. 280 (Baehr.), navem ut semel conscendit, 
visus numquam est ; Lucil. 702, ut semel vidi. 

1 Schubert, Temporalkonjunktionen bei Plautus, 1881, p. 10; Sven Tessing, Syn- 
taxis Plautina, 1892, p. 67 ff . 

94 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

4. With the pluperfect indicative (n): Aisn. 408, Libanum ut 
iusseram venire, nullus venit ; Bacch. 957, dudum priino ut dixeram 
mendacium, signum ex arce abstuli; Cure. 645, iani ut me conlo- 
caverat, ventus exoritur ; Men. 63, (rus ut ibat), ut pluerat ; Most. 
484, ut foris cenaverat tuos gnatus, abimus ornnes ; Poen. 486, ut 
quisque aceiderat, eum necabam ; Hec. 378, ut exieram (codd exirem), 
ad genua accidit ; 802, ut quisque venerat, accedebam ; Ad. 618, ut 
hinc forte ad obstetricem erat missa, accedo ; Ace. 263, ut euique 
obviam fuerat; Turp. 185, forte eo die meretricis ad me delenifieae 
ut Atticae convenerant condixerantque cenam apud me. 

5. With the future perfect indicative : only True. 330, ut properet 
suade, iarn ut satis laverit. 

B. Ut, 'since.' 

A few instances of ut, 'since,' occur, viz. : Amph. 733, neque pedem 

intuli in aedis ut profectus sum eosque ut vicimus; Men. 635, ut 

dudum divorti, redeo nunc demum primum ; Merc. 388, hue ut sum 

advectus, animus mihi dolet ; Most. 470, pedem nemo intro intulit, 

semel ut emigravimus ; Stich. 29, ut abierunt, hie tertius annus est ; 

Hec. 751, pollicerer segregatum habuisse, uxorem ut duxit, a me 

Pamphilum. — Ut primum: Epid. 600, ut primum vidi, numquam 

vidi postea. 

C. Ut, 'after.' 

This usage seems to occur in Yolc. Sedig. p. 280 (Baehr), ut Afer 
populo sex dedit comoedias, iter hinc in Asiam fecit. 

In temporal clauses dum has the meanings: 'while/ 'as long as/ 
' till.' Besides this we have several instances of dum circumstantial. 

A. Dum, 'while.' 

English ' while ? has two meanings. It may indicate that one act 

is co-extensive in time with another, as ' While there is life, there is 

hope;' i.e. 'As long as there is life. 7 Or 'while 7 may indicate that 

one act occurs in the course of another, as, ' While these things were 

happening, an hour passed by.' It is dum in the latter of these two 

1 Elste, De dum particulae usu Plautino, 1882; Richardson, De dum particulae 
apud priscos scriptores Latinos usu, 1886 ; Schmalz, Archiv fiir lat. Lexikographie, 
xi, p. 338 ff. ; Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 77 ff. 

Clauses Introduced by Dum. 95 

senses that is considered under the present category. The force of 
the particle is often further indicated by interim, interea. 
1. With the present indicative (105). 

a) Eeferring to present time (i.e. to the time of the speaker's 
present (28) ; e.g. Amph. 113, nox est facta longior, dum voluptatem 
capit; Men. 878, quid cesso, dum licet? Merc. 778, dari potest 
interea dum illi ponunt; M. G-. 1317; Most. 20, dum lubet, pota; 
Pers. 811, delude erus dum abest; Poen. 41, dum ludi hunt inrup- 
tiones facite; 42; 491, dum referuntur, volo narrare; 914, nisi, dum 
calet, hoc agitur; Pseud. 921; Stich. 764, da mihi savium, dum illic 
bibit; True. 630, cesso me hinc amoliri, dum licet; 887, quern amo, 
— dum inde auferO; And. 556, oro ut ante eamus, dum tempus datur; 
597, potes nunc dum animus inritatus est; H. T. 345, fruare dum 
licet; Eun. 56, dum est tempus, cogita; Phor. 549; Hec. 746, quaere 
dum tempus est; Lucil. 595, salve dum licet. 

b) The dwm-clause is achronistic (6): Bacch. 816, quern di dih- 
gunt aclulescens moritur, dum valet, sentit, sapit; Cure. 170, ipsus se 
excruciat qui homo quod amat videt nee potitur dum licet; Pers. 
113, dum mane est, esse decet ; 363, dum tunicas ponit, quanta adfi- 
citur miseria; And. 266, dum in dubiost animus, paulo momento 
impellitur; Phor. 341, dum tibi fit quod placeat, ille ringitur. 

c) The cZ^m-clause is equivalent to a present perfect, the main 
clause being either a present perfect or a present with the force of a 
present perfect (13) : 

1) With present perfect in main clause: Cure. 409, istoc 
nomine, dum scribo, explevi ceras quattuor; Epid. 650, ego f rater 
factus (sum), dum intro eo et exeo? 670, ita dum te sequor, inva- 
serunt in genua flemina; M. G. 1271, dum te optuetur, interim linguam 
oculi praeciderunt; Pers. 448, dum stas, reditum opportuit; Poen. 
362, dum exspecto, neque aliam paravi copiam neque, etc.; Trin. 30, 
dum illi aegrotant, mores mali succrevere; H. T. 242; 257, dum 
patria careo, tu conlocupletavisti te; Eun. 949, perdidisti istum 
adulescentulum, dum studes dare verba nobis; Ad. 691, dum dubitas 
menses abierunt. 

2) With present (= present perfect) in main clause : H. T. 
240, dum moliuntur, annus est; Stat. 147, dum eius mortem inhio, 
inter vivos vivo mortuos. 

96 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

d) The eZwm-clause is an historical present (45), e.g. Amph. 1120 
dum haec aguntur, exclamat; Bacch. 279, dum circumspecto, atque 
conspieor; Cas. 241; 909, dum quaero, arripio capulum; Merc. 193 
dum haec aguntur, advehitur pater; Trin. 166, ruri dum sum inscri- 
bit; Eun. 255, dum haec loquimur, concurrunt laeti omnes ; 328; 
583; 592, dum haec me cum reputo, accersitur virgo; Phor. 91 dum 
sedemus, intervenit adulescens; Enn. Ann. 182, dum censent terrere 
minis, hortantur ibei sos; Amph. 1098, dum haec aguntur, audivimus; 
Bacch. 950, paene interiit, dum exquirit; Cas. 976; Cist. 90, dum 
redeo, consecutast; Cure. 682, decern minas dum solvit, omnis men- 
sas transiit ; Men. 449, dum hieto, se supterduxit ; Merc. 97, dum in 
portu ambulo, hospes me adgnovit; Stich. 366, dum percontor, con- 
spicatus sum; H. T. 272, dum narrat, audivi; 491, somnum oculis 
non vidi, dum quaero; 983, id egi, dum loquitur; Eun. 341, dum 
haec elicit, abiit hora; 629; Ad. 541, dum quaero, mercennarium 
vidi; Merc. 924, quia scortum adduxerit, dum ruri ipsa abest; Most. 
1017, mecum ut ille hie gesserit, dum tu abes, negoti; Hec. 803, dum 
sedeo, ut quisque venerat, accedebam ; 829, elicit se anulum, dum 
luctat, detraxisse; Enn. Ann. 248, dum transit striderat hasta. 

e) The c^m-elause refers to the future (13) : Asin. 914, ut decumba- 
mus suadebo, hi dum litigant; Amph. 980, volo deludi ilium dum mihi 
morigero; Aul. 621, perscrutabor fanum, clum hie occupatus est; 
Cas. 798; Cure. 466, dum hie egreditur, commostrabo; Men. 330; 
Merc. 553-, 1005, non utibilest hie locus, dum memoramus, arbitri ut 
sint; M. G. 595, ne, dum apsum, fuant; Most. 216, si inservibis, dum 
tibist haec aetatula; Eun. 595, sic facito, dum lavamus; Hec. 725, 
vin adesse me una dum istam convenis? Ad. 312, ut hanc iram in 
eos evomam, dum aegritudo haec est recens. 

2. With the imperfect indicative : only Eun. 728, dum accubabam, 1 
quam videbar mihi pulchre esse sobrius ! 

3. With the future indicative (4) : Amph. 95, animum advortite, 
dum argumentum eloquar; Men. 214, dum coquetur, interim potabi- 
mus; True. 737, quid erit magistrae, dum tu commentabere ? Cato, 
Agr. 144, 5. 

4. With the perfect indicative (6) : Amph. 599, omne, uti quicque 

1 Schmalz, Arch. f. lat. Lex. xi, 338, takes this as illustrating the use of dum, ' as 
long as.' This may be right. 

Clauses Introduced by Dum. 97 

actumst, dum apud hostis sedimus, edissertavit; Capt. 925, quae, 
dum hie fui, sustentabam ; M. G. 504, quod confregisti imbricis, dum 
sectatu's simiam ; Stich. 628, dum parasitus fuisti, rem confregimus ; 
True. 380, tempestas quondam, dum vixi, fuit; Turp. 172, dum ego 
conixi somno, hie sibi prospexit vigilans virginem. 

B. Dum, 'as long as.' 1 

1. With the present indicative (14). 

a) The dum-clause is achronistic (9) : Capt. 83, victitant suo 
suco dum ruri rurant homines quos ligurriant ; 233, dum impetrant, 
boni sunt; Men. 193, meretrix tantisper blanditur, dum videt; Trin. 
309, dum vivit, victor cluet ; True. 164, dum vivit, hominem noveris ; 
322, dum vivont, lavant ; Eun. 934, dum foris sunt, nil videtur 
mundius ; Ad. 70, dum credit, tantisper pavet ; Ace. 344, oblectat 
spes, dum censet. 

b) The dwm-clause refers to the future (5) : Men. 72, haec urbs 
Epidamnus est dum haec agitur fabula; True. 11, Athenis hoc est 
proscaenium tantisper dum transigimus banc comoediam ; Enn. Ann. 
331, dum quidem unus homo Eomanus superescit ; 379, unus dum 
quit surum ferre tarn en, defendere possunt ; Cato, (Jord.), p. 38, 11, 
bene factum, dum vivitis, non abscedet. 

2. With the imperfect indicative : True. 165, dum vivebas, noveram; 
And. 53, qui scire posses, dum aetas metus magister prohibebant ? 

3. With the future indicative (15): Asin. 463, credam fore, dum 
quidem habebo; Bacch. 225, nee quoiquam supplico, dum hoc vale- 
bit pectus ; 443, noster esto, dum te poteris defensare ; Men. 93, 
facile adservabis, dum eo vinclo vincies ; M. G-. 50, dum tale facies, 
adsiduo edes ; Pseud. 337 ; 507 ; Eud. 557 ; H. T. 106, te meum dici 
tantisper volo, dum facies; 136, usque dum ille vitam illam colet, 
supplicium dabo ; 714 ; Ad. 118, dabitur argentum dum erit commo- 
dum; 157; Cato, Agr. 30, usque dum habebis, praebeto; 90; Erag. 
(Jord.), 42, 1, quid opinamini animi habituros, dum vivent ? (Jord. 
vi v event). 

4. With the perfect indicative (15): Epid. 178, Hercules fui, dum 

1 The c?wm-clauses brought under this head indicate that the time of the subordi- 
nate clause is co-extensive with that of the main clause. This notion is often further 
emphasized by the addition of tantisper, usque, or some other similar word. English 
* while ' is sometimes used in translating these. 

98 Temporal Clauses in the Indieative. 

ilia mecum fuit ; Merc. 387, perpetuo recte (sc. valui) dum illic fui ; 
M. G-. 1220, cum ipso sum locuta, dum lubitum est; Most. 138, usque 
probus fui, in fabrorum potestate dum fui ; Pseud. 256 ; dedi dum 
fuit; so True. 217; 393, me habebat, dum hie fuit; And. 188, dum 
tempus tulit, sivi; 443; 832; H. T. 987, dum fuisti solus, tibi 
dabant; Hec. 459 ; 461; 594; 837. 

C. Dum, 'until/ 

It is often difficult to determine whether dum has the meaning 
i until/ or ( as long as.' Thus in a sentence like Baech. 737, which I 
take as meaning, 'Wait till he writes/ others (e.g. Schmalz, Archiv, 
xi, p. 338) interpret ' Wait while he is writing.' It is possible to 
put a similar interpretation on a large number of the examples I 
have brought under this head. The particles usque and tantisper are 
frequently used to emphasize the force of dum. 

1. "With the present indicative, which, of course, has future force (43), 
e.g. Asin. 327, mansero usque dum peris ; Bacch. 737, mane dum 
scribit ; 988, ades dum has pellego ; 1005, ausculta dum perlego ; 
Cas. 879, operam date, dum mea facta itero ; Cure. 241, perdura dum 
intestina exputescunt; 253; 280, date viam, dum officium f acio ; 
Epid. 633, opperire dum ecfero argentum; Merc. 656, quanto satius 
est ibi vivere adeo dum te amor missum facit; M. G. 232; 582, me 
occultabo dum haec consilescunt turbae ; 1333 ; 1404 ; Most. 99 ; 
683; 687, hue concessero dum convoco; Bud. 774, (oro) ut illas ser- 
ves, dum ego erum adduco ; 938, mane dum hanc rudentem complico ; 
1036, remitte restem dum concedo et consulo ; And. 329, profer dum 
proficiscor aliquo ; 714, dum exeo, parumper opperire ; H. T. 717, 
unus est dies dum argentum eripio; 833; Eun. 206, expectabo dum 
venit ; Phor. 512, ut me maneat dum id argentum auf ero ; 982, retine 
dum servos evoco; Ad. 196, delibera dum redeo; Stat. 227, dum 
abit, hue concessero. 

2. With the future indicative (5): Amph. 470, illos dementiae con- 
plebo adeo usque satietatem dum capiet ; Cas. 485, id rus hoc erit 
tantisper dum faciam nuptias; Phor. 583, tacebit dum intercedit 
familiaritas ; Cato, Agr. 22, 2, armillis ferreis temperato usque dum 
recte temperabitur. The Casina passage is uncertain. Possibly it 
illustrates dum, l as long as.' 

Clauses Introduced by Dum. 99 

3. With the future perfect indicative (4) : Pers. 52, usque ero domi 
dum excoxero letioni malam rem ; Cato, Agr. 56, panis pondo v usque 
adeo dum esse ficos coeperint ; 110, f acito usque dum odorem malum 
dempseris ; 112, 3, decarpito usque dum impleveris. 

Schmalz (Arehiv, xi, p. 338) calls attention to the fact that dum, 
6 till/ with the perfect indicative is unknown in Early Latin. 

Dum Circumstantial. 

The dum-clausQ often denotes an attendant circumstance of the main 
action, viz. in the following passages: Cas. 566, contrivi diem dum 
adsto, i.e. 'I have wasted the day standing ; ? Merc. 346, nee quid 
consili capere possim . . . dum servi mei perplacet consilium, dum 
rusum hau placet. Some editors place a strong mark of punctuation 
after 347 and take dum . . . dum as = nunc . . . nunc. M. G. 762, 
procellunt sese in mensa, dum appetunt; Pseud. 685, certa mittimus, 
dum incerta petimus ; Eud. 37, dum alios servat, se impedivit ; Trin. 
839, quibus aerumnis deluctavi, filio dum divitias quaero ; 1149, quid 
ego ineptus, dum sermonem vereor interrumpere, solus sto? And. 
822, dum studeo obsequi tibi, paene inlusi vitam filiae ; H. T. 16, 
rumores distulerunt multas contaminasse Graecas, dum facit paucas 
Latinas ; Eun. 745, dum tibi sororem studeo reddere, sum multa 
passus ; Phor. 76, fidelis dum sum, scapulas perdidi ; Hec. 800, totum 
desedi diem dum exspecto ; Ad. 868, dum studeo ut quam plurimum 
facerem, contrivi vitam ; Turp. 149, rem despoliasti, foede dum in 
lustris lates ; Stat. 108, modo fit obsequens hilarus dum id quod petit 
potitur ; M. G. Arg. Acr. 2. 

Sometimes the circumstantial clause develops a decided causal 
force, viz. Men. 257, geminum dum quaeris, gemes, i.e. 'You will 
come to grief in consequence of your search ? ; M. G. 409, dum te 
fidelem facere ero voluisti, apsumptu's paene ; Pud. 514, mendicita- 
tem mi optulisti opera tua dum ausculto ; Phor. 767, f p.cimus ut malis 
expediat esse, dum nimium dici nos bonos studemus ; Ad. 899, occi- 
dunt me dum nimis sanctas nuptias student facere. 

In the following passage the dwm-clause seems to have adver- 
sative force : Cas. 367, dum ' mihi > volui, c huic ? dixi, atque dum 
cupio — . 

100 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 


' UNTIL. 'i 

1. With the present indicative: only Cist. 582, (non) destiti instare 
usque adeo donee se adiurat anas mihi monstrare ; Merc. 194, neque 
quisquam conspicatus est, donee subit ; Most. 116, neque id faciunt 
donicum parietes ruont. 

2. With the future indicative (4): Liv. And. 20, man ens sedeto 
donicum videbis ; Cato, Agr. 43, 2, usque donee trimae erunt, fodere 
oportet; 106, misceto usque donee ovum natabit ; 156, 5, coquito 
usque donee conmadebit. 

3. With the perfect indicative (5): Amph. 597, neque credebam 
donee Sosia me fecit ut crederem ; True. 38, rete impedit piscis, usque 
adeo donicum eduxit foras ; And. 660, numquam destitit instare usque 
adeo donee perpulit ; Hec. 125, illud visumst ne utiquam grave, donee 
iam in ipsis nuptiis postquam videt . . . aegre tulit ; Ace. 116, donee 
tu auxilium, Perseu, tetulisti mihi ; Cato, (Jord.), p. 43, 4, qui apud 
regem fuisti donicum ille tibi interdixit rem capitalem. 

4. With the future perfect indicative (21) : Aul. 58, aut si respexis 
donicum te iussero; Baceh. 758, ne quoquam exsurgatis, donee erit 
signum datum; Capt. 339, ego me amitti, donicum ille redierit, non 
postulo; Pseud. 1167, liunc faciamus ludos, donicum senserit; Kud. 
715, aetatemque ibi te usque habitare, donee tot um carcerem contri- 
vers ; M. G. 269, ibo odorans donee persecutus volpem ero ; Yid. fr. v, 
neutri reddibo, donicum res diiudicata erit haee ; 91, usque donee 
solvero; Plaut. Frag. 155, inimicus esto donicum revenero ; Phor. 
419, baud desinam donee perf ecero ; 590; Ad. 717, domi cerium 
obsidere est usque, donee redierit ; Cato, Agr. 67, 2, amurcam commu- 
tet usque adeo donee in lacum pervenerit (bis) ; 76, 4; 86, lacte addat 
usque adeo donee cremor crassus erit f actus ; 88, 1 ; 88, 2 ; 146, 2 
donicum solutum erit, pigneri sunto; 149, 2, donicum satisfecerit, 
pigneri sunto; 150, 2; 161, 3, usque licebit vellas, donicum in semen 
videris ire ; CIL, i, 198, 65, ad earn diem donee solutum erit. 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 79 f . 

Clauses Introduced by Postquam. 101 


Besides its usual meaning of i after/ postquam also has the signifi- 
cations : 'now that 7 and 'since.' Occasionally also postquam has 
causal force. 

A. Postquam, 'after.' 

1. With the historical present (17), e.g. Capt. 24, postquam bellige- 
rant Aetoli, capitur films ; 487, abeo, postquam video ; Cure. 325, 
tibi sunt parata postquam scimus venturum; 683, postquam nil fit, 
clamore hominem posco ; Men. 24, postquam septuennes sunt, pater 
oneravit navem ; Phor. 632, postquam sentio, inquam ; Hec. 120 ; 
126, postquam videt, ibi demum ita aegre tulit ; Ad. 765, postquam 
sum satur, prodeambulare hue lubitumst ; Stat. 4, capit consilium, 
postquam sentinat satis ; Afran. 207, postquam videt, commendat ; 
Enn. Ann. 38, postquam consistit fluvius ; Cato (Jord.), p. 34, 4, 
postquam praeterimus, classem ventus fert. 

2. With the imperfect indicative : Most. 647, postquam haec aedes 
ita erant, continuo est alias mercatus ; Phor. 569, postquam videt, 
simul autem non manebat aetas virginis meam neclegentiam, aibant. 

3. With the perfect indicative (89), e.g . Amph. 227, postquam id 
actumst, tubae canunt ; 802, quid, postquam lavi ? Bacch. 170, quam 
ego biennio postquam hinc abii, conspicio lubens ; Capt. 19, is post- 
quam hunc emit, dedit gnato; Cas. 47, postquam ea adolevit, earn hie 
senex amat ; 433, ut sussultabat, postquam vicit vilicus ; Cist. 176, 
postquam fecit, commigravit ; Cure. 336, postquam mini responsumst, 
abeo; Men. 34, postquam puerum perdidit, animum despondit; 
Merc. 198, postquam aspexit, rogitare occepit ; 256, postquam trans- 
egi, atque conspicor; Most. 485, postquam rediit, abimus omnes 
cubitum ; Poen. 104, postquam eas perdidit, usquequaque quaeritat ; 
Pseud. 1268, hoc modo hunc diem sumpsimus, postquam opus meum 
perpetravi; Stich. 364, postquam me misisti, sese sol superabat; 
Trin. 417, postquam comedit rem, post rationem putat; 975, post- 
quam ego me aurum ferre dixi, post tu factu's Charmides ; True. 
647, post illuc quam veni, advenit qui debebat ; And. 35, postquam 
te emi, ut clemens fuerit servitus scis ; H. T. 656, postquam aspexi, 

1 Schubert, Temporalkonjunktionen bei Plautus, 1881, p. 2; Sven Tessing, Syntaxis 
Plautina, p. 67 ff. 

102 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 

ilico cognovi; Eun. 137, postquam sensit, fingit causas; Hec. 367, 
postquam me aspexere, ilico exclamant; 373, postquam intro adveni, 
extemplo eius morbum cognovi; Ace. 118; Stat. 164, placere 
occepit graviter postquam emortuast ; Turp. 72, postquam venimus, 
veneratur deos ; Afran. 8 ; Naev. Bell. Pun. 3, postquam aspexit, 

5. With the pluperfect indicative (3) : And. 177, postquam audierat 
non datum iri uxorem, numquam verbum fecit; Phor. 908, omnis 
posthabui res, postquam id vos velle animum advorteram ; Stat. 44, 
si illi, postquam rem paternam amiserant, iactati f orent. 

6. With the future perfect : only Cato, Agr. 60, post diem tertium 
quam lecta erit, facito ; 161, 2, post annum tertium quam severis, 


B. Postquam, 'now that.' 

In English we seldom employ ' after ? in connection with the present 
and present perfect tenses, but use ' now that ? instead. Latin, how- 
ever, uses postquam in such cases, often accompanied by nunc in the 
main clause. 

a) With the present (5) : Bacch. 530, illam me velim convenire, 
postquam inanis sum ; True. 344, si mi optigerit hereditas, nunc post- 
quam scio dulce atque amarum quid sit ex pecunia ; 919, iamne abis, 
postquam aurum habes ? And. 513 ; Hec. 680, nunc postquam ademp- 
tam hanc tibi causam vides, nactus alteram es. 

b) With the perfect (17) : Aul. 79, nunc defaecato animo egredior 
domo, postquam perspexi salva esse omnia; 454, temperi, postquam 
implevisti fissorum caput; Capt. 144, postquam potitust hostium, 
nunc desidero; Cas. 559, veniat velim, ut eum ludificem vicissim 
postquam hunc delusi ; Pers. 528, postquam recitasti, iam mihi cre- 
dis ? 711, postquam abiit, licet ; Pseud. 394, postquam abiit, astas 
solus ; 991, scio iam me recte tibi dedisse, postquam elocutus nomen 
es ; Stich. 108, uxorem quaero, postquam vostra mater mortuast ; 
Trin. 600, ibo, postquam exturbavit hie nos; 998, postquam abiit, 
loquendi libere videtur tempus ; True. 640, postquam peperit, animos 
sustulit ; Vid. 62, cur patronum quaeram postquam litem perdidi ? 
And. 304, postquam adempta spes est, cura confectus stupet; 740, 
revortor, postquam paravi ; Ad. 1; Afran. 16, nunc resipivi, postquam 
pectus est laetitia onustum. 

Clauses Introduced by Postquam. 103 

C- Postquam, 'since.' 

Postquam, ( since/ occurs: 

a) With the present indicative: Epid. 504, postquam liberast, 
ubi habitet incerte scio ; Men. 234, hie annus sextus est, postquam 
ei rei operam damus; Most. 925; True. 682, postquam in urbem 
crebro commeo, dicax sum f actus. 

b) With the perfect indicative (15) : Amph. 605, huic homini 
nescioquid est mali obiectum, postquam a me abiit; 846, ita nunc 
homines inmutantur, postquam peregre advenimus ; Cist. 683, si 
nemo praeteriit, postquam abivi ; Men. 400, neque postquam natus 
sum, intra portam penetravi pedem ; 684, postquam illam dudum 
tibi dedi, nunc redeo ; 1050, men convenisse te audes dicere, post- 
quam imperavi ? Merc. 12, biennkim iam factumst postquam abii ; 
Most. 957, postquam abiit, numquam desitum est potarier; Pers. 
822, iam diu factum est, postquam bibimus ; Pseud. 1052, nunc 
demum mi animus in tuto locost, postquam iste hinc abiit ; Stich. 
156, postquam natus sum, satur numquam fui ; 267, numquam 
iussit postquam vir abiit ; True. 773, postquam una cura cor meum 
movit, timeo ne ; Hec. 394, postquam ad te venit, mensis agitur 
hie septumus; Enn. Ann. 389, DCC sunt anni postquam condita 
Bom a est. 

In M. G. 124, postquam occasio est, conqueritur fortunas ; Pseud. 
1220, perdidisti postquam dixisti ( pedes/ postquam has the force of 
simul ac. 

D- Postquam causal. 

In the following instances the postquam-clanse has a causal force: 
Eun. 84, tremo horreoque postquam aspexi hanc ; Phor. 1, post- 
quam poeta vetus poetam non potest retrahere a studio, maledictis 
deterrere parat. Scherer, De particula quando, p. 7, brings other 
examples under this head, viz. : Capt. 487 ; Cure. 683 ; Most. 647 ; 
Ad. 765 ; Hec. 187, 680. But it is obviously impossible to determine 
to what extent either the temporal or causal force predominates 
in such clauses. All we can say is, that in many cases a more 
or less pronounced causal force has developed in the postquam- 

104 Temporal Clauses in the Indicative. 



1. Prius quam with the present indicative (42). 

a) The prius quam-cl&use is achronistic (6). 

1) Eeferring to a single act (3) : Men. 276, prius ambulant ante 
ostium quam ego redeo ; Merc. 456, prius respondes quam rogo. : : 
prius emis quam vendo. 

2) Eeferring to general truths (3) : Bacch. 440, prius quam 
septuennis est, paedagogo tabula disrumpit caput ; Capt. 663, occant 
prius quam sariunt; M. G. 709, prius quam lucet, adsunt. 

b) With the historical present: Cure. 637, prius quam moritur, 
mihi dedit; Poen. 66, puer septuennis surripitur sexennio prius 
quidem quam moritur pater ; Eun. 10. 

c) Eeferring to the future (34), e.g. Asin. 232, est etiam prius quam 
abis quod volo loqui ; 448, adeam optumumst prius quam incipit ; 
940; Bacch. 382, prius quam malum istoc addis, certumst dicam 
patri; 932; Capt. 831, aperite, prius quam exitium adfero; Cure. 
210, tene, prius quam abeo, savium ; 566, reddin annon virginem, 
prius quam te huic meae machaerae obicio ? Epid. 615; Men. 920; 
Merc. 1010, hanc volo prius rem agi quam ref ero pedem ; M. G-. 
1329; 1005; 1339, te saluto prius quam eo; 1408; Most. 326, cave 
ne prius accumbas quam coimus ; Pers. 140, numquam prius edes 
quam adfirmas ; Poen. 789, quid dubito fugere prius quam trahor ? 
1211 ; 1398, ut minam reddas prius quam abducere ; Stich. 53S ; Trin. 
198 ; 983 ; True. 115 ; And. 311, omnia experiri certumst prius quam 
pereo; 556, ut ante eamus . . . prius quam scelera redducunt animum 
ad misericordiam ; H. T. 237 ; Phor. 719 ; 897, conveniundust Phormio, 
prius quam dilapidat nostras xxx minas ; 1037 ; Enn. Trag. 315, 
auxilium peto prius quam oppeto pestem ; Pacuv. 207, prius quam 
intereo spatium danunt ; Ace. 189, prius quam oculi vescuntur. 

2. With the imperfect indicative : Bacch. 438, olim prius honorem 
capiebat suffragio quam desinebat esse dicto oboediens ; True. 511, 
quid illi exitiost prius quam poterat ire in proelium ? 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 80; Hullihen, Antequam and Priusquam. 
Ante quam is exceedingly rare in Early Latin. With the indicative it occurs only 
Cato, Agr. 161, 2 and Frag. (Jord.), p. 51, 3. 

Clauses Introduced by Prius Quam. 105 

3. With the future indicative (7) : Bacch. 100, prius hie adero quam 
te amare desinam ; Pseud. 524, prius quam pugnabo, ego etiam prius 
dabo aliam pugnam ; 88b, prius quam dabis, gustato ; Stich. 197, 
auscultabo prius quam couloquar ; Cato, Agr. 72, prius quam ages, 
unguito; 134, 1, prius quam messim facies, porcam fieri oportet; 
ibid., praefato prius quam immolabis. In a similar passage to this 
last, and immediately preceding it, we have the subjunctive : prius 
quam con das. 

4. With the perfect indicative (30). 

a) Present perfect (6): Am ph. 513, prius abis quam lectus ubi 
cubuisti concaluit locus ; Merc. 156, prius quam sum elocutus, scis ; 
Poen. 919; Pseud. 817; Trin. 526, vinum, prius quam coctumst, 
pendet putidum ; Hec. 287, omne tempus prius quam id rescitumst 
lucrost. In the first of these passages the reference is to a single 
act. The others are general expressions. 

b) Historical perfect (22): e.g. Amph. 102, prius quam abiit, 
gravidam uxorem fecit ; Asin. 141, prius quam istam adii atque dedi, 
vitam oblectabas ; Aul. 208, prius quam redii, exanimatus fui; Capt. 
537, utinam te di prius perderent quam periisti ; Cist. 616, prius 
banc compressit quam uxorem duxit; Epid. 628, prius venisset quam 
tu advenisti; M. G. 119, prius perii quam ad erum veni; Pseud. 53; 
Trin. 976, prius non eras quam feci mentionem ; Hec. 294, prius 
quam banc uxorem duxi, habebam alibi animum ; Pacuv. 167, prius 
data est quam dicta aut quam reditumst; Enn. Ann. 156; Lucil. 
451; Cato (Jord.), p. 51, 3, ante quam is coepit. 

c) The present; perfect has the force of a future perfect: Aul. 397, 
cesso, prius quam perii, currere ? Most. 78, facite ut redeat prius 
quam omnia periere. 

5. With the pluperfect : only Amph. 603, prius multo ante aedis 
stabam quam illo adveneram. 

6. With the future perfect (18), e.g. Bacch. 920, non dabo prius quam 
filium convenero ; Epid. 70, patrem prius convenire se non volt quam 
id argentum dinumeraverit ; 122, nisi prius comparassit xl minas 
quam fuero elocutus ; 271 ; 304, ne abitas prius quam venero ; Merc 
496 ; 862, non concedam prius profecto quam investigavero ; M. G-. 
214; Pers. 219; Poen. 908; Pseud. 1030, metuo ne advenat prius 
quam hinc abierit ; H. T. 584, hie prius se indicarit quam ego argen- 

106 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

turn effecero ; Phor. 1044 ; Cato, 161, 2, ne ante sarueris quam aspa- 
ragus natus erit ; Pacuv. 325, haud sinam quidquam profari prius 
quam accepso. 

Except in Poen. 908 and Hec. 584, the main clause is negative in 
all the foregoing examples of the future perfect. 

Simul ac t simul, simul ut. 

The material under this head is as follows : Liv. And. 21, simul 
ac lacrumas de ore detersit; Lucil. 757, continuo, simul ac paulo 
vehementius aura inflarit, fluctus erexerit extuleritque ; Asin. 478, id 
fiet simul ac conspexero ; Phor. 823, hie simul argentum repperit cura 
sese expedivit; Cato, Agr. 48, 2, simul herbae inceperint nasci, 
eximito ; Liv. And. 28 , simul advenit, portant ad navis edulia alma; 
Afran. 5, simul limen intrabo, illi extrabunt ilico ; Titin. 50, simul 
ut crevi (from cerno) ; Enn. Ann. 74, et simul effugit, speres it a 
funditus nostras ; Ace. 448, timida eliminor, simul ac nota vox ad 
auris accidit. See Jones, Archiv fur lat. Lexikog. xiv, p. 92. 

Z/t-Clauses. 1 
^-clauses of comparison fall into the following classes : 
1. One act or state in its entirety is compared with another, the rela- 
tion being usually emphasized by the employment of some correlative 
particle, such as item, ita, itidem, etc., e.g. 

a) With correlative ita: Eud. 381, ut multi fecit, ita probe cura- 
vit; Trin. 668, ita est amor ballista ut iacitur; And. 303, ut animus 
in spe fuit, ita stupet; Ad. 681, ita velim me ames ut clolet; Cato, 
Agr. 77, ita uti placenta fit, eadem omnia facito; 151, 3, serito 
crebrum ita uti linum seri solet. 

b) With correlative item : Bacch. 963, ut ille se blanditiis exemit, 
item ego dolis me extuli a periculo ; Pseud. 868, faciam te item ut 
Medea Peliam concoxit ; 1019, formido ne malus item erga me sit, ut 
erga ilium fuit ; Stich. 462, ut ilia vitam repperit, item me spero 
facturum; True. 568, meretricem item esse reor, mare ut est; H. T. 
417, item ut filium meum amico video inservire, nos quoque senes 
est aequom senibus obsequi. 

c) With correlative itidem : Am ph. 711, salutare me solebas, itidem 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 57 ff. 

Ut-Clauses. 107 

ut pudicae solent ; Cure. 690 ; Merc. 826, si itidem plectantur, ut illae 
exiguntur; Bud. 659, iube oculos elidere, itidem ut sepiis faeiunt 
coqui ; Trin. 977, itidem ut charmidatus es, recharmida. 

d) With correlative proinde : Capt. 314, uti tu me hie habueris, 
proinde ilium illic curaverit; Hec. 218, ut domi mini vos eritis, 
proinde ego ero fama foris. 

e) With correlative pariter : Pacuv. 248, pariter te esse erga ilium 
video, ut ilium ted erga scio; Am ph. 1019, pariter hoc fit atque ut 
alia facta sunt. 

f) Without correlative : Bacch. 815, adstas ut praeco praedicat ; 
1108, pari fortuna, aetate ut sumus, utimur. 

2. The wf-clause does not institute a formal comparison, but merely 
serves as an adverbial modifier of the main clause or of some particular 
word in it. Correlative words, such as ita, item, itidem, are sometimes 
found in connection with clauses of this class. 

a) Without correlative ; very frequent. 

1) Present tense: Amph. 738, recte dicit ut commeminit; Bacch. 
228, faciam ut iubes, and so frequently; Capt. 304, fortuna humana 
fingit artatque ut lubet; so frequently; Cas. 89, non licere, ut volo, 
loqui ; so often ; 405, age ut vis ; so frequently : Cure. 235, vivo. : : 
nempe ut dignus es ; Men. 359, fit ut meret ; 906, fecit ut mos mere- 
tricius est; Merc. 381, haud quicquam inepte feci am antes ut solent; 
414, virginem non malam, ut mat rem addecet familias ; 989, iam ut 
volt per me sibi habeat; M. G-. 1024, age ut tibi maxume concin- 
numst; 1070, facis ut facere aequom; so often; Poen. 722, esto, ut 
sinit ; Eun. 607, sane hercle, ut dicis ; so often ; Hec. 603, non tute 
incommodam rem, ut quaeque est, in animum induces pati ? Cato, 
Agr. 139, uti ius est, precor. 

2) Imperfect tense: Merc. 45, vi summa ut quidque poterat 
rapiebat domum. 

3) Future tense : Men. 1152, faciam ut tu voles ; Hec. 764, utere 
ut voles. 

4) Perfect tense : Amph. 235, ut voluimus, nostra superat 
man us ; 277, perge ut occepisti; so often; Bacch. 802, ut accepi, ad te 
attuli ; Bacch. 1095, attondit dolis, ut lubitumst ; so often ; Men. 364, 
omne paratumst ut iussisti ; H. T. 598, dicam, verum ut aliud ex alio 
incidit ; Amph. 1067, ut iacui exsurgo. 

108 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

5) Pluperfect tense: Amph. 241, quisque ut steterat, iacet; 
Asin. 413, cur non venisti ut iusseram ? so Cas. 580 ; Merc. 698 ; 
Pseud. 1117 ; Cas. 897, memora ordine, uti occeperas ; similarly Pers. 
809 ; Phor. 814, sic commodius arbitror quam ut coeperas. 

6) Future perfect tense : Cure. 707, iam iam faciam ut 
iusseris; so Asin. 828; Eun. 174; Asin. 377, promitto hostire ut 

b) With correlative ita : 

1) Present tense : Aul. 298, ita esse ut dicis ; so often ; Capt. 
372, ita fers ut decet ; so often ; 388, ita facis ut oportet ; 414, feci ut 
commemoras ; Cas. 235, nempe ut tu mini es ; M. Gr. 633, experior ita 
esse ut praedicas ; so often ; 775, erus meus ita magnus moechus est 
ut neminem fuisse aeque credo ; Trim 948, faciam ita ut te velle 
video ; H. T. 490, videre vera atque ita uti res est dicere ; 702 ; Eun. 
748, educta ita uti te dignumst. 

2) Perfect tense : Amph. 775, itast ut obsignavi ; Aul. 65 y estne 
ita ut condidi ; Epid. 622, estne ita ut tibi dixi ? Men. 1038, salvom 
tibi ita ut mihi dedisti reddibo ; Trim 857, ut ille me exornavit, ita 
sum ornatus ; Trin. 897, ita ut occepi dicam ; And. 949, ita ut possedi 
nil mutat ; Eun. 18, si perget ita ut instituit ; Phor. 169, quod habes, 
ita ut voluisti, uxorem ; 776 ; Ad. 635, ita ut dixi facite ; Cato, Agr. 
118, condito ita uti scriptum est ; 144, 2. 

3) Pluperfect tense : And. 542, ut me adiuves atque ita, ut 
nuptiae fuerant futurae, fiant. 

4) Future perfect tense : XII Tab. 5, uti legassit, ita ius esto ; 
ibid., 6, uti lingua nuncupassit, ita ius esto ; Cato, Agr. 49, 2, ita ut 
fuerit ponito ! 

c) With other correlatives : 

1) Sic : Bacch. 468, sic est ut loquor ; Cas. 398, utinam tibi sic, 
uti praedicant, sors deliquerit ; And. 554, sic hercle ut dicam tibi ; 
Phor. 479, sic habent principia sese ut dixi. 

2) Tarn : Lucil. 408, iam disrumpetur medius, tarn (Quicherat ; 
iam codd) ut Marsus colubras disrumpit cantu. 

3) Item: Cist. 142, sine doloribus item ut aliae pariunt quae 
malum sibi quaerunt ; Merc. 874, si hue item properes ut istuc pro- 
peras ; 3, non item facio ut alios vidi ; Cato, Agr. 134, 4, dato item 
ut prius datum est ; (Jord.) 36, 10, item uti maximos tumultus disieci ; 

Ut-Clawses. 109 

Agr. 134, 4, obmoveto item uti prius obmoveris ; obmoveris item uti 
prius feceris. 

4) With iticlem : Bacch. 949, itidem Ulixem audivi ut ego sum 
fuisse et audacem et malum ; Rud. 1010, adfligam ad terram te itidem 
ut piscem soleo ; H. T. 698, celabitur itidem ut celata adhuc est ; 
Eun. 93, utinam hoe tibi doleret itidem ut mihi dolet ; 385, si eas iti- 
dem f allam ut ab illis fallimur ; Hec. 150, quin integram itidem red- 
dam ut accepi a suis. 

5) With proinde : Amph. 517, sic ecflictim amare proinde ut hie 
te deperit ; 55S, proinde ut commodumst quicque facias ; 757, scio 
istaec facta proinde ut proloquor ; 960, proinde eri ut sint ipse item 
sit ; 973, recte loquere et proinde ut uxorem decet ; 981, haec curata 
sint f ac proinde adeo ut velle med intellegis ; Frag, ix, nisi hoc factum 
est proinde ut autumo; Capt. 933, numquam referre gratiam possim 
proinde ut tu promeritus ; Cas. 158, faciam uti proinde ut est dignus 
vitam colat ; Stich. 284, proinde ut decet amat virum suom ; 759, 
proinde ut consuetu's cantionem aliquam occupito. 

6) With perinde : H. T. 195, haec perinde sunt ut illius animust. 

7) With exinde: And. Alt. Ex. 17, studium exinde ut erit, 

8) With hoc modo, hoc pacto, etc. : Eud. 1072, hoc modo res 
gesta est ut dico ; 1253, nullus erat illo pacto ut illi iusserant ; Men. 
985 (eo) exemplo servio tergo ut in rem esse arbitror ; Merc. 265, 
amavi olim, verum ad hoc exemplum nunquam ut nunc insanio. 

9) With pariter : Aul. 22, filium pariter moratum ut pater f uit ; 
Titin. 79, ne tu istum edepol extulisti pariter ut dignus fuit. 

10) Idem : Hec. 544, ut te olim ostendisti eadem esse nil cessa- 
visti ; Capt. 778, eodem pacto ut servi solent coniciam pallium. 

11) With adaeque : Cist. 55, neque munda adaeque es ut soles. 

12) Adsimulo ut : Bacch. 962, id periclum adsimulo, Ulixem ut 
praedicant esse proditum. 

13) Cas. 860, nee fallaciam astutiorem ullus fecit poeta at que ut 
haec est facta. 

3. The i/^-clause stands in appositional relation to the contents of the 
main clause, which often has ita, item, itidem, or some other correlative 

a) Without correlative : 

110 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

1) Present tense : e.g. Baech. 186, cenam pollicere, ut convenit ; 
1039, ut opinor, dem ; so often ; Capt. 25, ut fit in bello, capitur alter 
films ; so often ; 123, avis me ferae eonsimilem f aciam, ut praedicas ; 
so often ; Cas. 85, ut suspicor, ultro ibit ; so often ; Cist. 66, quod 
neque liabeo neque quisquam alia mulier, ut perhibent viri ; Cure. 
332, noluit frustrarier, ut decet; Merc. 851, apparatus sum, ut 

2) Perfect tense, e.g. Bacch. 390, ilium intellego invenisse, ut 
servos mihi nuntiavit ; Cist. 170, ut audistis, dat ; 366, errat, ut ego 
dixi ; so often ; Men. 1146, numquid me morare quin liber, ut iusti, 
siem ? Merc. 94, mercis omnis, ut volui, vendidi ; M. G. 1028, ad earn 
rem liabeo omnem aciem, uti iam demonstravi; 1144, ut occepistis, 
date operam adiutabilem ; so often ; True. 203, ut nuntiatumst, hie 
adfuturum aiunt eum ; Cato, Agr. Prooem. 3, ut dixi, periculosum. 

3) With pluperfect tense : Capt. 17, fugitivos ille, ut dixeram 
ante, quern apstulerat, vendidit ; Cure. 636, pater meus mihi dedit, 
ut aequom fuerat; Pers. 576, adduco, ut dudum dixeram; H. T. 500. 

b) With, ita: 

1) Present tense, e.g. Stich. 5, quorum negotiis, ita ut aequom 
est, sollicitae sum us; 30, hie tertius annus — : : ita ut memoras ; 
And. 80, forte, ita ut fit, filium perduxere illuc; so often; H. T. 
296, si haec vera sunt, ita uti credo ; Ad. 755, ita uti decet, hilarum 
f ac te ; Cato, Agr. 157, 7, si uteris, ita uti moneo. 

2) Perfect tense, e.g. Cure. 43, ita ut occepi dicere, ei ancillula 
est ; so often ; Eun. 207, fac, ita ut iussi, deducantur ; so often ; Phor. 
280, ubi non respondeas, ita ut ille fecit ; 908, omnis posthabui mihi 
res, ita ut par f uit ; Ad. 894, quoi dominus curaest, ita ut tibi sensi. 

3) Pluperfect tense, e.g. Men. 986, ut iusserat, ita venio advor- 
sum; Eun. 869, ut earn non possim suis, ita ut aequom fuerat, tra- 
dere; Phor. 651, amici filiam, ita ut aequom fuerat, volui uxorem 

c) With other correlatives, e.g. Capt. 43, reducem faciet inpru- 
dens : itidem ut saepe plus insciens quis fecit quam prudens ; Am ph. 
63, faciam sit, proinde ut dixi, tragicomoedia ; Cas. 94, conicito pos- 
sisne praeripere Casinam uxorem, proinde ut postulas ; Trin. 659, 
tibi, proinde ut (ac, P) merere, summas habeo gratias. 

4. Ut; ita . . . ut, equivalent to qualis ; talis . . . qualis. 

Ut-Clauses. Ill 

a) Ut alone, e.g. Liv. And. 27, facit homones ut prius fuerunt; 
Amph. 430, earn ut matre fuerat natum vini eduxi merani ; Bacch. 
399, certamen cernitur sisne ut esse oportet; 724, bellus atque, ut 
esse optabam, locus ; Capt. 228, ero ut voles ; 236 ; M. G. 475, palam 
est earn esse ut dicis. 

b) Ita . . . ut, e.g. Bacch. 386, quist amicus ita uti nomen possi- 
det ; Cist. 47, si, ut dicis, ita f utura es ; 48, si ita eris ut volo ; so 
often ; Men. 981, si ita ut in rem ducunt sint ; ibid, ita ero ut me 
esse oportet ; Merc. 428, mandavit ad illam faciem, ita ut ilia est ; 
Stich. 112, si sint ita ut eenseo; Trin. 311, nimio satiust ut opust 
ted ita esse quam ut animo lubet ; 620 ; 1170, ille ita est ut esse nolo ; 
Hec. 604, si cetera ita sunt ut vis ; Ad. 161, sed ita ut usquam fuit 
fide quisquam optuma; Cato, Agr. 144, 2, scalae ita uti datae erunt, 
reddito ! 

5. Ita . . . ut in asseverations. 

a) Ut after optative subjunctives : Bacch. Ill, ita me diament, ut 
videtur; similarly 892; Cas. 452; Cure. 208; Pseud. 943; Stich. 
505 ; H. T. 6S6 ; Hec. 579 ; Ad. 749 ; Capt. 623, ita faxit, ut non est ; 
878, ita me condecoret, ut vidi ; Cure. 578, ita me am as sint, ut tua 
verba non pluris facio ; H. T. 1030, ita mihi sis superstes, ut ex me 
natus es ; Phor. 807, ita me servet Iuppiter ut propior illi nemost. 

b) Ut after future indicatives expressing a wish : Aul. 761, ita te 
amabit ut nescis ; similarly Merc. 762 ; H. T. 463 ; 749. 

c) Ut after future indicative expressing a mild command or re- 
quest : Amph. 1, 4, 8, 13, ut voltis, ita huic facietis fabulae silentium. 

d) Ut alone without correlative ita occurs in Amph. 831, per su- 
premi regis regnum iuro, ut nemo corpus contigit. 

6. The z/f-clause indicates proportion, e.g. ]STaev. Trag. 8, ut quisque 
est meritus, pretium f erat ; Trin. 1173, miserumst male promerita ut 
merita sunt si ulcisci non licet ; Afran. 26, sumpsi non ab illo modo 
sed ut quisque habuit ; Hec. 380, omnibus nobis ut res dant sese, ita 
magni sumus ; Turp. 142, ut quisque minimo contentus fuit, ita for- 
tunatam vitam vixit maxime ; Pseud. 679, proinde ut quisque fortuna 
utitur ita praecellit; Trin. 65, proinde ut bene vivitur, diu vivitur; 
Stich. 520, ut quoique res paratast, perinde amicis utitur. 

7. The ut-clanse indicates the standard or norm according to which 
the content of the main clause has validity, e.g. Bacch. 218, ut hanc 

112 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

rem natam intellego, quod ames paratumst; Capt. 596, pol ego ut 
rem video, tu inventus es vera vanitudine qui convincas ; 921, ut 
adornat, iam nihil est (' at the rate he is making provision ? ) ; 990, 
ipsust Tyndarus tuos filius, ut quidem hie argumenta loquitur; 
Cas. 312, salva spes est, ut verba audio; Cist. 5, ut meus est animus, 
fieri non posse arbitror ; 194, ut sunt humana, nihil est perpetuom 
datum; 717, hanc scire oportet, signa ut dicit; 756, ea est ut 
numerus annorum attulit; Cure. 110 a, pol ut praedicas, vindemia 
haec huic anu non satis est ; Men. 206, iv minae perierunt, ut ratio 
redditur; 861, ilium metuo, ut minatur, ne quid male f axit ; 1117, 
vos quot eratis ? : : ut nunc memini, duo ; 953, quot sunt satis ? : : 
proinde ut insanire video, quattuor, nihilo minus ; Merc. 410, ut nunc 
sunt maledicentes homines, uxori meae mihique obiectent lenocinium 
f acere ; Pseud. 596, hi loci sunt, ut ego oculis rationem capio ; 784, 
ut nunc male metuo, videor posse; 979, ut vestitu's, es perfossor 
parietum ; 1076, nullumst periclum stipularier, ut concepisti verba; 
Eud. 303, ut nunc fluctuat mare, nulla nobis spes est ; 901, operam 
ludos facit, ut tempestas est atque ut noctu fuifc; Trin. 547, istest 
ager, ut te audivi loqui, malos in quern mitti decet; 729, ut rem 
narras, nullo modo potest fieri; 677; 887, opus factost viatico ad 
tuom nomen, ut tu praedicas ; True. 412, nunc ut praemisit nuntium 
miles, non multo post aderit ; 775 ; And. 77, ita ut ingeniumst omnium 
ab labore proclive ad lubidinem, accepit condicionem ; H. T. 169, ut 
diei tempus est, tempust monere ; so 212 ; 551, si evenerit, ut sunt 
humana, ut faciat filius ; 649, ut omnes sumus religiosae, de digito 
anuluin detraho ; 869, ut istam rem video, istius obsaturabere ; 870, 
hac uti sunt, cautim dabis ; Eun. 525, hanc se intendit esse, uti est 
audacia; Phor. 55, non neclexisse habeo gratiam. : : praesertim ut 
nunc sunt mores ; 638, ut est ille bonus vir, tria non commutabitis 
verba; 774, haud scio, ut homost, an mutet animum; 820, laetus 
sum, ut meae res sese habent, fratri obtigisse quod volt; Ad. 389, 
credo, ut est dementia; 480, hie Geta, ut captus est servorum, non 
malus ; so Afran. 313 ; Afran. 4, ut tu rem narras, bona comest cotidie. 
8. Ut causal. In a few instances the itf-clause of the type just 
considered develops further a force which is nearly or quite causal. 
The beginnings of this usage may be seen in a clause like Phor. 638, 
cited above under 7, ut est ille bonus vir, tria non commutabitis 

Sicut- Clauses. 113 

verba. Examples of the causal value are : Amph. 329, lassus sum 
hercle, navi (e navi, codd) ut vectus hue sum ; Baceh. 106, nam uti navi 
vecta's, credo timida's ; Merc. 371, per mare ut vectu's, nunc oculi 
terram mirantur ; Most. 268, ut speculum tenuisti, metuo ne olant 
argentum manus; Pseud. 278, in pauca, ut occupatus nunc sum, 
confer ; 661, ut lassus veni de via, me volo curare ; True. 576, pallida 
est, ut peperit puerum ; Ad. 647, habitant hie quaedam mulieres 
pauperculae, ut opinor eas non nosse te ; Afran. 72, post narravero, 
nunc est distentus animus ut negotiis. 

9. Ut = quanto : Most. 831, ut quidquid magis contemplo, tanto 
magis placet. 

10. Isolated is Asin. 576, num male relatast gratia ut collegam 
collaudavi, where the ^-clause is explanatory of gratia. 

11. Utquomque: Amph. 343; Epid. 49, utquomque ventust, exim 
velum vortitur ; so Poen. 754. 

/Sic iztf-Clauses. 

Sicut with the indicative occurs in the following classes of clauses : 

1. One act or state is compared in its entirety with another : Capt. 
934, et poteris et ego potero, sicut tu huic potes facere merito max- 
ume; M. G-. 727, sicut merci pretium statuit probus agoranomus, 
itidem divos dispertisse vitam humanam aequom fuit; Trin. 547, 
istest ager in quern omnis malos mitti decet, sicut fortunatorum 
memorant insulas quo cuncti qui aetatem egerint caste conveniant ; 
Ace. 403, sicut perfremunt delphini, item ad auris cantum refert. 

2. The s?'c^-clause does not institute a formal comparison, but 
merely serves as an adverbial modifier of the main clause or of some 
particular word in it : Aul. 294, nempe sicut dicis ; Bacch. 718, sicut 
dicis ; Most. 771, haec sunt sicut praedico ; Trin. 685, sicut dixi faciam. 

3. The szci^-clause stands in appositional relation to the contents 
of the main clause : Bacch. 712, geritote amicis vostris aurum corbi- 
bus, sicut animus sperat ; 1084a, viso ecquid eum ad virtutem opera 
sua compulerit, sicut scio fecisse ; Capt. 696, si rebitet, sicut confido 
fore ; Rud. 1111, quibuscum periit, sicuti dixi ; Trin. 805, set elan- 
culum, sicut praecepi; Cato, Agr. 141, 3, harum rerum ergo, sicuti 
dixi, macte esto. 

4. Sicut, ' as for example ' : Bacch. 548, se quom f rustrant, f rus- 

114 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

trari alios stolid! existumant ; sicut est hie ; Capt. 498, quid est 
suavius quam bene rem gerere bono publico, sicut ego feci ? Cas. 563, 
stultitia magna est ad forum procedere ; sicut ego feci ; Men. 585, eis 
ubi dicitur dies, simul patronis dicitur ; sicut me sollicitum cliens 
quidam habuit ; M. Gr. 514, ita sum coactus ut nesciam utrum me 
expostulare tecum aequiust, — . . . sicut etiam nunc nescio ; Most. 
381, miserum est igitur demum foclere puteum ubi sitis faucis tenet ; 
sicut ego nunc quaero; 412, id viri doctist opus, tranquille cuncta ut 
proveniant ; sicut ego efficiam ; Poen. 504, tardo amico nihil est 
nequius, praesertim homini amanti . . . sicut ego hos duco advocatos ; 
1192a, ut volup est homini, si quod agit cluet victoria ; sicut nos inter 
alias praestitimus pulchritudine. 

5. Sicut — quails : Most. 544, nihil est miserius quam animus con- 
scius, sicut me habet. 

6. Sicut with causal, or partly causal force : Epid. 271, nunc 
occasiost faciundi prius quam advenerit, sicut eras hie aderit ; 544, 
sin est homo, sicut anni multi dubiam dant ; M. Gr. 974, illam iube 
adire, sicut soror venit ; Pers. 135, alium adlegavero qui esse se 
peregrinum praedicet, sicut istic leno non vi menses Megaribus hue 
est quom commigravit ; Pseud. 373, nisi attulerit miles v minas, 
sicut haec est praestituta summa ei argento dies, posse opinor facere 
me officium meum. 

7. In asseverations : A sin. 16, sicut tuom vis unicum gnatum tuae 
superesse vitae, ita ted optestor per senectutem tuam. 


1. Velut, 'just as,': Enn. Ann. 304, concurrunt veluti venti ; 
Lucil. 245, veluti videmus, sic est ; 812, velut auceps ille facit. 

2. Velut, c as for example ' : Aul. 460, facinus audax incipit qui 
cum opulento pauper homine rem habere ; veluti Megadorus temp- 
tat me omnibus modis ; Cure. 681, non male creditur qui numquam 
reddunt, sed prosum perit ; velut x minas dum solvit omnis mensas 
transiit ; Merc. 225, di hominibus miris exemplis somnia in somnis 
danunt, velut ego in somnis egi ; so also Pud. 593 ; Most. 705, omni- 
bus ire dormitum odio est, velut nunc mihi certa res est ut abeam 
potius quam domi cubem ; Pseud. 767, quoi servitutem di danunt 
lenoniam puero, ne illi malam rem magnam danunt ; velut haec mi 

Praeut, Quasi. 115 

evenit servitus ; True. 244, datores novos oportet quaerere, velnt hie 

agrestis est adulescens, probus dator ; 571, des quantumvis, nusquam 

apparet ; velut haec meretrix meum erum intulit in pauperiem ; 

Pacuv. 374, id magis veri simile esse usus edocet ; velut Orestes 

modo fuit rex, factust mendieus modo. 

3. Consimilis velut : Poen. 824, guoi homini erus est consimilis velut 

ego habeo nunc. 


Examples: Amph. 374, perii. : : p arum eti am, praeut futurumst, 
praedicas ; Bacch. 929, non pedibus termento fuit praeut erum 
expugnabo ; Men. 935, Nestor nunc est, praeut dudum fuit ; Merc. 
470, nugas maxumas fuisse credo, praeut quo pacto ego divorsus dis- 
trahor; M. G-. 19, nihil hoc quidemst praeut alia dicam ; Eun. 301, 
ludum dicet fuisse ilium, praeut huius rabies quae dabit. 

Quasi = Sicut. 
Quasi seems to be used only to introduce clauses in formal com- 
parisons, where the content of one clause is likened to that of another : 
Aul. 595, quasi pueri qui nare discunt scirpea induitur ratis, eodem 
modo servom ratem esse ero aequom censeo; Capt. 80, quasi cocleae 
latent, item parasiti latent; 1002, quasi pueris monedulae dantur, 
itidem mi haec upupa datast ; Merc. 695, coquos, quasi solet hortator 
remiges hortarier, ita hortabatur ; Pud. 1008, te, itidem quasi peniculus 
novos exurgeri solet, exurgebo ; Pseud. 199, quasi Dircam olim de- 
vinxere ad taurum, item te distringam ad carnarium ; 401, quasi poeta 
quaerit, reperit, facit, poeta flam ; 955, ut transvorsus cedit, quasi 
cancer solet ; Stich. 539, ei filiae duae erant, quasi nunc meae sunt ; 
ibid, fuit, quasi ego sum, senex ; 540, erant duobus nuptae fratribus, 
quasi nunc meae sunt vobis ; 543, caeleps erat, quasi ego nunc sum ; 
545, senex dixit, quasi ego nunc tibi dico ; 549, quis istuc dicit ? an 
ille quasi tu ? : : quasi ego nunc dico ; Plaut. Frag. 79, agite nunc, 
quasi solent triarii ; Com. Prag. p. 144, Kibb., quasi messor unum 
quern que spicum collegit. 

Qizam-Clauses. 1 
1. Tarn . . . quam. 

a) With adjectives or adverbs : Bacch. 767, tarn frictum ilium 

reddam quam frictum est cicer; Capt. 475, tarn aperto capite ad 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 62 if. 

116 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

lenones eunt quam sontes condeninant ; 639, tarn satis quam numquam 
hoc invenies secus ; Cas. 759, nee credo usquam ludos tain festivos 
fieri quam hie fiunt ludi seni nostro ; Men. 1063, tarn consimilest 
quam potest ; Merc. 186, tarn certe quam ego te aut tu me vides ; 
956, tarn propitiam reddam quam quom propitiast Iuno Iovi ; M. G-. 
240, tarn simile quam lacte lactist ; 457, tarn east quam potis nostra 
erilis concubiria ; Most. 44, neque tarn facetis quam tu vivis victibus ; 
559, tarn facile vinces quam pirum volpes comest ; 751, tarn liquidust 
quam liquida esse tempestas solet ; Poen. 355, tarn tranquillum quam 
mare olimst ; Stich. 454, tarn confido quam potis ; Trin. 541, oves 
tarn glabrae quam haee est manus ; 574, numquam tarn exspectatus 
films natus quam illuc est 'spondeo' natum mihi; Ad. 849, tain ex- 
coctam reddam quam carbost ; Eun. 211, utinam tarn aliquid in venire 
facile possis quam hoc peribit. 

b) Tarn . . . quam alone : Capt. 312, tarn ille apud nos servit quam 
ego apud te servio ; Ad. 278, non tarn quidem quam vis. 

2. Ita . . . quam : Cure. 326, ita me amabit quam ego amo. 

3. Aeque . . . quam : Epid. 306, nullum esse opinor agrum aeque 
f eracem quam est noster Periphanes ; M. G. 465, qui aeque f aciat confl- 
denter quicquam quam mulier facit ; Stich. 274, numquam aeque patri 
suo nuntium lepidum attulit quam ego nunc meae erae nuntiabo. 

4. Quam alone without correlative: Capt. 421, hau centensumam 
partem laudat quam meritust; Eud. 943, non pisces expeto quam 
tui sermonis sum indigens ; Stich. 721, quam vis desubito vel cadus 
vorti potest. 

5. Peculiar is True. 324, si proinde amentur, mulieres diu quam 
lavant, omnes amantes balneatores sient. 

6. After comparatives : 

a) No correlative : Merc. 232, posterius quam mercatus fueram, 
visus sum in custodelam concredere ; Asin. 63, posterius dicis quam 
credo tibi ; Bacch. 630a, mortuos pluris pretist quam ego sum ; so also 
withes: Cas. 243; 356; Cist. 122; Epid. 66 ; Men. 592; Merc. 491 ; 
M. G. 651; Eud. 453; 504; Trin. 51; True. 64; 296; 374; 755; 
H. T. 659, plus spei video quam volo ; Phor. 584 ; Ace. 157, vereor 
plus quam fas est ; 152 ; Capt. 118, omnes liberi lubentius sumus 
quam servimus ; so also with lubentius : Epid. 380 ; Men. 979 ; 
Capt. 425, non magis quam experiar persequi; so also with magis: 

Quam- Clauses. 117 

Cure. 305; Cist. 654; Merc. 619; M. G. 615; 1086; Pers. 305; Poen. 
1194; Stich. 8a; True. 720; Ace. 355, te conmiserabam magis 
quairi miserebar mei ; Capt. 430, minus dixi quam volui ; so also 
with minus: Merc. 424; Pseud. 956; Stich. 498; True. 322; 452; 
673 ; Eim. 1027, qui minus quam Hercules servivit Omphalae ? 
Phor. 11; 787; Cas. 1008, lepidiorern uxorem nemo quam ego habeo 
hanc habet ; Cist. 533, perdam operam potius quam carebo ; Most. 
229, venibit potius quam sinam egere ; Cure. 256, meliorem quam ego 
sum suppono tibi; so also with melior, melius : Most. 695; Stich. 157; 
Ad. 295, melius fieri haud potuit quam factumst ; Afran. 3, omnem 
melius rem callere quam volo ; Cure. 593, mulierem peiorem quam 
haec est; so also with peior, peius: Most. 709; Pers. 153; Poen. 
825] Pseud. 1017; Stich. 109; 125; Men. 1089, similius quam hie 
tui est ; so also M. G. 551 ; M. G. 22, gloriarum pleniorem quam illic 
est; so also 513; M. G. 1, curate ut splendor sit clarior quam solis 
radii esse solent ; 664, leniorem dices quam mutum est mare liqui- 
diusculusque ero quam ventus est ; Most. 532, scelestiorem annum 
numqnam ullum vidiquam hie annus obtigit; 824, multum improbiores 
sunt quam credidi ; Pers. 442, citius abeunt quam in cursu rotula 
circumvortitur ; Poen. 507, tardiores quam corbitae sunt; 5S6, doc- 
tiores sunt quam hi sunt; 694, curer mollius quam oculi curari 
solent; Pseud. 670, non potuit mi opportunius ad venire quam haec 
allatast mi epistula; E,ud. 20, maiore multa multat quam litem 
auferunt; Stich. 343, nullum nequiorem quam hie est; Trim 459, 
benigniorem quam nunc experior esse confido fore; True. 627, 
machaeram longiorem habes quam haec est ; 635, quo pacto excludi 
potui planius quam exclusus nunc sum ? H. T. 681, ut frugalior sim 
quam volt ; Eun. 527, Thais quam ego sum maiusculast ; Phor. 349, 
enumquam contumeliosius quam haec est (facta) mihi ? 438, si attige- 
ris seeus quam dignumst ; 808, ut propior illi quam ego sum, nemost ; 
Ad. 211, numquam vidi iniquius certationem comparatam quam haec 
f uit ; 834, attentiores sumus quam sat est ; Plaut. Frag. 43, nil feci 
seeus quam me decet. 
b) With correlatives : 

1) Type quam magis . . . tarn magis: Poen. 348, quam magis 
aspecto, tarn magis est nimbata ; Bacch. 1091, magis quam reputo, tarn 
magis uror. 

118 Clauses of Comparison in the Indicative. 

2) Type quam rnagis . . . magis : Bacch. 1076, quam magis 
f oveo, magis curaest ; Trin. 861, quam magis speeto, minus placet. 

3) Type quam magis . . . tarn : Asin. 158, quam magis te capes- 
sis, tarn aestus te refert. 

7. After words implying a comparative : Merc. 297, bis tanto valeo 
quam valui ; M. G. 1082, postriduo natus sum quam Iuppiter natust ; 
si hie pridie natus foret quam illest; Cato, Agr. 113, 1, hoc facito 
pridie quam voles ; Pseud. 1239, alio pacto quam fit ; Pers. 366, 
quae praeter sapiet quam placet parentibus ; Eud. 587, quam potavi 
praeter animi quam lubuit sententiam ; Merc. 23, nee quisquam sine 
grandi malo prae quam res patitur studuit elegantiae; Most. 981, 
nihil hoc quidem est prae quam alios sumptus facit ; H. T. 59, mihi 
videre praeter aetatem tuam facere et praeter quam res te adhortatur 
tua ; Cato (Jord.), 8, 17, ea (fana) exauguravit praeterquam, quod 
Termino fanum erat, id nequitum exugurari ; CIL, i, 196, 24, quei 
arvorsum ead fecisent quam suprad scriptum est. 

8. With superlatives : 

a) Type quam plurimum potest : Cato, Agr. 157, 15, subducito quam 
plurimum poteris ; True. 847, uxor em quam primum potest, abduce ; 
Men. 834, concede quam potest longissume ; Capt. 398, ut remittat 
::...:: at quam primum pote. 

.b) Type quam maxume est . . . tarn facillime : H. T. 997, quam 
maxume huic vana haec suspicio erit, tarn facillume pacem conficiet ; 
Ad. 501, quam vos facillume agitis, tarn maxume oportet ; Cato, Agr. 
64, 2, quam citissime conficies, tarn maxume expediet ; ibid, quam 
diutissime in amurca erit, tarn deterrimum erit ; 65, 1, quam 
acerbissima olea oleum facies, tarn oleum optumum erit; 157, 8, 
quam plurimum ederit, tarn citissime sanus fiet ; Prag. (Jord.) 85, 9, 
veternosus quam plurimum bibit, tarn maxume sitit. 

c) Type quam citissume potest . . . tarn : Capt. 352, quam citis- 
sime potest, tarn hoc cedere ad factum volo. 

d) Type quam restito . . . tarn maxume: Merc. 122, quam res- 
tito, tam maxume res in periclo vortitur; M. G. 781, quam potis 
tarn verba confer maxume ad compendium ! 

9. Quam si, quasi: CIL, i, 196, 29, exstrad quam sei quid ibei sacri 
est ; so i, 198, 72 ; Cato, Agr. 144, 4, ne quis concedat extra quam si 
quern socium dixerit ; Enn. Trag. 184, otio qui nescit uti, r)lus negoti 

Clauses Introduced by Atque. 119 

habet quam quom est negotium in negotio; Poen. 240, cogita item 
nos perhiberi quam si salsa muriatica esse autumantur ; Pseud. 641, 
magis erit solutum quasi ipsi dederis. In Mere. 1023, Seyffert's 
conjecture quasi for si is usually read: plus perdet quasi praehi- 
buerit palam. 

10. Tamquam = sicut : Eun. 263, si potis est, tamquam philoso- 
phorum habent disciplinae ex ipsis vocabula, parasiti ita ut Gna- 
thonici vocentur. 

Clauses Introduced by Atque, 'as,' 'than.' 

1. Proinde ac: Amph. 583, te ego faciam proinde ac meritus es. 

2. Pariter ac: Phor. 786, pariter nunc opera me adiuves ac re 
dudum opitulata es. 

3. Talis ac: Phor. 1028, faxo tali sit mactatus atque hie est infor- 

4. Aeque, adaeque ac : Aul. 297, pumex non aeque est ardus atque 
hie est senex ; Cas. 128, numquam ieiunium ieiunumst aeque atque 
te reddibo ; Phor. 581, te mihi fidelem esse aeque atque egomet sum 
mihi scibam. 

5. Similis atque: Phor. 31, ne simili utamur fortuna atque usi 

6. Without correlative : Bacch. 549, sicut est hie quern esse ami- 
cum ratus sum atque ipsus sum mihi ; M. G. 164, hand centensumam 
partem dixi atque possum. 

7. With comparatives : Merc. 897, amicior mihi nullus vivit atque 
is est. 

8. With alius, aliter, etc. : Pseud. 474, alio modo atque te soleo ; H. 
T. 264, aliter tuom amorem atque est accipis ; Eun. 82, neve alior- 
sum atque ego feci acceperit ; Phor. 530, nilo sum aliter ac fui ; 
Phor. 684, aliud mihi respondes ac rogo; Hec. 365, alio suspicans 
morbo me visurum adfectam ac sensi; 375, nee voce alia ac res mo- 
nebat ipsa poterat conqueri; Ad. 597, numquam te aliter atque es 
esse animum induxi. 

9. Atque uti: Amph. 274, neque se luna mutat atque uti exortast 
semel ; cf. 1019, pariter hoc fit atque ut alia facta sunt. 

120 Indicative in Indirect Questions. 

The use of the indicative in indirect questions was earlier than the 
employment of the subjunctive in such clauses, and originated in 
such paratactic expressions as Cure. 166, eloquere ! quid est? Bacch. 
816, responde ! quis me vendit ? 749, obsecro, quid usust ? In many 
instances it is obviously impossible to determine whether the ques- 
tion is dependent or independent. Similarly in expressions like: 
eloquar ut factumst, we may have either an indirect question, or a 
dependent relative clause, —either, <I will tell you how it happened/ 
or <I will recount it to you as it happened.' But quite apart from 
such ambiguities as those alluded to, we have a large number of clear 
cases of indirect questions in the indicative. Like indirect questions 
in the subjunctive, these fall into pronominal questions and sentence 
questions. In a few instances we have indicative indirect questions 
which are deliberative. 

Pronominal Questions. 

Like indirect questions in the subjunctive, these pronominal ques- 
tions in the indicative are introduced by various interrogative pro- 
nouns and adverbs. Thus : 

1. Introduced by quis (87), e.g. Am ph. 17, quoius iussu venio dicam ; 
Bacch. 473, omnem rem scio quern ad modumst; 861, audin quae 
loquitur? Capt. 206a, scimus nos nostrum officium quod est; 207, 
sentio quam rem agitis ; 592, audin quid ait ? Cist. 82, qua accersitae 
caussa estis eloquar; Men. 349, videamus qui egreditur; 425, scin 
quid te amabo ut facias? 472, opserva quid dabo; Merc. 431, nescis 
quid dicturus sum; 783, dicam id quid est; M. G. 377, mirumst f aci- 
nus quo modo transire potuit ; Most. 505, quae monstra hunt vix 
possum eloqui ; 1039, narravero quibus exemplis med ludifieatus est; 
Pers. 291, specta quid dedero; 638, quaeras qui fuit; Poen. 1185, 
ingeniis quibus sumus gnosco; Pseud. 18, fac me certum quid tibist; 
261, nosce hunc quis est; Rud. 355, non audivisti quo pacto voluit? 
592, lenonem quid agit visam ; 946, quin loquere quid vis ? 1102, 
expedi quid postulas; Stich. 410, videto quid potest pecunia; H. T. 
1 Becker, De Syntaxi interrogationum obliquarum apudpriscos Scriptores Latinos, 
Studemund's Studien, i, p. 115 ff. For a radical view of these clauses, see Gaffiot^ 
Le Vrai Latin (1908). G. takes quid as a relative ! 

Pronominal Questions. 121 

494, scin quid volo ? 600, vide quod inceptat facinus ; 649, qua hoc 
occeptumst causa, loquere ; Eun. 99, qua gratia iussi ausculta ; 338, 
scin quid volebam ; 1037, audin hie quid ait? Hec. 405, quae fu- 
turast vita quom in mentem venit; Stat. 216, vide quid fert morum 

At times we find the indicative and subjunctive combined in coor- 
dinate clauses, e.g. Cist. 56, eloquere et quid est et quid velis; 
Most. 199, vides quae sim et quae ante fui ; Pers. 514, nescis quid te 
instet boni, neque quam tibi Fortuna faculam adlucere volt ; And. 
649, nescis quantis in malis vorser quantasque hie conflavit sollici- 
tudines ; Amph. IT. 

2. Introduced by ut (51) especially after vide, viden, etc., e.g. Asin. 598, 
audin ut largus est ? Bacch. 202, scis ut confringi solet ; 492, viden 
ut aegre patitur ? 1130 ; Cure. 93 ; Cure. 126, vide ut ingurgitat ; 153, 
hoc vide ut dormiunt ; 311, viden ut expalluit ; Men. 808, scibo ex hoc 
ut factumst; 919, audin ut deliramenta loquitur? Merc. 481, satin ut 
oblitus fui ? M. G. 1289, mitto iam ut occidi Achilles civis passus 
est ; Most. 811, non tu vides hunc voltu uti tristi est ? Pseud. 1312, 
ut quidque egisti scio; Pud. 1211, eloquere ut haec res optigit; 
Trin. 749, edoceam ut res se habet; True. 851, ut factumst fecit 
omnem rem palam; And. Alt. Ex. 14, me repperisse ut habitus fui; 
Eun. 670, illud vide os ut sibi distorsit ; Ad. 228, illud vide ut oppres- 
sit ; 513, ut res gestast narrabo ; 559 ; Ace. 303, viden ut te inpietas 
stimulat ? Turp. 103, viden ut f astidit mei ? 104, viden ut osculatur ? 

3. Introduced by quam (19), e.g. Amph. 360, vide quam mox vapu- 
lare vis ; 507, observatote quam blande mulieri palpabitur; Capt. 557, 
viden quam inimico voltu intuitur ; M. G. 64 : Most. 458, non potest 
dici quam indignum facinus f ecisti ; 829, specta quam arte dormiunt ; 
Pers. 139, sein quam potest ? Stich. 702, in mentem venit quam 
cynice accipimur ; H. T. 638, quam bene prospectumst cogita ; Hec. 
90, non dici potest quam cupida eram hue redeundi; 223; 417; 471, 
idque si nunc memorare velim quam fideli animo fui; 646, nequeo 
quam videtur factum prave proloqui ; 683. 

4. Introduced by ubi (3) : Aul. 63, ne persentiscat ubist apscondi- 
tum; Bacch. 203, die ubi ea nunc est; Hec. 84, die mihi nbi te 

5. Introduced by quantus(g), e.g. Bacch. 663, lubet scire quantum 

122 Indicative in Indirect Questions. 

erus sibi dempsit ; M. G. 1074, non scis quantum honorem debeo ; 
Pseud. 1184, commemora quanti conductast ; Phor. 247, incredibile 
quantum erum ante eo sapientia ; 986, vide quantum valet ; Cato, Frag. 
(Jord.), p. 23, 13, cogitate quanto cautius facimus. 

6. Introduced by quo (3): Stieh.541,miror quo evasurust apologus; 
Trin. 938, lubet experiri quo evasurust ; Eun. 237, em quo redactus 

7. Introduced by qui: only Phor. 398, cedo qui est cognata. Pseud. 
866, qui possum ? doee, is probably not dependent. 

8. Introduced by unde : Amph. 424, neseio unde haec hue speetavit ; 
Cist. 748, eloquere unde haec sunt. 

9. Introduced by uter : Men. 779, loquere uter meruistis culpam; 
Ad. 195, nunc vide utrum vis. 

10. Introduced by cur: only Poen. 353 (rogasne), cur iratus est ? 

11. Introduced by quam ob rem (3) : Eud. 427, quam ob rem sum 
missa tu mi aias; And. Alt. Ex. 6, quam ob rem non volui elo- 
quar ; Phor. 798, ecquid locutu's cum istac quam ob rem hanc duci- 
inus ? 

12. Introduced by quapropter: only Men. 714, non tu scis qua- 
propter canem esse praedicabant ? 

13. Introduced by qua : only Most. 969, scio qua me ire oportet. 

14. Introduced by si (23), e.g. Amph. 772, illud miror si habet 
pateram ; Aul. 620, perscrutabor fanum, si inveniam ; Bacch. 529, ibo 
ut visam ad eum si f ortest domi ; Cas. 591, viso hue amator si rediit ; 
Cist. 651, sciat si possum ; Cure. 701, animum advortite si possum ; 
Men. 142; 1048, ibo intro si possum exorare ; Poen. 1064, memo- 
radum ; si novi forte aut si sunt cognati ; Trin. 763, vide consilium si 
placet ; Trin. 921 ; Eun. 545, idque adeo visam si domist ; 838 ; Phor. 
553, vide si quid potes ; 674, me certiorem face si illam dant; Ad. 
154, volo scire si apud forum est ; 239, vide si satis placet. 

Sentence Questions. 

Dependent sentence questions in the indicative are rare in Early 
Latin. I have noted only the following instances : Aul. 65, ibo ut 
visam estne ita ut condidi ; M. G. 514, ita sum coactus ut nesciam 
utrum aequiust ; Pseud. 935, viden satin condecet ; Eud. 948, vide num 
quispiam consequitur ; And. 878, vide num eius color pudoris signum 

Quod Clauses. 123 

indicat ; Turp. 129, hoc quaero, ignoscere istic solentne ; 171 ; die 
inihi an oblita, obseero, es eius crebras mansiones. 

Dependent Deliberative Questions. 

Dependent deliberative questions in the subjunctive may be either 
pronominal or sentence questions. The few instances of dependent 
deliberatives in the indicative are all pronominal. I have noted only 
Stich. 706, vide quot cyathos bibimus ; Ace. 191, dubito quid agis ; 
Epid. 274, quin tu eloquere quid faciemus. 

Causal Clauses introduced by Quod. 1 

1. Adverbial clauses (36). 

a) Quod alone (27), Bacch. 523, neu ei suscenseat quod eum ludi- 
ficatus est ; Capt. 349, meo periculo experiar fldem quod me esse scit 
benivolum; Epid. 630, si remoratus es quod ista voluit; M. G. 502, 
nisi supplicium datur quod meas confregisti imbrices, quod inspecta- 
visti, quod tractavisti; 1412, iura te non nociturum nemini quod hie 
verberatu's aut quod verberabere (in 1414 we have the subjunctive 
in a similar expression: me nociturum nemini quod vapularim); 
H. T. 58 , facit ut te moneam quod mihi videre praeter aetatem tuam 
f acere ; 132, aut etiam amplius quod ilia aetas magis idoneast ; 888, 
quod se adsimulat, id dicis? 1017, quid metuis ne non convincas esse 
ilium tuom? : : quod filiast inventa? Eun. 434, purgon ego me de istac 
Thaidi quod earn me amare suspicatast? Hec. 368, laetae exclamant 
'venit/ id quod me repente adspexerant; Ad. 809, tu illos duo olim 
pro re tollebas tua quod satis putabas tua bona fore; Naev. Com. 32, 
asseri laudes ago, quom votis me multat meis, quod audibam; Cato 
(Jord.), 19, 11, atque quod sanguen defluxerat cognovere; 48, 1, quod 
tu sacra stata, sollemnia capite sancta deseruisti; 85, 6, quod iter 
longius arduiusque erat a Curia ; Titin. 155, laudor quod osculavi ; 
Afran. 116, proba et pudica quod sum, consulo et parco mihi; 210, 
defessa expectando domi sedi quod spisso venire visust mihi ; Lucil. 
26 f non tango quod a varus homo est; 123, quod sumptum atque 
epulas victu proponis honesto; 145, si minus delectat quod technion 

1 Zimmermann, Gebrauch der Conjunctionen quod und quia im alteren Latein, 
1880 ; Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, 1892, pp. 20 ff. 

124 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

Eisocratium est; 388, nupturum te nupta negas quod vivere Ulixem 
speras ? 662, quod te intromisi gratiam ref eras mihi ; 665, cohibet 
domi se, Albinus repudium quod filiae remisit; Aec. Praet. 8, quod 
periti sumus in vita atque usu callemus magis ; Laelius, Meyer, p. 
208, neque tanta dis inmortalibus gratia haberi potest quod is in hac 
civitate natus est. 

b) With a correlative idcirco: And. 690, idcirco accersor quod 
sensit ; Lucil. 442, tibi istaee res si idcirco est cordi quod rere utilem. 

c) With a correlative ideo : only Cato (Jord.), 12, 7, ideo graviscae 
dictae sunt quod gravem aerem sustinent. 

d) With correlative propterea (4) : Amph. 297, propterea quod 
meus eras fecit ut vigilarem, hie pugnis f aciet ut dormiam ; And. 37, 
feci ut esses libertus propterea quod servibas liberaliter; 583, ut me 
deluderes propterea quod amat filius; Cato (Jord.), 44, 1, propterea 
quod plures venerant. 

e) With correlative eapropter: only And. 959, deorum vitam eaprop- 
ter sempiternam esse arbitror, quod voluptates eorum propriae sunt. 

2. Substantive quod-clauses. These are partly i because '-clauses, 
partly 'that '-clauses. 

a) * Because '-clauses : Amph. 116, ne hunc ornatum admiremini, 
quod processi cum servili schema; Asin. 315, mirabar quod scapulae 
gestibant ; Bacch. 1072, ne miremini quod non triumpho ; so also with 
mirari: Merc. 782; Poen. 1373; Eud. 578, an te paenitet in mari 
quod elavi, ni in terra iterum eluam ? Especially in apposition with 
neuter pronouns and nouns : Bacch. 1019, quaeso ut sat habeas id, 
quod Chrysalus me obiurigavit; Most. 16, rus mihi tu obiectas?:: 
sane hoc, credo, quod scis; True. 457, mater dicta quod sum, eo 1 
magis studeo vitae ; H. T. 910, istuc times quod ille operam amico 
dat? Eun. 81, vereor ne illud gravius tulerit quod intro missus non 
est; Cato, Erag. (Jord.), 24, 15, Bhodiensibus id oberit, quod non male 
f ecerunt ; Hec. 780, ob earn rem * iratus est, quod peperit clam ; Cato 
(Jord.), 24, 14, sed si honorem non aequom est haberi ob earn rem 
quod bene f acere voluisse quis dicit ; And. 904, una quaevis causa 
monet, vel tu vel quod verumst vel quod cupio; Eun. 145, multae 
sunt causae : primum quod soror est dicta. 

1 Clauses following eo, ob earn rem, are only formally different from clauses fol- 
lowing idcirco, etc., which were classed as adverbial. 

Quod-Clauses. 125 

b) 'That '-clauses: 

1) In apposition with neuter pronouns: Asin. 262, quid hoc, 
quod picus ulmum tundit ? 265, quid illuc quod currit hue ? Ad. 210, 
quid istuc, Sannio, est quod te audio nescio quid eoneertasse cum 
ero ? Pacuv. 143, quid quod mihi piget paternum nomen profari ? 
Capt. 357, hoc quidem haud molestumst quod collus collari caret; 
358, quod bonis bene fit beneficium, gratia ea (by attraction for id) 
gravida est bonis ; Merc. 553, id iam lucrum est quod vivis ; 596, id 
vitium est quod tardus est ; And. 764, mitte id quod scio ; Hec. 236, 
non signi hoc sat est, quod heri nemo voluit admittere ? Ace. 345, 
dum illud, quod miser est, clam esse censet alteros ; Stat. 174, unum 
id sat est, quod diu vivendo multa quae non volt videt. 

2) With substantives : Merc. 692, parumne est malai rei quod 
amat Demipho ? Pacuv. 277, parum est quod te aetas male habet ? 
Bacch. 1008, tantum nagitium te scire audivi meum, quod cum cubui 
uxore militis; M. G-. 1233, iste metus me macerat quod ille fasti- 
diosus est; H. T. 399, omnes mihi labores fuere quos cepi leves, 
praeterquam tui carendum quod erat; Ad. 953, vitium commune 
omnium st, quod nimium attenti sumus ; Trag. Inc. Ribb. p. 306, sive 
est calamitas quod expulisti saucios patrio lare ; Cato (Jord.), 22, 2, 
mihi magnae curae est quod haec res tarn secunde processit; 37, 2, 
(ubi mea oratio scripta erat) de ea re quod sponsionem feceram. 

3) With verbs : And. 710, non satis habes, quod tibi dieculam 
addo? Cato (Jord.), 10, 1, neque satis habuit quod earn in occulto 
vitiaverat; M. G-. 468, nimis beat quod commeatus transtinet; True. 
581, haud perit quod ilium amo; Eun. 926, ut mittam quod ei amorem 
difficillimum confeci sine molestia; 1002, numquam quicquam quod 
magis vellem evenire mi evenit quam quod senex intro venit ; Ad. 
307, quern neque fides neque misericordia repressit neque quod partus 
instabat; Phor. 168, ut ne addam quod sine sumptu ingenuam, libera- 
lem nactus es, quod habes uxorem ; Ace. 209, adcle hue quod caelestum 
pater prodigium misit ; Aul. 624, non temere est quod corvos cantat 
mihi ; Phor. 998, non temerest quod tu tarn times ; Enn. Ann. 366, haud 
temerest quod gubernas. 

3. Further peculiarities in the use of quod. 

a) Quod, ' as to the fact that,' occurs in the following passages : 
Capt. 586, filium tuom quod redimere se ait, id ne utiquam mihi 

126 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

placet ; Pseud. 101, quod tu istis lacrumis te probare postulas, non 
pluris refert quam si ; True. 471, ego quod mala sum, matris opera 
mala sum ; H. T. 16, quod rumores distulerunt, multas contaminasse 
Graecas : id esse factum non negat; 22, quod malivolus poeta dicti- 
tat, repente ad studium hunc se adplicasse, arbitrium vostrum 
valebit ; 204, quod ilium insimulat durum, id non est ; Eun. 64, quod 
nunc tecum cogitas, ' ego illam, quae ilium, quae me non. . . . ! ? liaec 
verba una falsa lacrimula restinguet ; Hec. 437, quod constitui liodie 
conventurum eum, non posse, ne me frustra exspectet ; 581, teque 
ante quod me amare rebar, ei rei firmasti fidem ; SC de philosophis et 
rhetoribus (161 B. C), Bruns 6 , 37, quod verba facta sunt de philo- 
sophis et rhetoribus, de ea re ita censuerunt. 

b) Quod, ' in that/ occurs : Most. 303, certe ego, quod ego te amo, 
operam nusquam melius potui ponere ; Ace. Praet. 36, quod dexterum 
cepit cur sum, pulcherrume augur atum est. 

c) Nisi quod: Capt. 394, nisi quod custodem habeo, liberum me 
esse arbitror ; 621, neque mi esse ullum morbum nisi quod servio ; 
Pers. 517, tantundem scio quantum tu, nisi quod pellegi prior ; H. T. 
958, qui nescio nee rationem capio, nisi quod tibi bene volo. 

d) In Bacch. 668, numqui nummi exciderunt, quod sic terram 
optuere ? the expression seems elliptical. The gt^ocZ-clause really 
gives the reason for the speaker's asking the question, — ' I ask this 
because you keep your gaze upon the ground.' Cf. Cicero, in Cat. i, 
6, 16, quae quidem quibus abs te initiata sacris ac devota sit, nescio, 
quod earn necesse putas esse in consulis corpore defigere. 

e) In Amph. 303, iam pridem videtur factum heri quod homines 
quattuor in soporem collocastis, quod is used like quom in similar 
expressions; see p. 85. The change from quod to quom would 
involve hiatus. Unless we make this change, we must recognize an 
unexampled use of quod. 

Causal Clauses introduced by QUIA. 

The gwia-elauses in Early Latin fall into three main classes : 1) 
dependent on verbs ; 2) in answer to questions ; 3) substantive quia- 

1. The governing verb is expressed (140). 

a) Without correlative. 

Quia- Clauses. 127 

1) Present tense, (60) e.g. Amph. 640, sola videor quia abest; 
Asin. 189, quia nil habes, postulas ; Aul. 105, discrucior animi quia 
abeundumst mihi; Capt. 203, at nos pudet quia cum catenis sumus; 
259, neque pol tibi nos, quia nos servas, aequomst vitio vortere ; 
Cas. 397, quia tute es fugitivos, omnis te imitari cupis ? 700, ingra- 
tiis, quia non volt, nubet hodie ; Cist. 83, quia nolo, obsecutast ; Ep. 
77, quia perire solus nolo, te cupio perire mecum ; Men. 513, omnis 
cinaedos esse censes, quia tu es ? M. G. 868, quia Sceledrus dormit, 
hunc ablegavit; Most. 499, me recipere Orcus noluit, quia praemature 
vita careo ; 1116, quia placeo, exempluin expetis ; 1132, etiam inrides ? 
: : quian ire autumo ? Poen. 101, quia amare cernit, tangere hominem 
volt bolo ; True. 707, salvos sum quia pereo ; And. 242, id mutavit, 
quia me inmutatum videt ? Eun. 167, eunuchum dixti velle te, quia 
solae utuntur his reginae ; 282, tibi patent fores, quia istam ducis ; 
Phor. 162, aliis quia dent quod amant, aegrest ; tibi quia superest, 
dolet ; Hec. 215, an quia ruri crebro esse soleo, nescire arbitramini ; 
Ad. 393, non quia ades, dico haec ; Cato (Jord.), 73, 4, vitio vortunt 
quia multa egeo ; at ego illis quia nequeunt egere. 

There is one instance of the historical present : Rud. 366, insilui- 
mus, quia videmus. Also one example of the present referring to the 
future : M. G. 1331, quia abit, animo male factum est. 

2) With imperfect: Amph. 352, quia nos eramus peregri, tu- 
tatust domi; Capt. 20; M. G. 54, peditastelli quia erant, sivi viverent ; 
Yid. 71, te abire iussi, quia me miserebat tui ; Eun. 620, id faciebat, 
quia tempus non erat ; Hec. 16 ; Enn. Trag. 208, nominatur Argo, quia 
Argivi in ea vecti petebant pellem inauratam. 

3) Future tense: only Phor. 26, Phormionem nominant, quia 
primas partis qui aget, is erit Phormio. 

4) Perfect tense : 

Historical perfect (35), e.g. Amph. 796, me captas, quia tute 
praecucurristi ; Aul. 755, quia sum tangere ausus, haud causiflcor 
quin habeam ; Bacch. 735, mihi loquitur nee recte quia tibi aurum 
reddidi ; 804 ; Capt. 58, ne vereamini quia dixi ; Cist. 541, vix ex- 
sculpsi ut diceret, quia ei promisi; Epid. 137, male feci, quia amor 
mutavit locum; Pers. 756, gratis ago quia sum ultus; Pseud. 280, 
hunc pudet quia non dedit ; 282 ; And. 121, quia lamentari visast et 
quia erat forma honesta, accedo; Eun. 5, sic existumet responsum 

128 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

quia laesit prior ; 6S2 ; Phor. 5, dictitat fabulas tenui esse oratione 
quia nusquam scripsit ; 357 ; Hec. 681, quia clam te natus est, nae- 
tus alteram es ; Ad. 566, perquam, quia mulierem vicit ; Turp. 35, 
mi est iratus pater, quia se talento tetigi. 

Present perfect (15), e.g. Amph. 811, perii miser quia pu- 
dicitiae huius vitium est additum ; Capt. 152, huic illud dolet, quia 
nunc remissus est exercitus ; Cure. 225, paves quia non rediit ; Men. 
128, dona quid cessant mihi conf erre quia pugnavi f ortiter ? M. G. 
1222, quam laeta est quia ted adiit; Poen. 772, quia sciverunt, eum 
adlegarunt ; Phor. 239, incertumst quid agam, quia praeter spem hoc 
mi obtigit ; Hec. 506 ; Ad. 35, quia non rediit, quibus sollicitor rebus ? 

5) Pluperfect tense : Eud. 1187, credebam quia evenerat ; Eun. 
586, quia consimilem luserat ludum, magis animus gaudebat ; Hec. 
369, continuo voltum earum sensi inmutari, quia tarn incommode illis 
fors obtulerat adventum meum. 

b) With correlative ideo : Asin. 622, nullum perclidi ideo quia 
numquam habui ; Men. 77, nomen fecit Peniculo mihi, ideo quia 
mensam detergeo ; Merc. 31, hoc ideo fit quia amator profert : 543 ; 
Hec. 218, ideo quia, ut domi mihi vos eritis, proinde ego ero fama 

c) With correlative propterea: As. 385, censebam attigisse pro- 
pterea quia hue habebas iter j Men. 45, propterea memini, quia vidi ; 
263, propterea huic urbi nomen Epidamno inditum est, quia nemo sine 
damno devortitur ; M. G-. 1257, quia me amat, propterea Venus fecit ; 
1323; Most. 1155, ilium prodire pudet propterea quia fecit; Poen. 
62; Turp. 182, mihi videre tuo more aegre id pati, quia hos dies 
conplusculos intercapedo sumpti faciundi fuit. 

d) With correlative idcirco : Merc. 34, hoc idcirco praeclico quia 
nullus amator adeost facundus. 

e) Nisi quia : Ad. 523, nulla alia causa odi nisi quia propest. 

2. The governing verb is not expressed, but is implied in a question to 
which the quia-clause is the answer (150). 

a) In answer to questions with quid (60), e.g. Amph. 52, quid 
contraxistis f rontem ? quia tragoediam dixi f uturam hanc ? Aul. 427, 
in aedibus quid tibi erat negoti ? : : quia venimus coctum ad nuptias ; 
Bacch. 328, quid opust anulo ? : : quia id signumst cum Theotimo ; 

Quia-Clauses. 129 

Capt. 174, quid tu id quaeris ? :: quia mist natalis dies; Cas. 91, 
quid me sequere ? : : quia certumst mihi ; Cure. 135, quid lubet per- 
ditum dieere te esse? : : quia id quod amo careo; Merc. 454, quid 
mea refert?:: quia illi suam rem esse aequomst in manu; Most. 
1003, quid res novas requiritas ? : : quia hodie adveni ; Poen. 637, 
quid ad me attinet ? : : quia venimus ; Pseud. 1087, quid non me- 
tuam ? : : quia numquam abducet ; H. T. 801, quid turn ? quia videbitur 
magis veri simile esse; Eun. 88; Prior. 601, quid pertimui? an 
quia duo sunt mihi dati ? 788. 

Especially common is quid ita, quid iam, e.g. Baceh. 254, quid 
ita ? : : quia scio ; 680 ; Cure. 48 ; Epid. 58, quid ita ? : : quia mittebat ; 
Pers. 592 ; Eun. 725, quid ita ? : : quia iam turn inceperat ; Hec. 614 ; 
Epid. 407, quid iam ? : : quia dixit ; 551 ; M. G. 472, quid iam ? 
: : quia attingere ausu's mulierem ; 834 ; True. 133, quid iam ? : : 
quia dixeras. 

b) In answer to questions with qui (45), e.g. Amph. 666, qui 
tibi istuc in mentemst ? : : quia sero advenimus ; 711; Bacch. 1163, 
qui non ? : : quia flagitiumst ; Epid. 33, qui ? : : quia ante aliis fuit ; 
97, qui lubidost male loqui ? : : quia te deseris ; Merc. 612, qui ? : : quia 
aequalem enicas ; Poen. 338, qui lubet? : : quia hodie est mercatus; 
And. 501, qui incidit suspicio ? : : quia te noram ; 954 ; Eun. 121, 
qui ? : : quia neque tu uno eras contenta, neque solus dedit ; 745 ; 
Phor. 330, qui istuc ? : : quia non rete accipitri tennitur. 

Often with appended -dum, e.g. Most. 450, quidum ? : : sic, quia 
foris ambulatis; Epid. 299, quidum ?:: quia alius illam deperit; 
Pseud. 337, quidum ? : : quia numquam eris ; Eud. 1116 ; True. 732, 
quidum ? : : quia plus dedi ; Eun. 273, quidum ? : : quia tristi's. 

Occasionally the question is indirect : Aul. 563, volo scire qui sit 
agnus curio. : : quia ossa ac pellis est ; Poen. 896, cedo qui credam. 
: : 'quia illas emit. 

c) In answer to questions with cur (20), e.g. Amph. 687, cur 
negas ? : : quia vera didici dieere ; Capt. 715, cur iratus es ? : : quia 
illi fuisti fidelior ; 985 ; Cure. 437, cur non venit ? : : quia venimus ; 
Epid. 576, cur ? : : quia neque scio neque novi ; Merc. 648, cur istuc 
coeptas consilium ? : : quia me adnictat amor ; M. G. 1254, cur non 
pultas ? : : quia non est intus ; Most. 1098, cur? : : scies ; quia id volo; 
Hec. 322, quor id non dixti ? : : quia non poteram. 

130 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

d) In answer to quam ob rem (10), e.g. Amph. 552, quam obrem? 
: : quia id mihi praedicas ; Capt. 669, quam ob rem suscenses ? : 
quia me delaceravisti ; Cure. 442, quam ob rem ? : : quia subegit 
Trin. 985 ; H. T. 437, quam ob rem ? : : quia pessume consulis 
Eun. 907. 

e) In answer to questions with quapropter (10), e.g. Asin. 630, 
quapropter? : : quia hanc amo; Epid. 42, quapropter? :: quia mer- 
catust; Mpst. 273, quapropter? :: quia recte olet; 825; H. T. 188, 
quapropter? : : quia incertumst; Hec. 311. 

f) In answer to questions with other particles: 

1) Quin: Merc. 190, quin apstrudebas? quia negotiosi eramus ; 
Pseud. 501, quin (cur non, codd) dictumst mihi? : : quia illud malum 

2) Quo pacto : Aul. 733, quo pacto esse possum ? : : quia istuc 
f acinus ego feci ; M. GL 966. 

3) Quae res : Poen. 318, qua de re ? : : quia venimus ; 733, qua 
re ? : : quia dicetur ; Aul. 423, quae res ? : : quia minus quam 
aequom erat feci. 

4) Qua ratione: Pseud. 803, quaratione? : : quia nemo quaerit. 

5) Qua gratia : Amph. 665, qua gratia? : : quia daturus nemost 
prandium ; Cist. 234; True. 288, quanam gratia? : : quia es ausa. 

3. Substantive quia-clauses (50). 

a) In apposition with neuter pronouns. Here the causal notion 
is usually very slight, quia having the force rather of ' that.' 
Examples : Aul. 418, istuc male factum arbitror quia non latus fodi; 
Epid. 107, idne pudet te, quia captivam es mercatus? M. G. 1210, 
istuc acerbumst, quia ero carendumst; Most. 51, invidere mihi hoc 
videre, quia mihi bene est; Pers. 431, id tibi suscensui quia te nega- 
bas ; Stich. 34, id doles quia non colunt ? Trin. 394, hoc unum con- 
solatur me, quia qui consulit, nugas agit; 1165, quid ego feci? : : 
meum corrumpi quia perpessus filiam ; True. 266, quid male dico? : : 
quia me truculentum nominas; Cato (Jord.), 24, 15, Ehodiensibus 
id oberit, quia voluisse dicuntur facere ? Hec. 255, sin ea (for id by 
attraction) est causa retinendi, quia aegrast. 

b) In apposition with nouns : only Pseud. 689, mendacium, quod 
commentus fui, quia lenonis me esse dixi. 

c) As subject of est: Asin. 56, quid morbist ? : : quia non suppe- 

Quia-Clauses. 131 

tunt clictis data; Cas. 378, iniquomst quia isti prius quam mihi est; 
Stich. 506, ut mihi volup est quia vos domum rediisse video. 

d) In apposition with neuter pronouns used as ablatives of cause : 

1) With eo : Amph. 756, eo fit quia mihi credo; Asin. 620, 
quia oculi sunt lacrumantis, eo rogavi; Bacch. 317, quia clanculum 
devenit, eo nescio; Capt. 69, nomen indidit Scorto mihi eo, quia 
invocatus soleo esse; Cist. 492, eo facetus es, quia tibi aliast sponsa; 
Cure. 61; Pers. 785; 834; Bud. 24, id eo fit quia nihil ei acceptumst; 
1114; Stich. 174, Gelasimo nomen mi indidit, quia ridieulus fui, eo 
quia paupertas fecit ut ; True. 272 ; H. T. 505, an eo fit, quia sumus 
praepediti ? 786 ; Eun. 415, eon es ferox, quia habes ? Cato, Agr. 6, 4, 
convenit eo quia foditur ; 17, 1, eo quia semen viride habet, matura 

2) With istoc: Amph. 379, ergo istoc magis, quia vaniloquos, 

3) With hoc: Amph. 254, hoc adeo hoc commemini, quia 
impransus fui ; Rud. 388, hoc sese excruciat quia leno ademit 

e) In apposition with ob earn rem : Epid. 596, ob earn rem emisti, 
quia ratus es ? Men. 1055 ; Trin. 324, ob earn rem haec autumavi, 
quia res quaedam est ; Ad. 989, ob earn rem quia non obsequor. 

f) Nisi quia : Pers. 545, iuxta tecum aeque scio, nisi quia specie 
liberalist ; Pseud. 106, id f uturum unde dicam nescio, nisi quia futu- 
rumst ; 567, quo id sim facturus pacto nihil etiam scio, nisi quia 
f uturumst ; Eud. 1024, neque scio, nisi quia hunc meum esse dico ; 
True. 785, incertus sum, nisi quia timeo ; Eun. 736, nescibam id 
dicere illam, nisi quia correxit miles ; Cist. 223, neque, nisi quia 
non eo pessum, mihi ulla abest permities. Except in the last of 
these examples the quia-cl&use is the object of a scio to be supplied 
in thought after nisi; cf. Zimmermann, Gebrauch der Conjunction en 
quod u. quia, p. 23. Not strictly an object clause, though obviously 
modelled on the foregoing, is Trin. 936, sed ego sum insipientior, 
qui egomet unde redeam hunc rogitem, quae ego sciam atque hie 
nesciat ; nisi quia lubet experiri quo evasurust. 

In the following instances nisi alone seems to be used in the sense 
of nisi quia: Cist. 676, ubi sit nescio, nisi loca haec circiter mi 
excidit ; 4, qui magis potueris, nescio, nisi non arbitror ; Bacch. 324, 

132 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

nil scio nisi nescio ; Epid. 281, quid ego (sc. dicam), nisi te commen- 
tum astute intellego? Poen. 649, nescimus; nisi ut processimus 
atque videmus ; Rud. 750, nescio, nisi scio probiorem hanc esse • 
Eun. 735, nil dixit ? : : nil, nisi abiens mi innuit ; 826, nescio ; nisi 
amasse credo Pamphilain. 

Causal Clauses Introduced by Quoin am. 
1. Present tense (20). 

a) Eeferring to present time (10), e.g. Amph. 396, quid tibi lubet 
fac, quoniam plus vales ; 835 ; M. G. 840, quoniam non licet, invides; 
Pseud. 7, quoniam non potest, necessitas me subigit; Kud. 1122, 
nunc demum istuc dicis, quoniam ius meum esse intellegis; Trin. 
989, quoniam advenis, — vapulabis ; And. 250, ea quoniam nemini 
obtrudi potest, itur ad me ; 305. 

b) Historical present (10), e.g. Capt. 490, redeo, quoniam video ; 
Cist. 164, quoniam nescit, servom participat consili; Poen. 455, 
quoniam litare nequeo, abii ; Stich. 556 ; Trin. 14, quoniam video, 
dedi ei meam gnatam. 

2. Perfect tense (20). 

a) Present perfect (13), e.g. Amph. 266, quoniam formam huius 
cepi, decet mores habere me similis; Asin. 711, quid nunc? quoniam 
nos delusistis; Capt. 930; Men. 1151, quoniam haec evenere, redea- 
mus ; Most. 63 pergite, quoniam occepistis ; And. 595, te oro, quoniam 
mi effecisti has nuptias ; Eun. 237; Afram 354, quoniam nuptiae 
sunt dictae, parcas istis verbis. 

b) Historical perfect (7), e.g. Amph. 586, quoniam neglexisti, 
nunc venis ; Asin. 152, hie loquar, quoniam intus non licitumst ; 847; 
Ace. 120, ad populum intellego referendum, quoniam aequiter sen- 
tentiae fuere. 

Causal Clauses Introduced by Quafdo} 
1. Present tense, referring to present time (60), e.g. Amph. 390, non 
loquar, quando plus vales ; 440 ; Cas. 497, quid opus est, quando 
domi est ? Cist. 532, quando non licet, perdam operam ; Cure. 216, 
migrare certumst, quando sentio ; 662; 708; Men. 153, age sane 
igitur, quando aequom oras ; Merc. 472, me morti dabo, quando id 

1 Scherer, De particulae quando apud vetustissimos Scriptores Latinos vi et usu, 
Studemund, Studien, ii, p. 88 ff. 

Quom-Clauses. 133 

adimitur ; M. G. 1227, patiar quando Venus volt ; Poen. 447 ; 1389 ; 
Stich. 483; And. 805, ut quimus, quando ut volumus non licet; Eun. 
447; Phor. 999, quando nil times, narra; 1034; Hec. 477, quando 
deputat, segreganda aut mater est aut Philumena; 512 ; Ad. 348 ; 437 ; 
802 ; Stat. 176, patiere quod dant, quando optata non danunt ; 177. 

2. Future tense: only Hec. 618, tua re fert nili, quando haec 

3. Perfect tense (25). 

a) Present perfect (20), e.g. Capt. 300, quando libertatem perdidi, 
non censeo ; Cure. 527, quando bene gessi rem, volo hie supplicare; 
M. G. 1085, quin abis, quando responsumst; Poen. 815; Stich. 518, 
quando ita rem gessistis, pax est; And. 818, due me ad earn, quando 
hue veni; Phor. 894, dis magnas merito gratias habeo, quando 
evenere haec ; Ad. 201 ; 287 ; 435 ; Pacuv. 131, ne ilium exspectes 
quando fecisti ; Lucil. 145, docebo, quando mansi ; 768. 

b) Historical perfect (5), e.g. Am ph. 891, faciundum est mi quod 
illaec postulat, quando id Amphitruoni offuit ; Bacch. 445 ; Ad. 296. 

4. Pluperfect tense : only Stich. 559, aequom postulabat senex, 
quando dederat dotem. 

5. Quandoquidem (15), e.g. Men. 1024, veruin, quandoquidem te 
servavi; Merc. 171, obsecro, quandoquidem supplicandum video; 
180 ; 618 ; True. 559, quandoquidem perditum se it, eum adiutabo ; 
And. 487, deos quaeso ut sit superstes, quandoquidem ipsest ingenio 
bono ; 608 ; H. T. 1064, quandoquidem ducendast, habeo ; Phor. 
403, magistratus adi quandoquidem solus regnas ; Hec. 492 ; Ad. 
640 ; Turp. 127, etiam amplius illam apparare condecet quandoquidem 
voti condemnata est. 

Causal Clauses introduced by Quom. 

Quom causal is a natural outgrowth of quom temporal. A typical 
illustration of the origin is seen in Hec. 385, quom orata huius rem- 
iniscor, nequeo quin lacrumem, where the meaning partakes both of 
the temporal and causal forces. There are many such passages, in 
which it is impossible to determine whether the relation is primarily 
temporal or causal. The usage is particularly frequent with verbs 
of emotion (joy, suffering, fear, etc.), verbs of commending, congrat- 
ulating, thanking, and the like. 

134 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

1. With expressions of rejoicing (15), e.g. Amph. 681, quom 
gravidam te aspicio, gaudeo ; Cas. 417, quom nos di iuvere, gaudeo ; 
Epid. 711, quom tu es liber, gaudeo; so Men. 1031; 1148; Most. 
1128, salvos quom advenis, gaudeo ; True. 384 ; Lucil. 709, gaudes, 
quom de me ista foris sermonibus differs ; Turp. 191, quom te sal- 
vo m video, gliscor gaudio ; M. G. 1211, volup est quom evenit ; so 
also Poen. 1326 ; Eud. 1176 ; Poen. 1412, quom invenisti, mini vo- 
luptatist; so Eud. 1183; Afran. 183, quom veni, iuvat. 

2. With expressions of fear or pain (15), e.g. Pseud. 1114, metuo, quom 
non adest ; 1214, metuo quom verba audio ; Hec. 734, timida sum 
quom venit in mentem ; Trin. 289, lacrumas haec quom video elici- 
unt ; Hee. 405, lacrumo quom in mentem venit ; Most. 149, cor dolet 
quom scio ; Poen. 842, haec quom video fieri, crucior ; so Trin. 1170 ; 
103, quom audio, excrucior ; Cist. 77, maceror quom ilium exoptavi ; 
Capt. 995, eheu ! quom plus minusque feci ; so also with interjec- 
tions of suffering : Men. 303, ei mihi quom nihil est ; M. G. 1358 ; 
And. 622, ei mihi, quom non habeo spatium. 

3. With expressions of praising: Capt. 151, laudo quom amici 
tuom ducis malum; Naev. Com. 3, laudes ago, quom votis me multat 

4. With expressions of thanking (25), e.g. Asin. 545, laudes grati- 
asque habemus magnas, quom — ; Capt. 373, gratiam habeo tibi, quom 
copiam mi facis; 922, Iovi ago gratias, quom te redducem reddiderunt ; 
Cure. 699, Aesculapio habeto, quom pudica es, gratiam; Merc. 843; 
Most. 432; Poen. 257, ecquid gratiae quom te evocavi? 1255 ; Trin. 
505; 821; And. 770, dis pol habeo gratiam, quom adfuerunt liberae; 
Ad. 138, et est dis gratia quom ita est; Capt. 215, obnoxii vobis 
sumus, quom facitis nos compotes; M. G. 1419, di tibi bene faciant, 
quom advocatus mihi bene's; Poen. 208, tibi di dent bona, quom 
optulisti; similarly Poen. 667; 687; Vid. 86; Ad. 917, di tibi bene 
faciant, quom video ; Capt. 355, di tibi omnia optata offerant, quom 
me tanto honore honestas. 

5. With expressions of congratulating: Eud. 1178, quom evenit, 
gratulor ; 1270, gratulabor, quom illam invenit ? True. 516, quom tu 
recte provenisti quom que es aucta liberis, gratulor, quom peperisti 
decus; Afran. 20, quom salvos venis, gratulor dis. 

6. With other expressions (50). 

Quom-Clauses. 135 

a) Present tense : 

Asin. 515, queror f ortunas, quom prohibeor ; Baceh. 536, salvos quom 
advenis, cena detur ; similarly Cure. 561 ; True. 127 ; 359 ; Capt. 280, 
quom tanta gratiast, quid divitiae? 371; M. G. 1044, magnum me 
f aciam, quom me conlaudat ; Most. 29, ilium corruptum dueo, quom 
his factis studet; Pseud. 476, merito esse iratum arbitror, quom apud 
te parvast ei fides ; Stich. 81 : Trin. 900, quom hie nugatur, contra 
nugari lubet ; H. T. 842, me fortunatissumum factum puto esse, quom 
intellego; Phor. 538, quin, quom opust, experiemur ? Hec. 482; Ad. 18, 
earn laudem hie ducit maxumam, quom illis placet qui vobis placent ; 
Enn. Trag. 1, defende quom potes defendere ; Pacuv. 206, esse adiutam 
expetunt quom danunt; Lucil. 122, cenasti numquam bene, quom 
omnia in ista consumis squilla. 

Sometimes the qiiom-cl&iise gives the reason for making a state- 
ment or asking a question, and not the reason for the contents of the 
statement or question, e. g. Amph. 753, quaeso, num tu insanis, quom 
id me interrogas ? Poen. 914, lepidus quom mones ; Pseud. 293, quom 
pietatem te amori video praevortere, omnes tibi patres sunt ? Ad. 
897, bonus es quom existumas. 

b) Future tense : only Phor. 132, quom tu nil ref elles, vincam. 

c) Perfect tense (15), e.g. Asin. 82, quom me adiit, cupio ; Capt. 
411, fecisti ut redire liceat, quom confessus es; Cure. 105; Poen. 
1077, iterum gnatus videor, quom te repperi; 1137; Pseud. 906; Eud. 
1206, ut rem divinam faciam Laribus, quom auxerunt nostram fami- 
liam; And. 488; H. T. 381, laudo et fortunatam iudico, id quom 
studuisti; Hec. 230; Pacuv. 390, quom contendi nequitum vi, clam 
tendenda est plaga; Licin. Imbrex, 1. 

Praesertim quom occurs Asin. 80, praesertim quom me dignum 
habuit, me habere honorem decet. 

7. Substantive clauses introduced by Quom Causal : Amph. 641a, hoc 
me beat quom perduellis vicit; Bacch. 337, istuc sapienter fecit, quom 
diviti homini id aurum servandum dedit; H. T. 298, magnum hoc 
quoque signumst, quom necleguntur internuntii; Pseud. 822, hoc 
brevem vitam colunt, quom hasce herbas in alvom congerunt ; Rud. 
1234, isto tu pauper es quom piu's; True. 152, istoc tu otiosus es, 
quom pervorsus es; Phor. 966, hoc fretus, quom e medio excessit 
(= mortua est). 

136 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

Causal Clauses introduced by Quatenus. 
Cornelia (Peter), p. 222, 12, quatenus id fieri non potest (the 
genuineness of the fragment is disputed by Eduard Meyer and 
others); Scipio Afr. (Meyer), p. 214, quatenus castra nostra ita 
munita erant. 

Causal Clauses of the Type: Quid est quod? 'What is the 
REASON" why ? ' 

The way in which quod in expressions of the above type developed 
its peculiar force is not perfectly clear. Possibly a starting- 
point was found in expressions like Men. 677, scin quid est quod ad 
te venio ? Stich. 107, quid est istuc quod venis ? 127, hoc est quod 
ad vos venio. In these the quod is originally an accusative of the 
inner object, — 'Do you know what it is on which I am coming to 
you ? ; ' What is that errand on which you are coming ? ? i This is 
the errand on which I am coming to you/ But this meaning easily 
passes into that of 6 What reason is there why ? 7 ' This is the reason 
why/ Assuming that the idiom in question established itself in the 
way suggested, it would then be easy for its application to be 
extended to expressions like : Epid. 609, quid est quod illi caperrat 
frons, and others noted below. We recognize several different forms 
of these clauses : 

1. Type quid est quod ? : Epid. 609; 570, quid est quod me exci- 
visti? Cas. 630, quid est quod haec hue exsiluifc? Merc. 175, quin 
tu expedis quid siet quod me quaerebas ? Most. 69, quid est quod me 
nunc obtuere? Pseud. 9, quid est quod gestas tabellas? H. T. 613, 
quid est quod crepuerunt fores ? Eun. 558, quid est quod sic gestis ? 
559, quid est quod laetus es ? 978, quid est quod trepidas ? Ad. 
305, quidnam est quod sic video timidum Getam ? 

2. Type quid hoc est quod ? : Cist. 655, quid hoc est quod cistella 
hie iacet ? Most. 1062, quid hoc est quod f oris concrepuit ? Eun. 
642, sed quid hoc quod subito egreditur ? Merc. 368, sed istuc quid 
est tibi quod commutatust color ? Men. 958, quid illuc est quod med 
insanire praedicant ? Merc. 120, quid illuc est quod ille tain expedite 
exquirit cursuram? Ace. 299, quid istuc est quod me a tecto excies ? 

3. Type quid hoc negotist quod: Bacch. 415, quid hoc negotist 

Relative Causal Clauses. 137 

Lydus quod erum ciet? Cist. 774, quid hoc negotist quod omnes 
homines fabulantur per vias mihi esse filiam inventam? Men. 762, 
quidnam hoc sit negoti quod filia repente expetit me ? Eud. 559, quid 
illuc negoti quod duae mulierculae signum tenent ? 

4. Type hoc est quod: Cas. 531, hoc erat quod vir tanto opere 
orabat meus; Men. 1135, hoc erat quodhaec te meretrix huius vocabat 
nomine; Merc. 711, hoc est ire quod rus meus vir noluit; Ace. 96, 
hocinest quod tarn temeriter tu meam benevolentiam interisse es 
ratus ? Eud. 1258, illuc est quod nos nequam servis utimur ; Hec. 
273, nam est quod me transire oportet. 

Eelative Causal Clauses. 

Attention is called below ( p. 292 ff.) to certain classes of descrip- 
tive clauses in the subjunctive which have an accessory notion of 
cause. Many clauses of the same logical value and of the same form 
(barring the mood) stand in the indicative. In connection with 
descriptive causal clauses in the subjunctive we shall note that the 
antecedent of the relative is more commonly in the first or second 
persons, and that the causal clause often denotes the reason for the 
speaker's making a statement or asking a question. The same is 
true in case of those indicative clauses now to be considered. 

1. Antecedent in first person, e.g. Amph. 325, infelix fui, qui non 
alas intervelli; Men. 852, sumne ego mulier misera quae illaec 
audio ? Merc. 588, sumne ego miser, qui nusquam bene queo quie- 
scere ? Pers. 75, sed sumne ego stultus qui rem euro publicam ? 
474, sumne probus, qui civitatem auxi ? Eud. 1184, sumne ego 
scelestus, qui excepi ? And. 646, me miserum, qui tuom animum ex 
animo spectavi meo. With these cf. such passages as Men. 443, 
inscitus qui postulem ; Merc. 701, miserior me quae nupserim ; 920, 
ego stultior qui credam, in which the subjunctive is used. Other 
examples of the indicative are : Asin. 300, ego, qui ted expendi, scio ; 
617, scio, qui periclum feci ; Aul. 796, qur eiulas, quern avom feci ? 
Merc. 151, opera licet experiri, qui me rupi caussa tua ; M. G. 1376, 
stulte feci, qui hunc amisi; Most. 301, egone id exprobrem, qui 
mihimet cupio id opprobrarier ! 776, quid mihi fiet, qui solus facio ? 
Eud. 274, nunc amplectimur genua, quae in locis nesciis sumus ; 
516, est quod habeas gratiam mihi, qui te ex insulso salsum feci; 

138 Causal Clauses in the Indicative. 

640 ; 994, ego, qui sum piscator, scio ; Eun. 292, neque virgost usquam 
neque ego, qui illam a conspectu amisi meo; 1004, mihi solae 
ridiculo fuit, quae quid timeret scibam. 

2. Antecedent in the second person : Asin. 227, tua ista culpast, 
quae amoves ; Cas. 645, excetra tu, ludibrio me quae habuisti ; Cist. 
291, utrum deliras, qui me iubes ? Men. 292, insanum esse te scio, 
qui mihi molestus es; 299, ubi ego te noverim, qui amicam babes 
eram meam ? Mere. 177, credo, instes aeriter, qui nunc flagitas ; 873, 
male f acis, properantem qui me commorare ; Most. 251, quid opust 
speculo tibi, quae tute speculo speculum es ? 438, peccavisti largiter, 
qui occasionem banc amisisti ; 1014, quid somnias ? : : egone ? : : 
at quidem tu, qui speras ; 1142 ; Pers. 747 ; Poen. 852, baud amice 
facis, qui offers moram; Pseud. 378, frustra es, qui postulas; Kud. 
1166, te di perdant, qui me bodie vidisti ; H. T. 589, di te eradicent, 
qui me bine extrudis ; Pbor. 156, rogitas, qui tarn audacis f acinoris 
mihi consciu's ? Turp. 117, sanusne es, qui temere lamentare ? 

3. Antecedent in the third person : Baccb. 455, fortunatum Nico- 
bulum, qui ilium produxit sibi ; 485, ilium perisse dico, quoi periit 
pudor ; 1134 ; Cas. 552, flagitium bominis, qui dixit ; 657, imitatur 
malam disciplinam, viro quae suo interminatur ; Men. 309, insanit 
bicquidem, qui male dicit sibi; cf. 312, tu quidem non sanus, qui 
male dicas tibi, where the subjunctive is used; M. G-. 1081, quot 
ipse annos vivet, quoins filii tarn diu vivont ? Sticb. 340, at ego perii, 
qnoi medullam lassitudo perbibit ; 341 ; 561 ; True. 413, tu te pro 
puerpera bic procuras ? : : quippini, nbi sine labore res geri pulcbre 

4. Quippe qui occurs in the following instances : Amph. 21, quod 
dictum foret, scibat f acturos, quippe qui intellexerat ; 745 ; Epid. 618, 
quippe ego quoi libertas in mnndo sitast; Pseud. 1274, ad hunc me 
moclum intuli illis satis facete ex discipulina, quippe ego qui probe 
Ionica perdidici; B,ud. 384. Quippe quo is read by most recent 
editors (following Lambinus) in Baccb. 368, ianuam banc Orci, 
quippe quo (qui, cui, codd) nemo advenit, nisi qnem spes reliquere. 

Etsi, Tametsi, etc. 139 


Adversative Clauses Introduced by etsi, tam etsi, etiam si, 
tarn en si, tarn en etsi. 

1. Introduced by etsi (40): Bacch. 1191, etsi est dedecori, patiar; 
Capt. 513, sum servus, etsi doini liber fui; 712, etsi pervivo, tamen 
breve spatiumst perferundi ; 711; 812; Cas. 957, vapulo invitus, etsi 
merui; M. G\ 407, non vidi, etsi vidi ; 532, etsi east, non est ea; 
Most. 609a, etsi procul abest, urit male 5 851 ; Pers. 272, mane etsi 
properas ; 655, etsi res sunt f ractae, amici sunt tamen ; Poen. 1081, 
facito reddas, etsi hie habitabit; Pseud. 1113, etsi abest, arbitror; 
Eud. 1011, etsi ignotust, notus (est); 1350; Trin. 383, etsi advorsa- 
tus tibi fui, istac iudico ; 527 ; 600 ; And. 374, ibo, etsi me spes haec 
f rustratast ; 318 ; H. T. 119, ambo accusandi ; etsi illud inceptum 
animist pudentis signum; 225; 327; 621; Eun. 968, dicani etsi scio ; 
Phor. 407, etsi mihi facta iniuriast, verum tamen abduc banc, minas 
vaceipe; Hec. 213, etsi scio, tamen f aciam ; 258; 404; 505; 578; 
788; 834; Ad. 944, etsi absurdum videtur, fiat; Enn. Trag. 165, 
etsi dices, facile flexeris ; Pacuv. 206, etsi perdunt, tamen expetunt ; 
Ace. 231, etsi sunt datae fruges, tamen enitent; 616; Titin. 119, 
etsi tacebit, tamen gaudebit. 

2. Introduced by tarn etsi (tametsi) (21) : Amph. 21, me misit, tarn 
etsi scibat; 977, audis quae dico, tarn etsi praesens non ades ; Aul. 
768, tarn etsi fur es, molestus non ero ; Capt. 321, ne, tarn etsi 
unicus sum, videatur ; Cure. 259, tarn etsi non novi, dabo ; 501 ; Men. 
92, numquam fugiet, tarn etsi capital fecerit ; M. G. 744, tarn etsi 
dominus non invitus patitur, servi murmurant ; Pers. 362, tarn etsi 
id futurum non est, quanta adficitur miseria; Poen. 342, proba mers 
facile emptorem reperit, tarn etsi in apstruso sitast; 1201; Pseud. 
214, tarn etsi occupata's, moramur ; 471 ; Stich. 11, tarn etsi es maior, 
moneo ut memineris ; Stich. 205, tarn etsi hand inclignos iudico, nil 
moror; And. 318, obtundis, tarn etsi intellego ? Eun. 316, tam etsi 
bonast natura, reddunt iunceam; Phor. 428, metuit, tam etsi dis- 
simulat ; Lucil. 115, tam etsi non quaeris, docebo ; 652, auxilium, 
tam etsi est indignus, feram. 

3. Introduced by etiam si: Cas. 93, etiam si in crucem vis pergere, 

1 Sven Tessiog, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 54 if. 

140 Adversative Clauses in the Indicative. 

sequi decretumst ; Epid. 518, etiam si alterum tantum perdundumst 
perdam potius quam sinam ; Hec. 648, etiam si dudum f uerat 
ainbiguom, nunc non est. 

4. Introduced by tamen etsi: M. G. 1209, tarn en etsi istuc mini 
acerbumst, saltern id volup est ; Most. 1167, verberibus caedere. : : 
tamen etsi pudet ? Enn. Ann. 344, tamen etsi res bene gesta est, 
corde suo trepidat; And. 864, te commotum reddam. : : tamen 
etsi hoc verum est ? 

5. Introduced by tamen si: Cas. 795, tamen hercle si esurit, nullum 

6. For adversative (" concessive ") clauses introduced by si, see under 
"Conditional Sentences, 7 ' p. 78 ff. 

Adversative Clauses Introduced by quamquam. 

1. Without correlative particle in the main clause: Asm. 710, asta 
ut descendam, quam quam nequam es; 831; Aul. 359, quamquam 
Volcano studes, cenaene causa nos nostras aedis postulas comburere ? 
679, inde observabo, quamquam hie manere me iusserat ; Bacch. 1171a, 
quamquam tu bella es, malum tibi dabo ; Cas. 263 ; 727, mane quam- 
quam fastidis ; Cist. 106, quamquam erit molestum, f aciam ; 307 ; 
Men. 1048, ibo intro ad hanc, quamquam suscenset mihi; Merc. 
287, quamquam negotiumst, non sum occupatus ; 800, quamquam 
tu irata es, iubeas ; M. G. 758, numquam dicunt, quamquam adposi- 
tumst ampliter; 1231; 1319; Pers. 337, quamquam studes, filiam. 
vendas tuam ? 615; Poen. 515; 621, te salutamus, quamquam hanc 
salutem ferimus inviti et quamquam bene volumus; 638 ; 858 ; 1407 ; 
Pseud. 372 ; 786 ; 1049, quamquam nequam homo's, recte mones ; Eud. 
1041, quamquam istuc esse ius meum certo scio, flat istuc; 1043; 
Trin. 842, quamquam domi cupio, opperiar; 1112; 1184; True. 317; 
780 ; 910 ; 922 ; 923; Ad. 159, quamquamst scelestus, non committet ; 
205, possum ferre, quamquam iniuriumst; Pacuv. 259, quamquam 
graviter cernimus ictum, nimis paene animo es molli ; 304, quamquam 
aetas senet, satis habeam virium ; Ace. 56, quamquam exanguest 
corpus mi; Stat. 21, quamquam advenio, ne reare; Enn. Ann. 28, 
15, nee se dedit, quamquam manus tendebam ; Afran. 10, quamquam 
non exercetur, delaborat. 

2. With correlative particle (tamen, verum tamen, at, tarn) in main 

Quamquam-Clauses. 141 

clause : Asin. 497, quamquam sum sordidatus, frugi tamen sum ; 
Cas. 421, quamquam hoc tibi aegre est, tamen fac accures ; Cist. 633, 
quamquam te carebo, animum ego inducam tamen ; M. G. 1354, quam- 
quam fideliores habuisti, tamen tibi habeo magnam gratiam ; Pers. 170, 
quamquam vinum bibo, at mandata non consuevi bibere una; 344, 
verum tamen, quamquam res nostrae sunt pauperculae, modeste 
meliust vitam vivere ; Poen. 196, quamquam Cupido in corde vorsa- 
tur, tamen auscultabo; 536, tamen, quamquam sumus paupereuli, 
est domi quod edimus; Stich. 722, quamquam gravatus fuisti, non 
nocuit tamen ; Trin. 259, quamquam illud est dulce, Amor amara dat 
tamen; H. T. 53, quamquam haee nuper notitia est nee quicquam 
fuit, tamen virtus tua facit ; Eun. 172, quamquam cupio atque arbi- 
tror, tamen faeiam; Titin. 157, quamquam estis nihili, tarn (= tamen) 
ecastor simul vobis consului ; Afran. 124, quamquam non tarn calleo, 
tamen fefelli ; Cato ( Jord.), 33, 4, quamquam fecere, tamen nequeo 

3. A few instances of corrective quamquam also occur : Asin. 78, 
quamquam ilium mater arte habet ; Aul. 123, quamquam haud falsa 
sum nos odiosas haberi ; Capt. 272, quamquam non multum fuit 
molesta servitus ; Amph. 491 ; Trin. 787. 

Adversative Clauses Introduced by quom. 

1. Without correlative particle in the main clause : Amph. 828, quom 
de illo Sosia mirumst, certe de istoc Ampliitruone iam alterum 
mirurnst magis ; Bacch. 1004, sat sic suspectus sum quom careo 
noxia; 1138a, ne balaut quidem, quom a pecu cetero absunt; Capt. 
244 ; 423 ; Men. 843, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt ; 
Most. 168, quid te exornas, quom lepida tute es ? Poen. 235, quom 
munditer nos habemus, vix amatorculos invenimus ; Pseud. 1030, 
quom haec metuo, metuo ne advenat ; Stich. 34, quia officium non 
colunt, quom tu tuom facis ; True. 191, palam quom mentiuntur, 
verum esse credimus ; 888, quom multum apstulimus, haud multum 
apparet ; Phor. 22, finem faeiam dicundi, peccandi quom ipse finem 
non facit. 

2. With correlative particle (tamen, turn, tarn) in the main clause: 
Cist. 1, quom te amavi et crevi, turn id hodie aperuisti; Most. 858, 
servi, qui quom culpa carent, tamen malum metuont; Rud. 382, 

142 Adversative Clauses in the Indicative. 

qui it lavatum, quom vestimenta servat, tamen surripiuntur ; Stich. 
745, quom lautast, iufectast tameu ; True. 704, quom hoc volup est, 
turn illuc magnae mellinae mihi; And. 96, quom id mihi placebat, 
turn uno ore omnes omnia bona dicere ; Eun. 243, nil quom est, nil 
dent tamen ; Phor. 187, quom mihi paveo, turn Antipho me excruciat 
animi ; Titin. 156, bene quom facimus, tarn (= tamen) male subimus. 

Indicative Adversative Clauses Introduced by Relative 


Instances of this type are exceedingly rare. I have noted only 
Amph. 134, ilia ilium censet virum esse, quae cum moechost ; 561, 
audes praedicare domi te esse, qui ades ? 

Adversative Clauses Introduced by utut (ut ut). 

The main clause of such periods often contains a correlative tamen. 

Examples : Amph. 397, utut es f acturus, hoc quidem haud reticebo ; 
1100, gaudeo, utut me erga meritast; Bacch. 403, utut eris, haud 
celabis; 1191, id utut est, patiar; Cist. 109, utut est meritust, in 
cordi est tamen ; Merc. 558, utut est, non ibo tamen ; Most. 545, utut 
res sese habet, pergam turbare porro ; Poen. 833, qui habet quod det, 
utut homo est, omnia genera recipiuntur ; Pseud. 310, utut est, mihi 
mortuos est ; H. T. 200, utut erat, mansum oportuit ; Phor. 468, 
utut erant alia, illi certe consuleres ; 531 ; Ad. 248, utut haec sunt 
acta, meum mihi reddatur ; 629, non me hanc rem patri, utut erat 
gesta, indicasse. 


The local particles ubi, qua, quo, unde, used in a relative function, 
occur very frequently in indicative clauses in Early Latin. They 
present no features of importance, however, and a few citations under 
each will suffice. 

1. Clauses introduced by ubi: Bacch. 1107, ibi sum esse ubi mise- 
rum hominem decet ; Capt. 323, illi ubi minime honestumst ; 508, ad 
fratrem abii, ubi sunt captivi; Cist. 211, ubi sum, ibi non sum; ubi 
non sum, ibi est animus ; Cist. 319 ; Men. 10 ; Eun. 537, ut transeas 
ubi est ; Hec. 217, illi ubi sum ; Cato, Agr. 84, videto ut percocas ubi 
altissimum est ; Enn. Trag. 203 ; Ace. 154. 

Ubi ubi : Cas. 722, ubi ubi sunt, damno dominos multant ; Epid. 

Clauses Introduced by Local Particles. 143 

492, illam requiram ubi ubi est; M. G. 399; End. 1210; And. 
684 ; Eun. 295. 

Ubi is freely used where we should normally find a relative pronoun 
with a preposition : e.g. Epid. 219, cum ilia ubi rem properat perdere ; 
Pseud. 771, servitus ubi praefulcior ; Kud. 1110, (vidulum) ubi sunt 
signa ; Cato, Agr. 14, 5. 

Sicubi is found : Eun. 403, sieubi eum satietas aut negoti si quan- 
do odium ceperat. . . . nostin ? Cato, Agr. 6, 3, sicubi locus umec- 
tus erit, ibi serito; 32, 2, sicubi opus erit, de arbore deiciantur; loo, 
2, in fossis, sicubi aqua constat. 

Ubiquomque occurs As. 110, ubi eris ? : : ubi quomque lubitum erit 
animo meo ; Cas. 226, ubiquomque est lepidum unguentum, unguor. 

Utrubi is found Stich. 750, utrubi tu vis. 

2. Clauses introduced by qua, e.g. Aul. 647, tempta qua lubet ; Men. 
237, omnis oras qua adgreditur mare sumus circumvecti ; True. 304 ; 
Cato, Agr. 1, 3, prope amnis qua naves ambulant ; ISTaev. Trag. 19. 

Quaqua is found M. G. 92, deridiculost quaqua incedit. 

3. Clauses introduced by quo, e.g. Aul. 657, abi quo lubet ; Capt. 
370, hue vel illuc vortar, quo imperabitis ; Men. 516, non tu abis quo 
dignus es ? 1029 ; Merc. 649 ; H. T. 813, ibin quo dignus es ? Eun. 
124, sine me pervenire quo volo ; Phor. 641 ; 893 ; Cato, Agr. 106, 
ex alto sumito, quo aqua dulcis non accedit ; 112, 1. 

Equivalent to a relative pronoun with a preposition : Pers. 201, 
eius quo sum missus ; Trin. 400, aperiuntur aedes quo ibam ; Cato, 
Agr. 101, vas quo condideris, oblinito. 

Quoquo : Merc. 857, certa rest me usque quaerere illam quoquo ab- 
ductast; Pseud. 858, quoquo spectabit, spectato; Phor. 551, quoquo 
asportabitur, certumst persequi. 

4. Clauses introduced by unde : Cist. 62, indidem unde oritur, facito 
ut facias stultitiam sepelibilem ; Men. 56, illuc redeo unde abii ; 
Merc. 511, illim unde hue advecta sum ; Kud. 412, petam hinc aquam 
unde mi imperavit ; True. 131, oles, unde es, disciplinam ; Phor. 604, 
petam hinc unde institi. 

Uncle equivalent to a relative pronoun with a preposition : Most. 
547, conveni ilium unde hasce aedis emeram; 997, eccum unde aedis 
filius emit ; Pers. 559, haec unde aberunt, ea urbs moenita sat erit ; 
Rud. 690, signum unde abreptae (sc. sumus) ; Phor. 748, cum hac 

144 Clauses Introduced by Local Particles. 

f amilia unde exis ; 967, quom e medio excessit, unde haec susceptast ; 
1017, mulierculam earn compressit unde haec natast ; Ad. 302, tot res 
circumvallant se unde emergi non potest ; Cato, Agr. 58, oleas, unde 
minimum olei fieri poterit j Enn. Trag. 2, subices umidas unde oritur. 

Examples : Epid. 175, quotiens vides, sacruficas ; Men. 114, quo- 
tiens foras ire volo, me retines ; True. 195, horresco, mentio quotiens 
fit partionis ; Cato, Agr. 1, 1, quotiens ibis, totiens magis placebit; 
59, quotiens dabis, aceipito ; 151, 4, quotiens opus erit, purges ; Jord. 
62, 1. 

Quotiensquomque occurs Capt. 97, quotiensquomque conspicio, fleo ; 
True. 282 ; Cato, Agr. 151, 4. 

Quoad occurs twice only with the indicative in Early Latin, viz. : 
Asin. 296, iubeo te salvere voce summa, quoad vires valent ; Men. 
769, verum est modus tamen quoad pati uxorem oportet. In the 
first of these passages quoad has the signification ' as far as ? ; in the 
second it is equivalent to ad quern. 



The Greek name for mood was ly/cAtcns, literally 'inclination/ or 
'turn/ i.e. 'turn of thought.' Sometimes also we find the designa- 
tion Sta0eo-is tiJs i/a>x??s or Siatfeais xpv^iKrj, ' mental attitude/ or ' condi- 
tion/ The Romans regularly employed the designation modus for 
the conception of mood. Yet traces of the influence of the Greek 
designation are still to be seen in definitions given by Roman gram- 
marians. Thus Priscian, Keil, Gr. Lat. ii, p. 421, 17, defines modi 
as diversae indinationes animi, varios eius affectiones demonstrantes, a 
definition which embraces both the conception in ey*Ato-t9 and that 
in Sia#ecrts tt}s i/nr^?. Diomedes, Keil, Gr. Lat. i, p. 338, gives the 
heading : De modls sive inclinationibus, indicating that inclinatio was 
sometimes used as an alternative designation with modus. 

The Greeks recognized five ey/cAto-ei?, viz. opioriK^ (Indicative), 

1 Of the extensive literature on this subject, the following is the most important : 
Delbriick, Gebrauch des Conjunktivs und Optativs im Sanskrit und Grieehischen, 
1871, p. 11 ff. ; Grundlagen der grieehischen Syntax, 1879, p. 115 ff . ; Altindische Syn- 
tax, 1888, p. 302 ff. ; Vergleichende Syntax der indogermanischen Sprachen, ii, p. 349 ff . ; 
365 ff. ; Brugmann, Griechische Grammatik 3 , p. 498 ff. ; Kurze Vergleichende Gram- 
matik,p.578ff. ; Blase, Historische Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache, iii, 1, p. 112 
ff. ; Bergaigne, De coniunctivi et optativi in Indo-Europaeis Unguis informatione et 
vi antiquissima, 1877, p. 41-50; 57-73; Hale, Anticipatory Subjunctive in Greek and 
Latin, 1894, p. 6 ff. ; A Century of Metaphysical Syntax, Congress of Arts and Sci- 
ences, Universal Exposition, 1904, iii, p. 191 ff. ; Drager, Historische Syntax der latei- 
nischen Sprache, i, p. 304 ff . ; Kiihner, Ausfuhrliche Grammatik der lateinischen 
Sprache, ii, p. 130; Schmalz, Lateinische Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 328 ff . ; Morris, 
The Subjunctive in Independent Sentences in Plautus, Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, 
p. 133 ff . ; 275 ff. ; 383 ff. ; On Principles and Methods in Syntax, Chaps, iii, iv (cf . 
the criticism by Delbriick, in Neue Jahrbucher fur Philologie und Padagogik, 1902, 
p. 333 ff.) ; Lattmann, De coniunctivo latino, 1896; Bedeutung der Modi, Neue Jahr- 
bucher fur Philologie und Padagogik, 1903, p. 410 ff. ; Goodwin, Greek Moods and 
Tenses, p. 371 ff. ; Mutzbauer, Konjunktiv und Optativ und ihre Entwickelung im 
Grieehischen, 1908, p. 4 ff. ; 143 ff . ; Kruczkiewickz, Zeitschrift fur osterreichische 
Gymnasien, 1894, p. 694 ff. ; Stahl, Kritisch-historische Syntax des grieehischen Ver- 
bums, 1907, p. 220 ff. ; Breal, Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique, xi, p. 273 ff . ; 
Sonnenschein, Unity of the Latin Subjunctive, 1910, appeared as this chapter was 
going through the press. 


146 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

TrpoorTaKTLKY} (Imperative), evKTLKrj (Optative), vTroraKTtKrj (Subjunctive), 
aTra/oc/x^aros (Infinitive). 

Two of these Greek designations are of importance here, viz. 
evKTLKrj and viroraKTLKrj. The name €vktiky} was good for only a small 
portion of the uses of the Greek optative, viz. its employment in 
wishes. It did not apply with accuracy to the potential uses of the 
mood. The Eomans, having no special verbal forms recognized as 
optative, had no need of the designation modus optativus. Yet they 
sometimes used it, ad wiitationem Graecorum, as Priscian remarks 
(Keil, Gr. Lat. ii, p. 407). But it should be noted that the Eomans 
never used the name optativus to designate a group of inflected 
forms. With them it designated merely a syntactical use of the 
subjunctive, viz. the subjunctive in wishes. They thus made the 
name narrower than the Greek evKTLKrj, whose syntactical province 
extended beyond what its title designated. 

"Ey/oWis v7roTaKTiKY} meant 'mood of subordination/ and w r as the 
Greek designation for what we ordinarily call the subjunctive. But 
the name was a poor one, since it applied only to the uses of the subjunc- 
tive in subordinate clauses, and implied that these represented the 
original function of the mood. It ignored the independent volitive uses 
(hortatory, jussive, deliberative, prohibitive), also the pure future uses. 

The Eomans translated viroTaK-iKr} by suhiunctivus ; less frequently 
by conhinctivus, designations quite as misleading, of course, as the 
Greek original from which they were taken. 

The Latin subjunctive, as is well recognized, is the result of a 
fusion of two original moods of the Indo-European parent-speech, 
the subjunctive and optative. Greek and Sanskrit kept these dis- 
tinct from each other, but in Latin they early became merged in a 
single mood endowed with the characteristic meanings of each. The 
following table indicates the origin of the different formations ap- 
pearing in the so-called Latin subjunctive : 

Subjunctive Forms. Optative Forms. 

1. All regular presents, e.g. amem, 1. Presents in -im, e.g. sim, possim, 

moneam, regam, audiam. nolim, malim, velim, edim, 

2. All imperfects, e.g. amarem, mone- ditim. 

rem, essem, etc. 2. All perfects, e.g. viderim, amave- 

3. All pluperfects, e.g. amavissem, rim, etc. 

dixissem, etc. 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 147 

It has been stated above that the Latin subjunctive, as containing 
both subjunctive and optative forms inherited from the Indo-Euro- 
pean parent-speech, possessed the characteristic meanings of both 
moods. Yet for more than a century there have existed wide differ- 
ences of opinion as to the fundamental values of the Indo-European 
subjunctive and optative, and even to-day final judgment cannot be 
said to have been reached. Certain scholars, in fact, deny that 
either of these moods in Indo-European possessed any fairly definite 
basal meaning. I shall content myself with giving a brief outline 
of the history of opinion on this topic, with an indication of the rea- 
sons which have determined my own conclusions. 

For nearly seventy years after the beginning of the nineteenth 
century the dominant conceptions concerning the moods were almost 
exclusively metaphysical. In the province of Greek grammar, this 
may be seen in Gottfried Hermann's definition of the subjunctive as 
the mood of objective possibility, and of the optative as the mood of 
subjective possibility. Later the optative came to be quite generally 
regarded as the " mood of an act conceived " (" Modus der Vorstellung, 
Modus des rein Gedachten"); while the Greek subjunctive was gen- 
erally held to be the mood of an act conditioned. See especially 
Hale, A Century of Metaphysical Syntax, op. cit. p. 191 ff . For Latin, 
the prevalent view came to be that the subjunctive was the " mood 
of an act conceived," and this conception is found not only in Zumpt 
(Lat. Gramm. § 78), Madvig (Lat. Gramm. § 346), Ktihner (Ausfuhr- 
liche lat. Gramm. ii, p. 130), and in Drager (Hist. Syntax der lat. 
Spr. i, p. 305), but was also accepted by Schmalz in the first edition of 
his Syntax und Stilistik (1885); while in his De coniunctivo latino 
and his Bedeutung der Modi, loc. cit. p. 414 ff., Lattmann refers a 
large group of Latin subjunctive uses to an Indo-European "ficti- 
vus," which he regards as representing one phase of the original 
optative, but which is merely a " Modus der Vorstellung " under a new 

In his Gebrauch des Conjunkfcivs und Optativs im Sanskrit und 
Griechischen, published in 1871, Delbrtick broke new ground. 
Basing his conclusions upon the employment of the subjunctive and 
optative in independent sentences in the oldest monuments of San- 
skrit and Greek, he recognized two fundamental forces for the Indo- 

148 SzobjuTictive in Principal Clauses. 

European subjunctive : will and pure futurity ; likewise two for the 
optative : wish and potential force. In case of the subjunctive, 
Delbriick regarded the < will ' notion as original ; the future force as 
derived from this. In case of the optative, he regarded the c wish ? 
notion as original ; the potential as derived from that. Delbriick's 
essential positions were soon assailed. In an essay entitled, De 
coniunctivi et optativi in Indo-Europaeis linguis informatione et vi 
antiquissima, pp. 41 ff. and 57 ff:., Bergaigne questioned the justi- 
fication of attaching to either subjunctive or optative the meanings 
assigned to these moods by Delbriick. He points out that in the 
oldest Sanskrit there are instances where the subjunctive denotes a 
wish and the optative denotes an act of willing. In Greek, Ber- 
gaigne admits, there is substantial conformity of usage to Delbriick's 
theories, but this he explains as a special Greek development. 
Originally, he holds, the subjunctive and optative possessed no such 
precise meaning as attached to them by Delbriick, but covered all 
the ground of modality outside the field of categorical statement 
occupied by the indicative. He was influenced to this conclusion 
by his belief that in the development of language the direction of 
movement is from the vague to the more definite. 

Delbriick in his Grundlagen der griechischen Syntax, published 
soon after Bergaigne's essay, p. 115 ff ., replies briefly to Bergaigne's 
criticisms. He admits that in the history of grammatical forms we 
cannot with certainty go back beyond a variety of typical usages ; 
but that this variety represents the original state of affairs, must, in 
view of what we know from other sources concerning the development 
of language, be characterized as improbable. Delbriick further admits 
that in Vedic Sanskrit the distinction in the use of moods is not 
as consistent as in Greek. But he suggests that the freedom referred 
to may be a result partly of the type of literature to which the 
Vedas belong. At all events Delbriick thinks it incontrovertible 
that no small number of subjunctive and optative uses in Sanskrit, 
Iranian, and Greek show such an agreement that they can be ex- 
plained only as the result of historical development from a common 

As to the relation of the two uses of the subjunctive to each other, 
and of the two uses of the optative to each other, Delbriick suggests 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 149 

the possibility of starting in the case of the subjunctive with the 
pure future meaning ; and in case of the optative with the notion of 
remoter futurity. But he does not discuss this further, merely 
observing that any such conception of relationships would involve 
an entirely different classification of the material as treated in his 
earlier work. 

In his Altindische Syntax, however, published in 1888, p. 302, 
Delbriick expressly recognizes the difficulty of deriving the potential 
optative from the optative of wish, and simply contents himself with 
recognizing the respective uses without attempting to explain the 
relationship. As regards the subjunctive, he apparently still holds to 
the derivation of the future use from the subjunctive of will. 

Goodwin, Greek Moods and Tenses, p. 371 fL, while recognizing 
the essential forces of the subjunctive and optative as outlined by 
Delbriick, disputes Delbrtick's view that the notion of will is basal 
in the subjunctive, and the notion of wishing in the optative. Good- 
win believes that in the case of each mood the process was exactly 
the reverse. In the case of the subjunctive he urges that it is rela- 
tively easy to derive the 'will' uses from the idea of simple futurity. 
Thus in tco/xev, 'we shall go/ and in tco/Aev, 'let us go/ we have in each 
case a future notion ; in the second case we have something in ad- 
dition. Thus by assuming the future notion as basal, we secure the 
advantage of finding our basal notion present in both instances, 
whereas if we start with the 'will' notion as basal, we have in the 
future use of the subjunctive no trace of the original idea. Similarly 
Goodwin finds difficulty in deriving the potential optative from the 
optative of wish. "Surely," says he, "aTrokoiTo av, 'he would perish/ 
can never have developed from aTroAoiro, ' may he perish' ; for the 
former is no more likely to be said by anyone who wishes the death 
of a person than by one who fears it." In view of the difficulty of 
deriving the potential optative from the optative of wish, Goodwin 
therefore urges starting with the potential meaning as basal, and 
would derive the optative of wish from that, — in what way, he 
does not make clear. 

A more recent statement of Delbrtick's position is found in his 
Vergleichende Syntax, ii, p. 346 ff. Here, in discussing the subjunc- 
tive, he recognizes the two fundamental meanings of will and futu- 

150 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

rity, but enters into no discussion of their relationship. With regard 
to the optative, he recognizes three uses : of wish, prescriptive, and 
potential, deriving the second and third from the first. He thus 
returns to his original position as announced in his Gebrauch des 
Conjunktivs und Optativs. Some of the evidence he brings to bear 
on the general problem is worth citing here. Thus in Iranian we find 
the optative of wish and the prescriptive optative. In Germanic the 
optative occurs in its wishing, prescriptive, and potential functions. 

Brugraann follows Delbrtick, with certain reservations. In his 
Griechische Grammatik 3 , § 552, he says, in substance, on the subject 
of the original value of the subjunctive and optative: "The forms 
we call subjunctive, the forms we call optative, and the forms we call 
imperative are severally composed of various morphological elements. 
Hence it is quite natural that each of these moods should possess a 
variety of syntactical functions unrelated to each other. E.g. the 
optative denoted wishing and capacity. Each mood, even in the 
time of the parent-speech, possessed a variety of functions whose 
historical relation to each other is not clear. It is, therefore, im- 
possible to postulate a single fundamental meaning for these moods 
in the Ursprache. Much less can we lay down any such single fun- 
damental meaning for them in any single Indo-European language, 
as Sanskrit, Latin, or Greek." In conformity with this attitude, 
Brugmann contents himself with recognizing three functions for the 
Indo-European subjunctive, and two functions for the Indo-European 
optative. The three functions of the subjunctive are : volitive, de- 
liberative, future. The two functions of the optative are : wishing, 
potential. While expressly disclaiming any attempt to establish a 
genetic relationship between these functions, Brugmann nevertheless 
suggests as regards the optative, that if either of them is to be derived 
from the other, it is much easier to derive the 'wish' meaning from 
the potential than vice versa, and in support of this he cites (§ 558, js t ) 
the development of the German mogen, originally designating poten- 
tiality (cf. es mag seiri), but later acquiring the force of wishing, e.g. 
mbge es ihm gelingen ! 

Morris in Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 392 ff . takes a position closely 
akin to that of Bergaigne, but somewhat less extreme. Bergaigne 
had denied to the subjunctive and optative any " Grundbegriff " 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 151 

whatever. Morris admits for the two moods a vague notion of 
desire as basal, and believes that this vague notion gradually as- 
sumed definiteness as a result of context, verb meaning, voice, tense, 
number, person, gesture, intonation, etc. As to the way in which 
the potential force developed in the optative, and the future force in 
the subjunctive, he is apparently not clear in his conception. 

H. Lattmann in his De conjunctivo latino (1896) and in an article 
in ]STeue J ahrbucher fur Philologie und Padagogik, 1903, p. 410 fT., 
dissents radically from Delbrtick's conclusions, both as regards the 
Indo-European functions of the subjunctive and optative, and the pos- 
sibility of deriving the future force from the volitive, or the potential 
idea from that of wishing. To Lattmann's mind the subjunctive 
functions in Indo-European were two: potential and imperative 
(= volitive); the optative functions were likewise two: "fictive" 
and wishing. The potential and "Active" functions were, according 
to Lattmann, the original ones ; the imperative and wishing functions 
were derived from these. 

Mutzbauer, Konjunktiv und Optativ und ihre Entwickelung im 
Griechischen, p. 4 fT., recognizes only the future force as present in 
the Greek (and Indo-European) subjunctive. For the optative, 
p. 143 fT., he follows Delbrtick. 

Stahl, Kritisch-historische Syntax des griechischen Verbums, 
p. 220 fT., is a pronounced adherent of Delbrtick, and fortifies his 
views as to the relationship of the functions of the subjunctive and 
optative by certain new considerations, which will be mentioned later. 

Mention should perhaps also be made of the reactionary view of 
Kruczkiewickz, set forth in Zeitschrift fur osterreichische Gymna- 
sien, 1894, p. 694 fT. A fundamental postulate with Delbrtick had been 
that the use of the subjunctive and optative in subordinate clauses 
is later than their use in principal clauses, and that the former are 
to be explained from the latter. Kruczkiewickz denies the truth of 
this principle and declares moreover that it breaks down when ap- 
plied, — especially to Latin, — except in a few instances. He is, there- 
fore, led to seek the original force of the subjunctive elsewhere than 
in principal sentences, and turns to the testimony of the Latin 
grammarians, in whose minds, he declares, a just sense of the true 
force of the mood might be expected still to persist. These, he 

152 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

urges, not only called the subjunctive the mood of subordination 
(subiunctivus), but they actually define it as the mood of subordinate 
clauses, and declare that it is incapable of independent use. On this 
basis he declares the subjunctive to be the mood of " a dependent, 
relative, only partially valid statement " (" ein Modus der unselb- 
standigen, relativen, nur beziehungsweise giltigen Aussage"). The 
use of the subjunctive in principal clauses Kruczkiewickz explains 
as derived by ellipsis from its employment in subordinate clauses. 
He even asserts that the employment of the subjunctive and opta- 
tive in independent sentences in Indo-European would have been not 
only unnecessary but superfluous, since the ideas supposed to belong to 
them were expressed by other formations, e.g. the imperative, the in- 
junctive, the future, the conditionalis (as in Sanskrit). 

Another radical view is that of Arniin Dittmar, set forth some- 
what vaguely in his Studien zur lateinischen Tempus- und Modus- 
lehre. Dittmar defines the subjunctive as expressing an idea that is 
" polemisch," as opposed to the function of the indicative, which he 
denominates as " souveran." 

Before passing a brief criticism on the foregoing views, it is 
desirable to get before us as clearly as possible the essential facts of 
usage of the subjunctive and optative in the different Indo-European 
languages, so far as they have a bearing on our problem. 

The Subjunctive. 

Sanskrit. — Volitive. — In its volitive use the subjunctive appears 
in Sanskrit in expressions like, 'I am resolved to be a disciple of 
Brahma ; ' 'we are resolved to find ; ? 'let us confer together ; 7 
'mount the chariot ;' 'listen to my words;* negative: 'smite us 
not in the battle ; ' ' fear not.' 

Future. In its future use the Sanskrit subjunctive appears in 
such expressions as ' you will please me ; ? ' the red of the morning 
will appear ; 7 interrogative : ' who will give it to you ? ' 

Greek. Volitive. In Greek the affirmative volitive uses are con- 
fined almost exclusively to the first person, e.g. eya> Sa> £etViov, 'I am 
determined to give him a guest-present/ or ' let me give him ; ' fjficls 

<£pa£c£/xe#a, ' let US Consider.' Negative : jjltj XcyiofxeOa ; furj 7roir](Tr]$. 

Future. The future use in Greek is confined practically- to Homer, 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 153 

and is generally accompanied by kwot oV, e.g. iyu> Si k ayoi Bpto-^tSa; 

Ta^' av 7rore Ovfxov SXeao-rj. Without K€v or av : ov yap 7ra> rotous i'(W 
dvepas ovSe i'Soo/xai. 

Latin. Volitive uses are well represented in the Latin hortatory, 
jussive, and prohibitive. Future uses have disappeared, except in 
so far as they are exhibited in the future indicative in -am (regam, 
audiam, etc.), and the future perfect indicative. These formations 
were by origin subjunctive. 

Germanic. In Germanic, subjunctive forms have disappeared, but 
subjunctive functions (volitive and future) have passed to the opta- 
tive, as, ' let us make here three tabernacles ; ' ' be kindly disposed ; ' 
' lie not.' 

Slavic. In Slavic also the subjunctive formation has disappeared, 
but, as in Germanic, traces of the volitive use are found in the opta- 

The deliberative also occurs in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and Ger- 
manic (in the latter, only as a function of optative forms) ; but this 
usage, though apparently Indo-European, is probably developed 
from the volitive. 


Sanskrit. In wishes, e.g. in such expressions as, 'may I become 
rich in herds ; ' ' may we be held righteous in the eyes of the gods ; ' 
'may this blessing be our portion ;' negative : 'may he not escape 

Prescriptive. This is essentially jussive in its character, being 
employed where the command or direction involves a permanent or 
habitual line of conduct, as opposed to a single act ; e.g. ' let one 
give a child a name when it is born/ 

Potential. Inasmuch as the word i potential ' is loosely used, it 
may be well to observe that the only uses here referred to by this 
term are the ' should '-' would ? uses, and the i may ' uses, especially 
the former. ' Can ' potentials, so far as they occur, are a late and 
special development; 'must' potentials do not occur at all. Exam- 
ples: (' should '-' would ' type): 'what would you give him?' 'I 
should give him to eat.' 

Iranian. In ivishes; e.g. ' may he come to our help.' 

Prescriptive; e.g. ' worship me with this ritual.' 

154 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Greek. In ivishes ; e.g. ap.v}xova oIkol olkoltlv evpoipu; eXOots es 
7raTptSa ; crot Se Oeol ^apiv Sotev ; firj airoXotpr^v, 

Prescriptive y e.g. /a?) aOepLLCTTLOs ely dAA' crty^ Saipa Qewv ^x ot - 

Permissive ; e.g. Kr^/xara 8' avros e^ois, 'you may have the property.' 

Potential. The only certain types are the ' should '-< would ' and 
the ' may ' potentials ; e.g. otjk av Sc^ot/x^i/ tovto ; eXoLfxl *e ?J kcv akolrjv, 
' I may slay or I may be slain.' When Goodwin, Greek Moods and 
Tenses, § 234, renders ovk av yeWro, by ' this could not happen; ' dvrjp 
Si Ktv ov tl Ato? vobv dpvo-aaLTo, by 'a man cannot contend against 
the will of Zeus/ he seems to me to be substituting an English idiom 
for an exact translation of the Greek modal force. So in §235, 
where he renders iravrts 6avp,d£ouv av tovto, ( all must admire this/ 
but which can perfectly well mean, ' all would admire.' 

Latin. The Latin subjunctive bears witness to its optative inher- 
itance in its use in wishes, and in potential meanings. The ' should '- 
1 would ' potential is the main type, but the < may ' potential occurs 
sparingly (aliquis clicat, quispiam dixerit, etc.), while we also find a 
i can '-< could ' potential in expressions of the type : videas, ' one can 
see ' ; videres, i one could see.' This, however, seems an outgrowth 
of the c should '-< would' use. Delbrtick would see traces of the 
prescriptive use in general directions, e.g. Cato, Agr. 5, 1, disciplina 
bona utatur ; f eriae serventur ; alieno manurn abstineat. 

Germanic. The Gothic exhibits the wish use in such expressions 
as, ( may God grant.' The potential use is also authenticated. 

Balto-Slavic. Lithuanian shows the permissive use. 

It is on the basis of the foregoing evidence that Delbrtick and his 
adherents recognize the volitive and future uses as Indo-European, 
functions of the subjunctive, and the wish and potential uses as 
Indo-European functions of the optative. In the main, I believe, 
the evidence warrants the conclusion drawn from it by Delbrtick. 
Yet certain facts of usage in Sanskrit and Greek must not be 
ignored. In the earliest Sanskrit, on which Delbriick's conclusions 
as to that language mainly rest, the subjunctive is not restricted 
exclusively to the volitive and future uses ; nor is the optative con- 
fined exclusively to wishes and potential functions. So also in 
Greek the subjunctive at times appears in wishes, while the pre- 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 155 

scriptive optative is essentially volitive in character, as is also the 
optative in requests. Yet even in Sanskrit there is a decided pre- 
ponderance of the functions recognized by Delbruck for the sub- 
junctive and optative, while in Greek these functions are practically 
the rule. That two moods, representing functions so closely related 
as those of will and wish, should occasionally interchange, is hardly 
surprising. Such interchange would be but the manifestation of the 
tendency which in Latin led to the fusion of the subjunctive and 
optative, and in Sanskrit and Germanic resulted finally in the 
absorption of the subjunctive in the optative. 

Whitney, Amer. Jour. Phil, xiii, p. 294, in his review of Delbriick's 
Altindische Syntax (Syntaxtische Forschungen, v), refuses to accept 
Delbriick's doctrine that the fundamental distinction between the sub- 
junctive and optative is the expression by the former of an action willed, 
by the latter of an action wished. " To this doctrine," he says, " I have 
never been able to give my assent, especially for these reasons : I 
do not find a sufficiently well-marked difference of sense of the kind 
asserted between the two modes, but only such a preponderance, on 
the whole, of the sense of wishing on the side of the optative as 
might easily come about by gradual differentiation of usage between 
two originally equivalent formations." But, as Delbruck observes in 
his Yergl. Synt. ii, p. 351, the question of the absolutely original 
values of the subjunctive and optative is not involved in his theories. 
He aims only to set forth the values attributable to these moods in 
the parent-speech as shown by the evidence of the separate languages. 
How these forces were developed, — whether by a process of selective 
differentiation or otherwise, is a topic he does not aim to discuss. 

It remains to consider the other views which have been mentioned 
as to the force of the subjunctive and optative, along with the theo- 
ries as to the relationship of the several functions of each mood. 
These views may be grouped under four heads : 

1. The metaphysical theories of those who regard the subjunctive 
and optative as the moods of an act conditioned, or an act con- 
ceived, etc. 

2. The views of those who refuse to attach to the subjunctive and 
optative any definite fundamental notion whatever. 

3. The views of those who admit the existence of a fundamental 

156 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

notion or notions in these moods, but differ in their conception of 
these meanings. 

4. The theories as to the relationship to each other of the notions 
recognized in each mood. 

The commonest form of the metaphysical theory of the sub- 
junctive and optative is that which represents the Greek optative 
and Latin subjunctive as the mood of an idea, or of an act conceived. 
But that so abstract and highly sublimated a conception should have 
been fundamental with a primitive shepherd folk, seems incredible. 
Any such view is at variance with the well-attested fact that lan- 
guage develops from the concrete to the abstract, not from the 
abstract to the concrete. The view referred to is rather a product 
of an excessively metaphysical temperament, dominated by current 
philosophical theories and seeking to bring into accord with these 
theories all phenomena of history and life, including language. 
But the phenomena of language are not essentially logical ; they are 
rather psychological and sociological. As such, they demand in- 
ductive methods of consideration, not a priori hypotheses. The 
setting up of a meaning for an inflected form as vague and indefinite 
as that of an act conceived, or " ein polemischer Modus ;? (Dittmar), 
seems therefore a serious error of method. 

I pass to a consideration of the views of those who hold that 
inflected forms in general and the forms of the subjunctive and 
optative in particular possessed no definite meaning in Indo- 
European. These views are represented especially by Bergaigne 
and Morris. Bergaigne maintains that words did not originally 
designate precise concepts. In support of this he declares that 
children at play have been known to allow one and the same word to 
do duty as the designation of many totally different objects. He 
assumes that the same practice characterized primitive speech, and 
that words started with a very vague meaning, developing deflnite- 
ness with time. But it is extremely doubtful whether the psychology 
of the child is identical with that of the mature intellects of even 
primitive people. Nor is it clear that the circumstance he cites 
from child life represents more than an isolated vagary. Bergaigne 
also attaches too much importance to the fact that exceptions to pre- 
cision of use of the subjunctive and optative occur in early Sanskrit. 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 157 

Morris, while attaching a slightly more definite conception to the 
subjunctive and optative, refuses to admit that they possessed any 
" Grundbegriff." The vague meaning of desire which he attaches 
to both moods he conceives to have developed (by the various factors 
already enumerated) to the functions we observe in the history of 
the different Indo-European languages. But it is impossible to 
understand how so vague a value as attached by either Bergaigne or 
Morris to the subjunctive and optative in Indo-European could have 
developed with such surprising uniformity in the different languages. 
Nothing but the assumption of distinct functions in Indo-European 
will account for the presence in the separate languages of substantially 
the same functions in the employment of subjunctive and optative. 
Coming to the question of what meanings shall be recognized as 
fundamental for the two moods, we find to-day (on the part of those 
who believe in a " Grundbegriff ") a wide — almost a general — recog- 
nition of the Indo-European character of the functions attributed 
by Delbrtick to the subjunctive and optative. Such recognition is 
accorded, for example, by Brugmann, Stahl, Hale, Goodwin, and 
many others. Brugmann goes further than Delbrtick in the case 
of the subjunctive, and recognizes the deliberative use as Indo- 
European. Of the correctness of this there can hardly be any 
doubt. The only question is whether the deliberative use should 
be accorded independent recognition, or merely be regarded as a sub- 
type of the volitive. The chief dissent from Delbrtick on the gen- 
eral question of what " Grundbegriffe " should be recognized, comes 
from Mutzbauer and Lattmann. Mutzbauer agrees with Delbrtick 
in part, viz. as regards the optative. As to the subjunctive he dis- 
sents, holding that mood to be the mood of "Erwartung" or expect- 
ancy. This conception is in accord with Delbrtick for a part of the 
subjunctive uses, viz. those designated by Delbrtick as pure future. 
But when Mutzbauer attempts to bring under the same head such 
expressions as A 13, t^/acls Sk <f>pa£u)/jLe6a ; A 62, dAA' aye riva fxavTiv 
ipetofxev; A 26, fxy ere yipov /a^etco; B 435, fxrjKeTL avOi XeywpieOa, he 
seems guilty of forcing the interpretation to support a theory. I 
hold it impossible to refute the existence in large numbers in the 
Homeric poems of subjunctive uses in which the mere conception of 
"Erwartung" fails to do justice to the modal force. 

158 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Lattmann's position is more radical. He disputes Delbriick's con- 
clusions, in part, as to both moods. While recognizing the volitive 
use of the subjunctive, he rejects the future use. To him the sub- 
junctive is partly volitive (imperative), partly potential. The opta- 
tive, he holds, is employed partly in wishes, partly in a so-called 
" fictive " use. This latter is in no wise different from the concep- 
tion of the optative as the " Modus der Vorstellung." The serious 
objections to such a conception have already been set forth in con- 
nection with our consideration of the metaphysical theories of the 
moods, and need not be repeated here. Lattmann's conception of 
one phase of the subjunctive as potential, however, demands a word 
of comment. In support of his position, Lattmann gives no adequate 
material. He cites Z 459, /cat ttotc rt? eLirrjmv, with the implication 
that this represents a frequent and typical usage. But such is not 
the case, and this particular example, of which he makes much, is 
by most interpreters taken as an illustration of the pure future use ; 
cf . Latin aliquis dicet. Lattmann takes no account of the multitude 
of Homeric subjunctives where the force is a pure future and noth- 
ing else. The common potential function seen in the Greek opta- 
tive Lattmann does not recognize as potential. Instead, he brings 
it under his " Active," a conception so broad and vague as to be 
capable of including almost anything, including infinitives, gerunds, 
and even the uses of the future and future perfect indicative, did 
one wish to do so. 

Coming to the mutual relationship of the functions of each mood, 
we find ourselves on very difficult ground. Delbriiclrs views on this 
point cannot be said to have met with general acceptance, even on 
the part of those who accept his conclusions as to the values to be 
attached to the subjunctive and optative. Brugmann's attitude is 
that the different functions were, in the case of the subjunctive, very 
likely originally unrelated, owing to the variety of subjunctive for- 
mation. In the case of the optative, while there is no such variety 
of formation, he nevertheless hesitates to commit himself positively 
in favor of any theory of relationship of the wish and potential func- 
tions. Goodwin's position has already been stated. He holds that 
the future meaning was original with the subjunctive, and that the 
volitive meaning developed from that. So in the case of the opta- 

Original Force of the Latin Subjunctive. 159 

tive, he starts with the remote future (potential) notion, and regards 
the wish notion as an outgrowth of that. Stahl, Kritisch-historisehe 
Syntax des griechischen Verbums, p. 234 fT., accepts' Delbrtick's views 
as to the relation of the functions of each mood, and supports them 
by the following arguments : 

Subjunctive. In favor of the development of the future function 
of the subjunctive from the volitive, Stahl, arguing for Greek, urges : 

1. The volitive force is the permanent one, while after Homer the 
future force disappears in independent sentences. 

2. The volitive function does not depend upon any reenforeing 
particles, while in the case of the future use in Homer we find kcV, 
av associated with the subjunctive. 

3. That the future force of the subjunctive was not fundamental 
and original, is shown by the fact that a special form for the future 
developed. Had the future force been original with the subjunctive, 
a separate form for the future indicative would have been super- 

4. Had the future meaning been original, it is not easy to see 
how the volitive, developing from this, would have restricted itself 
to the first person (as it does in affirmative sentences), for in the 
future use in Homer we find all persons. 

5. Eemnants of present indicatives in Homer employed as futures 
point to a time when the volitive use had not yet developed a future 

6. In the case of the future indicative we find at times a second- 
ary volitive force. It is quite in harmony with that to assume that 
the subjunctive (originally volitive) secondarily developed a future 

7. The development of the volitive meaning to the future is sup- 
ported by analogous phenomena in other languages ; e.g. in modern 
Greek the future is regularly formed by the auxiliary Oikm ; in Eng- 
lish it is formed by the auxiliary 'will.' 

Optative. In favor of the development of the potential 1 meaning 
from that of wishing, Stahl urges : 

1 It is greatly to be regretted that Stahl employs the designation " Optativ der Vor- 
stellung" for the potential uses. However, his examples show that he does not use 
the term in the objectionable sense discussed above (p. 147), but only to cover poten- 
tial functions. 

160 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

1. The other functions of the optative are easily referred to the 
use in wishes for their origin. 

2. In Homer the potential optative regularly takes the particles 
k£v, au, while in the wish use no particle is necessary. This would 
hardly be the case, had the potential meaning been original. 

3. That the wish meaning of the optative is original, is sup- 
ported by the analogy of the subjunctive. 

Brugmann, Lattmann, and others cite the German moge er Tcommen, 
etc., in support of the theory that the wish meaning of the optative 
developed from the potential. But in moge er ko-mmen, it is the sub- 
junctive form moge that conveys the notion of wishing, — ( may he 
be able.' Did the German use er mag kommen in the sense of 'may 
he come/ there might be some force in the argument that a develop- 
ment from the potential meaning to the wish meaning was possible 
and natural. 

It remains to consider briefly the theory of Kruczkiewickz, who 
maintains that the subjunctive was primarily the mood of subordina- 
tion. In support of this thesis, Kruczkiewickz urges the circum- 
stance (for Latin) that the Latin grammarians not only designate the 
subjunctive as modus subiunctivus, but define it as the 'mood of sub- 
ordination.' As regards the designation, the Eoman grammarians, of 
course, were slavishly following the nomenclature of the Greeks. As 
regards the definition, it should be noted that those grammarians 
who define the subjunctive as the mood of subordination recognize 
also a iussivus, a concessivus, and an optativus, designations clearly 
intended to cover the independent uses of the subjunctive. But 
quite apart from these considerations, the assumption that the 
Eoman grammarians were in the least qualified to pass intelligently 
upon the fundamental force of an inflected form, must be regarded as 
naive. Kruczkiewickz's conclusions are based upon the theory that 
the principal clause is younger than the subordinate, — a theory 
which contradicts all accepted views of the history of language ; 
while his methods of deriving the independent uses of the Latin 
subjunctive from subordinate uses are highly arbitrary and fantastic. 

My own position is this : I agree with Delbriick in his recognition 
of fundamental uses; volitive and future for the Indo-European sub- 
junctive ; wishing and potential for the Indo-European optative. 

Subjunctive of Determined Resolution. 161 

These potential uses are the 'may' and ' should '-' would ' potentials. 
To them jointly I have elsewhere given the name of i contingent 
futurity/ a designation which I shall employ also in my subsequent 
discussion of the potential uses of the Latin subjunctive. The De- 
liberative I regard with Brugmann as also Indo-European, but I con- 
sider it a volitive development and shall treat it as such. 

As regards the relationship of the volitive and future forces of the 
subjunctive, and of the wish and potential forces of the optative, I 
do not feel the same positiveness of conviction. The position of 
Delbrlick seems to me plausible, and the arguments adduced in its 
support by Stahl and others are weighty, but to my mind not suffi- 
ciently so to be regarded as final. The question of relationship is, 
after all, of secondary importance. Whatever the facts of relation- 
ship, — whether the volitive and true optative are the origin of the 
future and potential uses, or vice versa, or whether there is no rela- 
tionship between the two uses of each mood, — the important ques- 
tion is as to the existence of the uses themselves and as to their 
Indo-European character. In this matter I believe Delbrlick stands 
on firm ground. 

Classification" of Independent Uses of the 

Subjunctive of Determined Resolution. 1 

In the first person singular of the present subjunctive the volitive 
force appears in a few instances : 2 Bacch. 1058, taceam ; Men. 983, 
metum id mini adhibeam, culpam abstineam ; Most. 849, videam ; 
H. T. 273, mane : hoc quod coepi primum enarrem. 

In two instances the volitive force is so weakened that the sub- 
junctive expresses merely a proposal (Hale-Buck, 501, 2). Thus : 

1 Cf. Hale-Buck, Latin Grammar, 501, 1 ; Riemann, Syntaxe Latine, § 165, b, Rem. ; 
Blase, Historische Grammatik der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 113; Morris, Subjunctive in 
Independent Sentences in Plautus, Am. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 134- ff. ; Lindsay, Syntax 
of Plautus, p. 64. 

2 Cf . Sanskrit, brahmacary asani, ' I am resolved to become a disciple of 
Brahma/ cited by Delbriick, Conjunctiv und Optativ im Sanskrit und Griechischen, 
p. 18. 

162 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Trin. 748, vide si hoc utibile deputas : ipsum adeam, edoceam ; 1136, 
sed maneam, opinor ; Phor. 140, ad precatorem adeam, credo. 

In many cases the form is ambiguous, though analogy suggests 
that we have the subjunctive. Thus Cure. 160, mane : suffundam 
aquolam ; Most. 1090, mane : experiar, ut opinor ; Stat. 90, mane : 
coepiam, are all strikingly similar to H. T. 273 above cited. But 
inasmuch as the first person singular of the future was always the pre- 
vailing method of expressing the speaker's will, it is quite probable 
that these ambiguous examples may all be futures. 1 Blase (Hist. 
Lat. Gram, iii, 1, p. 113) brings under this head all cases with cer- 
tumst and potius, e.g. Amph. 1048, certumst intro rumpam ; Poen. 
922, uni potius intus ero odio, quam hie sim vobis omnibus. But 
these are better regarded as subordinate. See below, p. 236 ; 244. 

In Am. Jour. Phil, xv, p. 313 ff., and in Cornell Studies in Classi- 
cal Philology, vi, p. 217 ff., Elmer would see in the above examples 
that I have cited as subjunctives of determined resolution, potentials 
in which the ' should '-' would ' notion has developed into an ' ought' 
notion. But the reasons which he adduces in favor of this theory 
are not convincing. 

Two of the above examples (Bacch. 1058; Most. 849) are possibly 
instances of self-exhortation, like Bacch. 1049, properem perdere 
(see below, p. 167). 

The Jussive Subjunctive. 2 

The jussive subjunctive primarily gives expression to a command 
or order. Often the force is so weakened or modified as to convey 
simply a warning, admonition, or request. It is also employed in 
curses and in prescribing the terms of a compact. In the main it 
represents the utterance of one speaking with authority, real or 
assumed. % 

The jussive is used in the second and third persons singular and 
plural, though the plural forms — especially in the second person — 
are very rare. The present tense is the one usually employed; but 
in a few instances the perfect appears. Eeenforcing particles, es- 
pecially ut (uti), modo, ut modo, are frequently added. 

1 On the difficulty of distinguishing the mood in such cases, see Morris, I.e., 
p. 135 f. ; Blase, Hist. Gramra. der lat. Spr. iii, 1, p. 114. 

2 Morris, Independent Subjunctive in Plautus, Am. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 146 ff . ; 
Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr., iii, 1, p. 125 ff . ; 200 ff. 

Jussive Subjunctive. 163 

Just how far the material brought under this head goes back to 
the prescriptive optative (see p. 154), is, of course, impossible to de- 
termine. Delbriick would recognize an optative origin in such ex- 
amples of the subjunctive as those in the contract in Asin. 756 ff. ; 
also (with a negative) in passages like Cato, Agr. 83, mulier ad rem 
divinam ne adsit ; 5, 3, iniussu domini credat nemini. See Vergl. 
Synt. ii, p. 386. 

Present Jussive. 
No Introductory Particle. 


Examples: Amph. 819, sumas ; Asin. 99, iubeas; Bacch. 417, 
morem geras ; 990, taceas ; Capt. 551, procul recedas ; Cure. 270, 
pacem petas ; M. G. 1101, dicas ; Poen. 330, adeas ; M. G. 807, me- 
mineris ; And. 598, quiescas ; Hec. 638, accipias puerum ; Ad. 431, 
morem geras; Cato, Agr. 36, spargas, irriges; 61, 1, ares; Frag. 
(Jord.), p. 79, 7 ; em as non quod opus est, sed quod necesse est ; 
Lucil. 394, hominem habeas ; 712 a, dicas. 

There are about one hundred other instances of the 2d singular 
jussive in Early Latin. As a rule the reference is to a definite 
second person. 


Examples : Amph. 950, gubernatorem arcessat ; Asin. 772, abs ted 
accipiat ; Aul. 600, properet persequi ; Bacch. 662, ita animum 
habeat; Capt. 63, litis contrahat ; M. G. 1126, abeat; Pers. 68, det 
in publicum ; Poen. 905, eas adserat ; Pseud. 570, det locum ; Trin. 
765, homo conducatur, exornetur; True. 232, turn amet; And. 895, 
dicat ; H. T. 722, traducatur Bacchis ; Eun. 5, existumet ; Phor. 677, 
illis repudium renuntiet; Hec. 502, renumeret dotem, eat; Ad. 77, 
fateatur nescire ; Cato, Agr. 1, 3, sub radice montis siet ; in meridiem 
spectet; 5, 1, disciplina bona utatur ; 80, encytum ad eundem modum 
facito, nisi calicem pertusum habeat; cf. 82, where nisi connects 
imperatives, — spaeritam sic facito, nisi sic fingito - ; 87, indat, addat ; 
CIL, i, 199, 29, posidere liceat. 

There are about one hundred further examples in Early Latin of 
the 3d singular present in the jussive use. 

164 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 


Examples of the second plural present in the jussive use are 
extremely rare. I have noted only the following : Cure. 632, quae- 
ratis chlamydem unde pervenerit ; M. G. 1341, bene, quaeso, inter 
vos dicatis; Enn. Ann. 244, 2, memoretis loqui me; Pacuv. 188, con- 
corditatem conservetis; Afran. 103, meum coneelebretis diem; for- 
mula of adrogatio in Gell. v, 19, 9, velitis, iubeatis. 


Of this usage only about thirty instances are found in Early Latin. 
Examples : Amph. 389, indutiae parumper nant ; Asin. 759, fores 
occlusae omnibus sint nisi tibi ; Bacch. 1133, cogantur intro ; Cas. 744, 
hisce abeant ; Cure. 298, sese domi contineant, vitent infortunio ; 
Pers. 352, eant maxumam malam crucem ; Poen. 24, aes dent, domum 
abeant, vitent infortunio ; 32, tacitae spectent, tacitae rideant, tin- 
nire temperent, domum conferant; 746, suspendant se; H. T. 745, 
ecferant; Hec. 511, inter se transigant; Trag. Incert. 112, ita parent 
se ; ISTaev. Com. 112, Unguis faveant atque adnutent ; Cato, Agr. 2, 5, 
satis accipiantur ; 2, 6, locentur ; 23, 1, sarciantur ; laventur, picen- 
tur; parentur, sarciantur, emantur, salliantur; 31, 1, parentur; 57, 
bibant ; 67, 1, 2, habeant, curent, capiant ; 117, contundantur, deici- 
antur; 130, perbibant ; 144, 5, iurent ; 160, teneant; Frag. (Jord.), 
p. 70, 1, revortantur ; CIL, i, 199, 25, vectigal dent ; 45, ad nos adeant. 

Jussive with Introductory Particles. 

The particles used are ut (uti), modo, at times combined with at. 
Occasionally modo ut is found. Ut in this use is probably an indefi- 
nite adverb, corresponding in its force and semasiology to the in- 
definite adverb qui, 'somehow/ 'only,' 'just.' The three meanings 
of the adverb qui are well substantiated, viz. : 

1. Relative, ' in which way,' ' as.' 

2. Interrogative, ' how ? ' 

3. Indefinite, 'somehow;' cf. modo, originally, 'in a way,' 'in 
some way,' ' somehow,' ' only.' 

In case of the corresponding particle ut, we have : 

1. Relative ut, 'in which way,' 'as.' 

2. Interrogative ut, ' how ? ' 

Jussive Subjunctive. 165 

If, now, we recognize an indefinite ut, we get for ut the third of 
the three meanings attaching to qui. This value seems to occur also 
in uti-nam, and to be supported by the use of qui and ut interchange- 
ably in connection with independent optatives ; see below, p. 193. 
Others, however, e.g. Kienitz, Probst (Beitrage zur lateinischen 
Grammatik, ii, p. 148) refer the use of ut under discussion to an 
interrogative origin. But satisfactory explanations of the assumed 
process of development are not offered. 

The material for Early Latin follows: 1 Bacch. 739, proin tu ab 
eo ut caveas tibi ; Capt. 115, sed uti aclserventur ; Cure. 130, periisse 
ut te dicas ; 257, operam ut det ; Epid. 267, arbitretur uxor atque 
ut fidicinam ulciscare ; Pers. 151, longe ab Athenis esse se gnatam 
autumet et ut adneat ; Poen. 29, domi ut procurent ; Stich. 106, sed 
utraque ut dicat ; 113, ut omnibus os obturent ; 711, modo nostra hue 
arnica accedat ; Trim 347, bene si amico feceris, ne pigeat fecisse ; ut 
potius pudeat, si non feceris ; 2 And. 316, ut te arbitretur sibi para- 
tum moechum ; H. T. 470, per alium quemvis ut des, falli te sinas ; 
572, at certe ut hinc concedas ; 1056, ut uxorem ducas ; Eun. 339, ut 
nunties patri; Phor. 212, em, istuc serva; et verbum verbo, par pari 
ut respondeas ; Hec. 78, uti turn dicas ; Ad. 280, at ut omne reddat ; 
398, sic siet modo; 741, id arte ut corrigas; Cato, Agr. 1, 2, ut 
introeas et circumspicias ; uti bonum caelum habeat ; 2, 6, uti con- 
pareat, uti paretur, uti veneant ; uti imperet et relinquat ; auctionem 
uti faciat ; 21, 5, uti idem f aber figat ; 22, 1, librator uti statuatur ; 
CIL, i, 199, 41, id uti facere liceat ; 196, 23, haice uti exdeicatis. 

I should put here also the three following examples, all of which 
are in the 1st singular : Pers. 542, videam modo mercimonium, ' just 
let me see the goods.' This is just as clearly an order as if it read, 
monstres mild modo mercimonium. The other examples are: Pers. 
575, modo uti sciam ; And. 711, at tamen. : : quid ergo ? : : ut 
ducam. All three of these passages are clear orders, 3 — different on 
the one hand from the expressions of resolve above cited (p. 161), and 

1 See also Dahl,Die lateinische Partikel VT, 1882, p.293f.; Schnoor,Der Gebrauch 
yon ut bei Plautus, 1885, p. 1 ff. 

2 Leo and Lindsay indicate by their punctuation that they take the w£-clause here 
as dependent. The Gotz-Scholl punctuation is decidedly to be preferred. Cf. 
Morris on Capt. 115. 

3 Cf. Homer, A, 26, v-v o-e /ax*?co, equivalent to ' don't be found ! ' 

166 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

on the other from expressions of self-exhortation cited below 
(p. 167). Some may be inclined to see in the two Persa passages 
examples of provisos. But such an interpretation does violence to 
the sense. 

Not a few scholars regard the foregoing examples as dependent 
upon some verb, such as fac, vide, cura, volo, velim, opto, etc., to be 
supplied in thought. So Dahl, op. cit., p. 293. Cf. Fairclough, on 
And. 712 ; Ashmore, on the Terentian passages cited above. But it 
is not easy to supply an ellipsis in these passages. It seems much 
more natural to see in them specimens of an early usage out of which, 
through parataxis, later hypotaxis developed. 1 Nevertheless it is 
impossible to draw a hard and fast line between independent and de- 
pendent uses. Nor is it necessary that this should be done in all 
cases. In admitting examples to a place in the preceding list, I have 
endeavored to be conservative, and have gone further than some 
scholars in excluding doubtful passages. Thus Morris, on Capt. 115, 
cites Eud. 1030, ecquid condicionis audes ferre ? : : iam dudum fero, 
ut abeas, rudentem amittas. This may possibly be independent. 
At the same time it may depend upon condicionem to be supplied in 
thought with fero. 

The Perfect Jussive. 

The material is scanty : Bacch. 840, quis igitur obsecrost ? : : 
inveneris ; ex me quidem numquam eris certior; Trin. 1054, vel illud 
perdas vel amicum amiseris; Ad. 437, de istoc viderit. This last is 
quite commonly regarded as a future-perfect, e.g. by Dziatzko ad 
loc. ; but the subjunctive is much more natural (so Blase, Hist. Gramm. 
der lat. Spr. iii, p. 184). Enn. Trag. 239, prohibesseis scelus. 

So far as these instances indicate, there is no difference of force 
between the present and perfect subjunctive in the jussive use. 

The Hortatory Subjunctive. 2 
Under this head I bring 1st person plurals of the present sub- 
junctive, like faciamus, Met us make!' A single instance of the 1st 
singular will be discussed below. The regular negative of the hor- 
tatory subjunctive is ne, but I have noted but one instance of this in 

1 Cf. Schnoor, op. cit., p. 1. 

3 See especially Morris, Independent Subjunctive, p. 155. 

Hortatory and Prohibitive Subjunctive. 167 

Early Latin. There is also one instance with non, and one intro- 
duced by the connecting negative nee. About one-half of the affirma- 
tive examples consist of eamus, adeamus, abeamus, or other com- 
pounds of eo. 

First Plural Hortatory. 

Examples: Amph. 543, eamus; so Bacch. 105; Capt. 1027; Cas. 
422; and frequently; Asin. 588, auscultemus; 731, rem eloquamur; 
Capt. 213, concedamus ; Epid. 256, reperiamus ; Men. 349, videamus ; 
And. 171, eamus ; so also H. T. 432 ; Eun. 377 ; and frequently ; Eun. 
442, mittamus ; 609, properemus ; Hec. 622, accedamus ; 778, experia- 
mur; Enn. Ann. 143, 5, virtute experiamur; Lucil. 166, precemur; 
732, surgamus, eamus, agamus. There are some 115 other examples 
of this usage in Early Latin. 

Poen. 251, ne eloquamur; Scipio, in Gell. iv, 18, 3 (Or. Frag. ed. 
Meyer, p. 110), non igitur simus ingrati; Enn. Ann. 143, 2, nee cau- 
ponantes bellum sed belligerantes, ferro non auro vitam cernamus. 
The last two examples illustrate the freedom which prevailed in the 
employment of negatives with volitive expressions. While ne (neve) 
were volitive negatives, yet non and neque were always possible at 
every period of the language. See below under the Prohibitive. 

First Singular Hortatory. 

Here belongs Bacch. 1049, quod perdundumst properem perdere. 
This is properly a self-exhortation. It corresponds exactly to Eun. 
609, properemus. 

The Prohibitive Subjunctive. 1 
The prohibitive subjunctive covers independent sentences intro- 
duced by ne expressing a prohibition. Both the present and perfect 
tenses are employed in this use. For the difference in their force, 
see below. Prohibitions may be in either the second or third per- 
son, 2 and either singular or plural, though in the perfect tense any- 

i Schmerl, Der Prohibitiv bei Plautus, 1886. 

2 Some scholars, e.g. Kiihner, Ausf. Gramm. ii, p. 141 ff., and Elmer, Amer. Jour. 
Phil, xv, p. 132 ff., have restricted the application of the term "prohibitive " to the 
2d person. But this has no advantages, and involves the separation of clearly re- 
lated material. 

168 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

thing except the 2d singular is rare. In Early Latin I have noted 
only two instances of the 3d person singular perfect, and only two 
of the 2d person plural. The 3d person plural of the perfect appar- 
ently does not occur at all. 

While the negative of the prohibitive is normally ne (ne quis, ne 
ullus, ne umqiiam, etc.), yet we find with both present and perfect 
a number of prohibitives introduced by non, null us, nemo, numquam. 
In a few cases we find ni taking the place of ne as introductory 

The connecting negative with the prohibitive is normally neque 
{nee). Neve (neu), ordinarily regarded as the normal connecting 
negative with the prohibitive, is relatively much less frequent. 
See the detailed statistics below. 

In the following citations I have aimed to include only those sub- 
junctives which are clearly independent. Thus most instances of ne 
erres, ne censeas, ne frustra sis seem to me dependent purpose clauses. 
Other clauses which certain scholars regard as independent, I take 
as substantive clauses. Expressions like Capt. 331 and Vid. 52, ne 
duis, I have brought under the category of the permissive use ; see 
below, p. 175. 

The Present Prohibitive. 

Second Singular with ne. 
I give the material in full : Amph. 924, irata ne sies ; Asin. 
469, molestus ne sis ; so also Men. 250 ; Most. 74; 601; 771; 877; 
SS6 a ; Pseud. 118 ; 889 ; Epid. 723, ne attigas ; so also Bacch. 445 ; 
True. 276 ; Capt. 186, ne postules ; so also Most. 613 ; 1023 ; Pud. 
941 ; 1012 ; 1385 ; Capt. 349, ne vereare ; 393, istuc ne praecipias ; 
957, ne spem ponas ; Aul. 241, ne doceas ; 173, ne facias ; 341, ne 
perclas ; Cure. 183, ne occlamites ; 213, ne rogites ; so also Merc. 165 ; 
Cure. 539, ne facias aut censeas ; 565, ne facias ; 568, ne me territes ; 
so also 713 ; Epid. 145, ne imbitas ; 304, ne abitas ; Men. 327, ne quo 
abeas ; 502, odiosus ne sies ; Merc. 322, ne ducas ; 401, ne duas ; 528, 
ne arbitrere ; M. G-. 1215, ne sis cupidus ; 1280, ne illam excrucies ; 
1361, ne morere ; 1363, ne me deseras ; 1422, ne sis frustra ; 1423, 
ne quid speres ; Most. 215, ne suadeas ; 624, ne censeas ; 745, ne 
quid metuas ; 812, ne videare ; Poen. 1373, ne mirere ; Pseud. 275, 
ne praedices ; Kud. 992, ne f eras ; Stich. 320, ne cures ; Trim 267, ne 

Prohibitive Subjunctive. 169 

f uas ; 370, ne prohibeas ; And. 205, ne facias ; 789, ne attigas ; 
H. T. 745, ne quaeras ; 939, ne vereare ; Eun. 76, ne te adflictes ; 
212, ne patiare ; 273, ne sis ; 388, ne eonferas ; 786, ne metuas ; 988, 
ne spectes ; Plior. 419, actum ne agas ; Pac. 131, ne expectes ; Turp. 
106, ne attigas; Stat. 22, ne reare ; JSTaev. Com. 5, ne dicas; Cist. 
235, ne tu exponas ; Enn. Sat. 481, ne expectes ; Cato, Agr. 37, 3, ne 
tangas ; 61, ne ares. 

Most of the foregoing prohibitions are addressed to a definite 2d 
person. The last three examples along with Phor. 419 are general 

Second Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ni. 
Epid. 339, ni quid tibi in spem ponas. 

Third Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ne. 

Asin. 769, ad ne quern oculos adieiat; 762, ne epistula ulla sit in 
aedibus ; 773, ne sapiat ; 778, ne quoi anulum det ; 779, talos ne quoi- 
quam admoveat; 780, ne dicat; 785, ne quid commoveat; 794, ne 
tussiat ; 797, ne faciat ; Poen. 17, ne quis sedeat ; 37, ne palma detur 
quoiquam ; Pseud. 1267, ne quis me roget ; H. T. 30, ne existumet ; 
361, ne quid titubet ; Eun. 14, ne frustretur se aut sic cogitet ; 
529, molesta ne siet; 963, ne quam vim fieri sinat; Ace. 217, ne 
quisquam accumbat aut vescatur ; Com. Incert. 30, ne pudeat ; 
Cato, Agr. 1, 2, ne siet; so also 5, 2 (bis); 89; 143; 161, 4; 5, 2, 
ne sinat ; ne quo eat ; ne algeat ; ne esuriat ; ne censeat ; 5, 3, ne 
faciat ; 5, 4, ne quern habeat ; ne quid velit ; ne defrudet ; ne 
habeat, ne quid velit ; 66 y 1, ne utatur ; 83, ne adsit ; 144, 4, ne quis 
concedat; 150, 2, ne promittat; 157, 12, ne cenet ; Lucil. 797, ne 

Third Singular (Present Prohibitive) with ni. 

Cato, Agr. 143, rem divinam ni faciat; CIL, i, 198, 39, ioudex 
neiquis disputet ; 199, 6, is ager vectigal nei sit ; 40, ni quis sicet. 

Second Plural Present Prohibitive. 

Amph. 87, ne iniremini; so Bacch. 1072; 116, ne admiremini ; 
Bacch. 758, ne quoquam exsurgatis ; Capt. 58, ne vereamini ; Cist. 782, 
ne exspectetis; so Cas. 64; Pseud. 1234; Trin. 16; True. 482; M. G. 
1378, ne me moneatis ; Most. 468, ne attigatis ; Pers. 93, ne detis ; 
And. 980, ne exspectetis ; so also Ad. 22 ; CIL, i, 34, 7, ne quairatis. 

170 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Third Plural Present Prohibitive. 

Poen. 23, ne obsideant; Eun. 183, ne riant; Cato, Agr. 67, 1, ne 


Present Prohibitive Introduced by numquam, nemo, nullus, 

non, etc 

numquam : Am ph. 672, numquam creduis. 

nemo: Asm. 756, intro mittat neminem; 768, vocet neminem; 
Liv. And. Trag. 8, nemo haec ruminetur; Enn. Epigramm. 509, 
nemo me dacrumis decoret; Cato, Agr. 5, 3, credat nemini. 

non: And. 787, non credas {credes y DP); Plaut. Frag. 147, non hoc 

ne . . . quidem: Hec. 342, ne mittas quidem quemquam. 

Present Prohibitive with Connecting Negatives {neve, neu, 
nive; neque, nee). 

neve, neu: Most. 403, (cave siveris) neu quisquam responset; 
Poen. 18, (ne quis sedeat) neu muttiant, neu obambulet, neu ducat; 
29, neu adferat; 38, (ne palma detur) neve (niveC) extrudantur; 
True. 787, divorsae state, neve inter vos significetis ; Cato, Agr. 5, 4, 
(ne quid velit) neu velit; 83, (ne adsit) neve videat; 143, 1, (rem 
divinam ui faciat) neve mandet; ibid, (quam minimum utatur) neve 
domum recipiat ; ad cenam ne quo eat neve ambulatrix siet ; CIL, i, 
199, 40, (ni quis sicet) nive pascat nive fruatur. 

neque, nee: Amph. 985, nee quisquam, tarn audax fuat; Asm. 775, 
(suspiciones segreget) neque pedem premat; 777, neque det manum; 
778, spectandum ne quoi anulum det neque roget ; 784, (tibi dicat) 
neque nutet; 792, (ne quid commoveat, 785) neque faciat neque 
sciat; 799, (ne faciat) nee accedat nee dicat; 854, neque divini 
neque humani quicquam accreduas ; Bacch. 476, ipsus neque am at 
nee tu creduas ; Capt. 605, neque creduis ; Men. 221, neque defiat 
neque super sit ; And. 205, (ne facias) neque tu haud 1 dicas ; Eun. 
77, (ne te adflictes) neque addas ; 1080, (fatuos est) neque istum 
metuas ; Xaev. Com. 112, linguis faveant nee subserviant. 

For a discussion of the significance of the use of negatives with 
the prohibitive, and for a different interpretation given by Elmer 
to passages introduced by neque, see below. 

1 Haud is here pleonastic. The Mss. here give either hoc dicas or hoc dices. 
Hand dicas is Donatus's reading. 

Prohibitive Subjunctive. 171 

The Perfect Prohibitive. 

As already noted, the perfect use is restricted almost entirely to 

the second singular. 

"With n e. 

Asin. 839, ne dixis; ne sic fueris; Aul. 744, ne istuc dixis; 
Cist. 110, ne quid quod illi doleat dixeris ; Cure. 599, ne parasitum 
amiseris; Epid. 148, ne feceris; so also Men. 415; M. G. 283, 
ne dixis ; 1333, ne interveneris ; Most. 1097, ne occupassis ; 1115, 
ne faxis; Pers. 572, ne parseris; 793, ne attigeris; Poen. 553, ne 
curassis ; 993, ne parseris ; Pseud. 79, ne parsis ; Rud. 1155, ne osten- 
deris ; Trin. 704, ne animum induxeris ; 1012, ne destiteris currere ; 
True. 606, ne responsis; Phor. 742, ne me appellassis ; Ace. 279, 
ne attenderis ; Cato, Agr. 4, ne siveris ; so also 113, 2 ; 37, 1, ne 
indideris ; 45, 2, ne feceris; 93, ne addideris; so also 158, 2; 161, 2, 
ne sarueris. 

The second plural appears in M. G. 862, ne dixeritis ; the 3d 
singular in Phor. 554, ne quid faxit. 

Perfect Prohibitive Introduced by nullus, numquam, nil, 

nemo, etc. 

nullus: Hec. 79, nullus dixeris. 

numquam: Capt. 149, numquam istuc dixis; fetial formula in 
Livy, i, 32, 7, numquam siris. 

nil : Cure. 384, nil me monueris ; M. G. 1007, nihil amassis ; Most. 
526, nil me curassis ; so also Pseud. 232. 

nemo : Cato, Agr. 5, 3, dederit nemini. 

minime: Most. 272, minime feceris. 

Morris, Independent Subjunctive in Plautus, p. 166, notes that 2d 
singulars in -sis occur only in the prohibitive use. 

Perfect Prohibitive with Connecting Negatives, neve, neu, 

neque, nee. 

neve, neu: Merc. 401, (ne duas) neu dixeris ; Pac. 200, neu, quaeso, 

neque, nee : Capt. 149, (numquam dixis) neque animum induxis ; 
Eud. 1028, (abi tacitus) nee me quoiquam indicassis; Stich. 149, 
neque ego te celabo nee tu me celassis ; Trin. 627, noli avorsari 
neque te occultassis; And. 392, nee minueris ; H. T. 975, (ne te 

172 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

admisce) nee tu aram nee precatorem pararis j Lucil. 775, neque 
barbam inmiseris istam; Enn. Epigramm. 509, (nemo me dacrumis 
decoret) nee f unera fletu faxit j Ann. 143, (nee mi aurum posco) nee 
mi pretium dederitis. — Et ne: Cato, Agr. 113, 2. 

On the Use of Negatives in the Prohibitive. 1 

In all original volitive uses, the regular negative in Latin is ne. 
This is not an Indo-European inheritance. In Indo-European the 
negative was ne, which was also the regular particle with the sub- 
junctive in its future use, as well as with the optative in all its 
functions (wishing, prescriptive, potential). There was, however, 
an Indo-European negative me, which was peculiar to the so-called 
"injunctive." This injunctive consisted of forms which were 
outwardly identical with unaugmented praeterite indicatives. In 
function, this injunctive with its accompanying negative me was 
equivalent to a negative imperative, or prohibitive. In Sanskrit we 
find these injunctives somewhat frequently with md ( = I. E. me). 
But all subjunctives and optatives in Sanskrit regularly took na 
(I. E. ne) ; i.e. Sanskrit maintained the Indo-European usage. In 
Greek, after the analogy of the injunctive with fxr) (me), the volitive 
subjunctive and likewise the wishing and prescriptive optative came 
to take ixrj, while the other subjunctive and optative uses (the pure 
future and the potential) abandoned ne for an entirely different 
particle, viz. ov. 

In Latin, the injunctive particle me gained no foothold. Instead, 
we have a new particle ne, as the regular negative of the imperative, 
the volitive, and the optative subjunctive. In a few cases we have 
ni {net), which is employed with independent subjunctives and opta- 
tives (also imperatives) precisely like ne, though it is much less fre- 
quently used and is confined almost exclusively to the early period. 

As regards connecting negatives, Early Latin shows both neve 
(iieu) and neque {nee), but the latter is far commoner, occurring 26 
times as against 10 instances of the former. Barring Poen. 29, neve 

1 Delbriick, Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 388 ff. ; Blase, Hist. Graram. der lat. Spr. iii, 1, 
p. 113 ff. ; 152 ff. ; 176 ff. ; 232 ff. ; Riemann et Goelzer, Grammaire Comparee, ii, 
p. 325 ff. ; Brugmann, Kurze Vgl. Gramm. p. 579 ff. ; Schmalz, Lat. Syntax und 
Stilistik 4 , p. 480 ; Fowler, The Negatives of the Indo-European Languages, 1896 ; 
Elmer, Amer. Jour. Phil, xv, p. 299 ff. 

Prohibitive Subjunctive. 173 

is used only when the preceding clause is prohibitive, and even then 
neque may be used (Seyffert, Bursian's Jahresbericht, 63, p. 37). 
Neque with volitive and optative subjunctives is probably a survi- 
val of the Indo-European use of ne with the subjunctive and optative. 
At all events, with the perfect, the usage seems to have been Italic ; 
for it occurs in Oscan, where nep (= neque) is repeatedly combined 
with the perfect subjunctive in prohibitions; see Buck, Grammar of 
Oscan and Umbrian, § 313. Neque occurs also with the imperative, 
even in Early Latin, e.g. GIL, xi, 4766, ne quis violatod neque 
exvehito neque exferto. 

In Amer. Jour. Phil, xv, p. 299 If., Elmer denies the prohibitive 
character of all the above examples introduced by neque (nee), nullus, 
nemo, nil, numquam, assuming that ne was the only possible negative 
with the prohibitive subjunctive. But this attitude is quite unnec- 
essary, and postulates too great uniformity of usage for language 
in general. The examples with neque, nemo, nullus, etc., Elmer 
regarded as " subjunctives of obligation and propriety," referring the 
idiom to a potential origin. But the possibility of such a develop- 
ment of meaning was not made clear, and Elmer's theory involved 
forced and unnatural interpretations for the passages included under 
it. Eor a detailed criticism of Elmer's position, see Bennett, Cornell 
Studies in Classical Philology, ix, p. 1 ff. A rejoinder was published 
by Elmer in Amer. Jour. Phil, xxi, p. 80 ff. But cf. Blase, Hist. 
Gramm. der lat Spr. iii, 1, p. 197. 

On the Force of Tenses in the Prohibitive. 1 

In the American Journal of Philology, xv, p. 132 ff., Elmer sub- 
jected to fresh criticism the force of tenses in the Latin prohibitive, 
and reached the conclusion that the old distinction drawn by Madvig 
would not hold. Madvig's theory was that in the second singular 
the perfect prohibitive was addressed to a definite second person, 
while the present was indefinite. Elmer showed that this theory 
will not hold for any period of the language or for any author. For 
Early Latin the proof w r as not necessary, as every play abounds in 
prohibitives addressed to a definite second person. In fact this 
represents the prevailing usage. 

1 See especially Elmer, Amer. Jour. Phil, xv, p. 133 ff. ; 299 ff. ; Bennett, Cornell, 
Studies in Classical Philology, ix, p. 48 ff. ; Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, 
1, p. 197; Delbriick, Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 376 ff. 

174 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

But the positive doctrine which Elmer endeavored to set up in 
place of the Madvigian view is quite as untenable. It was this: The 
present is used of ordinary prohibitions, the perfect where there is 
special emotion or excitement. Later (Amer. Jour. Phil, xxi, p. 84), 
this theory was modified somewhat, and the perfect was explained 
as the tense employed when " non-com pliauce with the prohibition 
would be shocking or disastrous." But the whole theory, as is obvi- 
ous, is highly subjective, and has met with but slight favor. On the 
other hand it has met with much criticism, not only as a general 
doctrine, but as applied to authors and periods. 1 Elmer restricted 
the term i prohibitive 9 to forms of the second person accompanied 
by ne, ruling out all third persons and all prohibitions with neque, 
nil, nemo, nullus, numquam, etc. But even in this restricted appli- 
cation of the term he has not succeeded in establishing his doctrine. 

Delbruek's theory (Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 375 ff.) is that the present pro- 
hibitive is durative Q durativ ? ), the perfect aoristic (' momentan ? ) ; 
i.e. the present represents the act as in process, while the perfect 
represents it without reference to continuance or completion. While 
this is in accord with the undoubtedly original force of the two 
tenses, yet I cannot agree with either Delbriick or Blase (Hist. 
Gramm. iii, p. 197) that the instances from Early Latin conform 
entirely to this principle. It is generally true that the perfect pro- 
hibitive preserves its original aoristic force ; but many presents are 
also aoristic and do not emphasize the act as in process. Any one, 
with the above material, can easily make the test for himself. 


There are several very natural developments of the jussive and 
prohibitive. Thus a command may amount to an expression of con- 
sent or permission (' Permissive Subjunctive '), of easy acquiescence 
(' Subjunctive of Acquiescence ? ), or of defiance, etc. 

The Permissive Subjunctive. 

This occurs in both the present and perfect tenses, though spar- 
ingly in the latter. The force varies from pure permission to indif- 
ference. Where the indifference becomes extreme, the subjunctive 

1 Cf. Lebreton, Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciceron, 1901, p. 294 ff. ; 
Clement, Classical Review, xv, p. 157 ff. 

Permissive Subjunctive. 175 

sometimes expresses defiance (e.g. Baech. 224, veniat quando volt ; 
Hec. 634, turbent porro quam velint). The special force of the 
mood is often emphasized by the addition of a clause of proviso, or 
a relative clause with libet, by the presence of vel, mea caussa, or 
some such expression. See the examples. In a few instances we find 
negative permissives. The negative particle with these is ne. 

The Present Permissive. 


Amph. 558, proinde ut lubet quidque facias; 644, absit, dum modo 
domum recipiat se ; 928, tibi habeas res tuas ; Bacch. 224, veniat 
quando volt (defiance); Capt. 693, vel te interisse praedicent; Cist. 
493, habeas ; Cure. 180, dum abstineant, sibi quisque habeant ; Epid. 
679, dum sine me quaeras, quaeras mea caussa vel medio in mari ; 
Merc. 989, sibi habeat; so also Pers. 164; Bud. 1121 ;• Merc. 991, 
supplici sibi sumat quod volt ; Most. 46, tu tibi istos habeas turtures ; 
772, inspiciat si libet; Pers. 352, ferant; 373, dicat quod quisque 
volt ; Bud. 727, habeat, si argentum dabit ; 1165, sit per me quidem ; 
1369, habeas tibi ; so also Stich. 615 ; Trin. 979, dum ne sis quern 
nolo, sis mea caussa qui lubet; True. 736, discant, dum mihi liceat ; 
And. 889, habeat, valeat, vivat; 895, age, dicat: sino ; H. T. 464, 
f aciat quid lubet ; Phor. 341, tu rideas, prior bibas ; prior decumbas ; 
Hec. 634, turbent porro quam velint ; Ad. 134, prof undat, perdat, 
pereat ; nil ad me attinet ; 622, valeas, habeas ; 996, sino : habeat ; 
Ace. 203, oderint, dum metuant ; Naev. Com. 130, dum videat, sciat ; 
Stat. 11, mutuet mea caussa; Afran. 120, iactabit sese; iactet ; 408, 
dum modo doleat aliquid, doleat quid lubet. 

In the affirmative examples of the permissive subjunctive the 
force was, ' you may, if you want/ ' he may, for all I care/ etc. In 
the negative examples, the idea is, 'you needn't, unless you want/ 
etc. Examples : Asin. 460, ne duit, si non volt, ( he needn't give, 
unless he wishes ; ' Aul. 238, ne duas ; 241, novi ; ne doceas ; Epid. 
584, ne fuat, si non volt ; Pers. 851, ne sit ; Bud. 1367, mihi triobo- 
lum ne duis ; Trin. 606, nullus creduas; Vid. 52, ne duis. — With 
connecting negative (neque), Vid. 51, nee mihi nisi unum prandium 
quicquam duis. 

176 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

The Perfect Permissive. 

Of the five instances I have noted, four are negative : Bacch. 90, 
tn nullus adfueris, si non lubet ; Epid. 595, ne f ueris pater ; Rud. 
1135, nullum ostenderis ; And. 892, viceris, i have your way ; ' J Phor. 
514, un am horam ne oppertus sies. 

These examples show no noticeable difference of force between 
the present and perfect in the permissive use. 

The Subjunctive of Compliance. 2 

Closely related to the previous category, but logically distinct from 
it, is the subjunctive of compliance. For the most part it is confined 
to a few formulaic expressions, such as fiat, mos tibi geratur, etc. : 
Am ph. 770, flat ('very well'). The same expression occurs also, 
Asm. 40 ; Aul. 241 ; Capt. 213 ; 966 ; Cure. 673 ; Men. 544 ; Most. 
803; 1038; Pseud. 559; Eud. 1037; 1042; 1337; 1417; 1423; Stich. 
565-, True. 962; Asm. 671, fricentur; Bacch. 537, cena detur, i.e. 
'I'll agree to give you a dinner; 7 so also True. 127; cf. the familiar 
cena tibi dabitur ; Pseud. 559, geratur mos tibi ; so also Asin. 40 ; 
True. 961, utrique mos geratur; And. 956, age fiat; so also H. T. 
790; 948; 1067; Eun. 100; 500; 614; Phor. 811; 1054; Hec. 358; 
Ad. 201 ; 521 ; 945 ; H. T. 743, eatur ; 790, quaeratur aliquid ; Eun. 
1068, audianrus. 

Subjunctive of Unfulfilled Past Obligation. 3 

Just as the present jussive dicat means 'let him say/ 'he is to 
say/ so, by a perfectly natural extension, the past jussive came to 
mean, 'he ought to have said.' This may be made clearer by the 
following English illustration. If I wish a hackman to take me to 
the station at seven o'clock, I say to him, 'You are to come to-mor- 
row at seven o'clock' (yenias eras septima hora). When he fails to 
come, I reprove him for his negligence, saying, ' You were to come at 
seven/' i.e. ' You ought to have come at seven' (venires septima hora). 
The context indicates clearly enough that the past obligation was 
unfulfilled. We thus get a new idiom, which is of somewhat frequent 

1 Ordinarily taken as future perfect; so Fairclough and Ashmore, ad loc; but 
see Sjogren, Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen, p. 155. 

2 Cf. Hale-Buck, Latin Grammar, § 531, 1. 

3 Blase, Hist. Gramm. iii, 1, p. 152. 

Subjunctive of Unfulfilled Past Obligation. 177 

occurrence. In a few instances we have negative expressions of this 
kind. In accordance with their volitive origin, the negative in these 
is regularly ne, though non is found in one passage discussed below. 
In Cicero we find also the pluperfect tense in this idiom, — evidently 
an attempt to bring out with greater distinctness the reference to 
past time. But in Early Latin we find only the imperfect. 

Merc. 633 (quid ego f acerem ? : : quid tu f aceres ? men rogas ?) 
requireres, rogitares ; 636, ubi habitaret invenires ; 637, exquireres ; 
M. Gr. 731, vitam ei longinquam darent; 732, is adimerent animam 
cito; Pers. 710, eras ires potius, hodie hie cenares; Poen. 387, sic 
enim diceres; 391, ea memorares; Pseud. 286, invenires mutuom, 
ad danistam de venires, adderes faenusculum, surruperes patri ; 288, 
surruperet patri? Kud. 379, adservaret, in custodia esset; 842, 
caperes fustem ; True. 748, auferres domum ; And. 793, praediceres ; 
H. T. 533, aliquid reperiret, fingeret fallacias, atque servaret senem ; 
Phor. 297, dotem daretis, quaereret alium virum ; 299, sumeret ali- 
cunde ; 468, illi consuleres ; Hec. 230, curares. 


Men. 611, ne clam me comesses prandium ; Pseud. 437, tu ne 
faceres tale ; Trin. 133, non redderes, neque de illo quicquam neque 
emeres neque redderes neque faceres copiam; Lucil. 498, at enim 
dicis : ' neu muttires quicquam neu mysteria ecferres f oras.' 

We should naturally have expected ne in the third example, and 
the connective neve {neu). But immediately preceding we have non 
redder em ? a normal form of a past deliberative inquiry of duty 
or fitness (see below, p. 182). It is this non redder em, apparently, 
which has changed a normal ne redderes to non redderes, the speaker 
purposely following in his answer the form of the previous inquiry. 
With non, of course, neque (and not neve) naturally followed. 

It is worthy of note that most of the instances of this idiom are 
in the second person. This is entirely natural, for the second person 
present (on which this idiom is modelled) must have been much 
commoner in daily speech than the third ; and it is the positive fre- 
quency of a usage which naturally leads to its extension beyond its 
natural boundaries. 

1T8 Subjunctive in Principal C Ictuses. 

The Jussive as Protasis. 

I have noted few instances of this: Trin. 441, hie postulet fru°i 
esse: nugas postulet ; H. T. 643, melius peius, prosit obsit, nil vident, 
nisi quod lubet; Lucil. 371, visuri sint alieni viri, spiras pallam 
redimicula promit ; Cato, Agr. 157, 4, in ea volnera teras brassicam ; 
sanum faciet ; 157, 14, in fistulam introeat; ea res sanurn faeiet. 
Pseud. 1015, argentum des, abducas mulierem, hardly seems to me 
to belong here. 

The Prohibitive Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. 

Here belongs Merc. 60, ne luberet vivere, which is simply ne 
lubeat, projected into the past. 

The Concessive Subjunctive. 

A natural development of the jussive and prohibitive uses is the 
concessive subjunctive, with the force, C I grant that.' This is a 
fairly frequent idiom in the classical Latinity. In Early Latin I 
have noted only the following example, from Oato, Frag. (Jord.) 
p. 25, 4, sane sint superbi : quid id ad nos adtinet ? 


Under this head are generally brought several classes of subjunc- 
tive uses which, though related in origin, are nevertheless logically 
very distinct from one another. Thus : 

a) Bacch. 406, sequere : : quo sequar ? < where do you bid me, or 
advise me, to follow ? ? 

b) Eun. 523, haec quor quaeritet ? 'why should he ask this?' 
Epid. 588, non patrem te nominem ? ('am I not to call you father ? ') 

c) Bacch. 634, quid faciam ? (soliloquizing, self-interrogatory), 
' what course shall I pursue ? ' 

d) Eun. 822, quid ego dicam misera ? ' dear me ! What can I say V 
implying that the speaker is in a condition where the proposed action 
is hopelessly impossible. 

These four types 2 are seldom differentiated. Usually they are all 

1 Sjogren, Zum Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen, 1904, p. 81. ff. ; Morris, 
On the Sentence-Question in Plautus and Terence, Am. Jour. Phil, x, 397 ff. ; xi, 16 
ff. ; Subjunctive in Independent Sentences in Plautus, Am. Jour. Phil, xviii, 133 ff. 

2 Repudiating Questions are given separate treatment. 

"Deliberative" Subjunctive. 179 

brought roughly under the one head of the " Deliberative." For 
convenience I shall designate them respectively as follows : 

a) Subjunctive of Inquiry after a Command or Advice. 

b) Subjunctive of Duty or Fitness. 

c) True Deliberatives. 

d) Subjunctive of Impossibility or Helplessness. 

Subjunctive of Inquiry after a Command 1 or Advice. 

This seems to be the original type of the four categories above 
mentioned, and is clearly of volitive origin, as may be seen from the 
fact that in many cases the inquiry after a command is preceded by 
an imperative or a jussive subjunctive. Examples: Aul. 638, pone 
hoc : : quid ponam ? 651, redde hue : : quid reddam ? Bacch. 44, 
id caveas : : quid caveam ? 75, simulato : : utrum ioco adsimnlem an 
serio ? 406, sequere : : quo sequar? 731, scribe : : quid scribam? 
Further examples are : Aul. 644 ; Capt. 839 ; 843 ; Cure. 599 ; 721 ; 
Men. 618; Merc. 565; 749; M. G. 363; 459; Most. 513; 579; 
Poen. 357; Pseud. 1184; 1326; Rud. 938; Trim 968; 981; True. 
789 ; H. T. 585, quid faciam ? : : iube hunc abire : : quo ego abeam ? 
Phor. 540; Hec. 715. 

Subjunctive of Duty or Fitness. 

The previous section has dealt with the subjunctive of inquiry 
after a command. A new logical category arises when the inquiry 
after a command implies by the tone or mental attitude of the 
speaker that he recognizes the superior authority, wisdom, or judg- 
ment of the person addressed and wishes to follow his directions. 
'What do you tell me to do?' then becomes 'What should I do?' 
6 What ought I to do ? ' In a number of instances we have a pre- 
ceding imperative, just as in the case of the previous category, e.g. 
Amph. 783, exsolve cistulam : : quid ego istam exsolvam ? M. G. 
318, non iubes ? (=iube) : : quam ob rem iubeam ? Pseud. 1294, 
i in malam crucem : : cur ego adflicter ? Many of these questions 
are, of course, purely rhetorical, — the inquiry, ' Ought I to do this ? ' 
'Am I to do this ?' often implying, 'I ought not to do this.' 

In accordance with their origin, these questions of duty and fitness 

1 Guthmann, Ueber eine Art unwilliger Frageii, 1891, p. 8; Morris, Airier. Jour. 
Phil, xviii, p. 288. 

180 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

are usually in the first person, for they arise from inquiries after a 
command. Such commands are commonly in the second person • 
hence the inquiry is naturally in the first. The second and third 
persons, however, are occasionally found. The second person in the 
few instances in which it occurs does not differ logically from the 
first. In the third person the meaning often is : 'Is it right that he 
should do' or 'be?' ' Is it natural that he should do' or 'be?' 
e.g. H. T. 129, mea solius solliciti sint causa ? ancillae tot me vesti- 
ant? 'Is it right that they should be bothered? 7 M. G. 925, qui 
noverit me ? ' How is he likely to know me ? ' Pers. 636, quae 
(patria) mihi sit, nisi haec ? ' What is it natural ' or ' likely to be 
except this ? ' 

The question may be introduced by the usual interrogative pro- 
nouns and adverbs (quis, quid, cur, quam ob rem, ubi, quo, qui, uncle), 
by utrum, an, -ne, or there may be no introductory particle at all. 

While the idiom originated in the present tense, yet it was also 
extended to the imperfect ; see the examples below. 

Negative questions of duty or fitness are also frequent. They 
present a variety of formal types, which will be considered in their 
proper place. 

In a number of instances it is difficult to decide whether a given 
form is to be regarded as present subjunctive or future indicative, 
for the future indicative may be used with the same logical force as 
the subjunctive of duty or fitness. 

Whether some of the examples brought under this head are not 
to be referred to a potential origin, is a question that has been 
often raised. Delbrtick (Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 389), Elmer (Araer. Jour. 
Phil, xv, p. 299 ff. ; Cornell Studies, vi, p. 213 ff.), along with several 
earlier scholars, answer this question in the affirmative, particularly 
for certain types of negative questions of duty or fitness. Elmer's 
view will be considered below. So far as affirmative questions of 
duty or fitness are concerned, the potential origin is possible for 
only a small fraction of the material in Early Latin ; it is not nec- 
essary for any of it. Asin. 724, quid exoptein ? Stich. 294, an vero 
nugas censeas ? And. 529, quid malim ? 962, quern potissimum 
optem ? Phor. 827, ubinam invenire possim ? represent about all 
the questions of this kind in Early Latin where a potential character 

"Deliberative" Subjunctive. 181 

could be easily defended. But if these are questions of duty and 
fitness, it seems much more probable that they are developments 
— extreme perhaps — of the volitive use. 

Affirmative Questions of Duty ok Fitness. 

Present Tense. 

a) Introduced by Interrogative Pronouns or Adverbs : Amph. 41, 
quid ego memorem ? Asin. 47, cur quaeram aut cur miniter ? 267, ubi 
Libanum requiram ? 716, quern te nominem ? Aul. 713, quo curram ? 
Capt. 739, cur post idem ? Most. 581, quid ego recursem aut operam 
sumam aut conteram ? Pers. 531, quam ob rem argentum enumerem? 
Poen. 386, quo modo orem ? Pseud. 966, unde dicam ? And. 343, ubi 
quaeram ? quo intendam ? 499, quid credas ? H. T. 32, quor insano 
serviat ? Eun. 523, haec quor quaeritet ? Phor. 534, unde argentum 
inveniam ? 1022, qui sperem ? Enn. Trag. 298, quemnam te esse 
dicam ? Ace. 295, cur pigrem aut dubitem ? Turp. 120, quid te ap- 
pellem ? Gracchus (Meyer), p. 239, quo me conferam ? quo me ver- 
tam ? Cato, Frag. (Jord.) p. 27, 6, ecquis me augurem capiat ? I 
have noted 81 further examples of this use in Early Latin. 

b) No Introductory Particle : Asin. 489, tu contumeliam facias ? 
' are you to indulge in abuse ? ' 838, putem ? Bacch. 903, exigam 
aurum ? Pers. 26, cum eis belligerem ? Stich. 297, nunc ultro depor- 
tem? H. T. 414, celem gaudium? Phor. 186, taceam? purgem me? 
813, ilia maneat? 973, venias nunc precibus? Cf. also H. T. 129, 
cited above, p. 180. 

c) Introduced by utrum, an, -ne : Pers. 26, eisne advorser? Stich. 
294, an vero nugas censeas? Eun. 721, utrum praedicemne an taceam? 
Hec. 442, maneamne ? Ad. 128, an ego audiam ? 336, patiamurne an 
narremus ? Ace. 488 ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.) p. 27, 5 ; Hec. 849 ; 852. 
Merc. 128 may be fut. ind. 

Imperfect Tense. 

This is simply the present projected into the past: Merc. 633, quid 
ego facerem ? : : (requireres) ; Rud. 379, quid faceret ? : : (adservaret 
dies noctesque) ; H. T. 532, quid faceret ? : : (aliquid reperiret, fin- 
geret fallacias) ; Trin. 177, an ego paterer ? 178, eius essetne ea pecu- 
nia ? ' Was it fitting that the money should become his ? ' 957, mihi 

182 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

concrecleret, ' Was he likely to intrust it to me ? ' H. T. 202, quern 
ferret ? ' Whom was he to be expected to put up with? ' Eun. 604, an 
ego occasionem amitterem ? < Was I likely to let the chance pass ? ' 

Perfect Tense. 
Merc. 301, ausimne eloqui? The perfect here has aoristic force. 

Negative Questions of Duty or Fitness. 

In logical value these correspond in the main to the affirmative 
questions already considered. Both tenses occur, the present and 
imperfect. The negative is usually ni, 1 a volitive negative found 
with the prohibitive (see p. 169), in purpose clauses, and with other 
subjunctives of volitive origin. We should naturally expect ne, but 
ni is by origin quite as much volitive in character as ne. Less fre- 
quently than ni, we find non. This last usage is probably to be 
accounted for by the fact that with affirmative questions of duty 
and fitness the Eoman mind had come in course of time to feel no 
longer their volitive character. They were conceived of simply as 
questions of duty and fitness, — no longer as inquiries after direc- 
tions or instructions. Hence non came to be used. In the classical 
period, non has entirely usurped the place of the earlier volitive ni. 
This use of non as the regular negative in expressions of this sort in 
the classical period, and its occasional use also in the earlier period, 
led Elmer (Amer. Jour. Phil, xv, p. 314 ff. ; Cornell Studies, vi, 
213 ff.) to deny their volitive origin and to endeavor to explain them 
as potential developments. But it is not easy to see how cnr non 
laeter, for example, as a potential expression meaning, ' Why would 
I not rejoice (if so and so should happen) ? ' could come to mean, 
'Why should (ought) I not rejoice?' The fact that English 
'should' ('ought') has developed into the ' should ' of contingent 
futurity (<I should think,' etc.) might support the same develop- 
ment for Latin ; but it cannot fairly be used as an argument in sup- 
port of the reverse semasiological development, as Elmer seeks to 
employ it. Moreover his theory assumes absolute regularity of 
linguistic development and allows no scope for that inevitable 

1 This type corresponds, therefore, exactly to Greek deliberatives introduced 
by ^. 

"Deliberative" Subjunctive. 183 

breaking away from strict schematic conformity which character- 
izes living speech. See Bennett, Cornell Studies, vi, p. 1 ff. 

Besides non and ni, we find also various other negatives, e.g. qui 
minus, quin, ne . . . quidem, nonne, and nil. 

Present Tense. 

a) Introduced by quid . . . ni or quid ni : Amph. 434, quid ego 
ni negem? Cure. 423, quid ni noverim ? ' Why am I not to be 
supposed to know ? ? So also M. G. 923 ; Men. 912, quid ni sentiam ? 
M. G. 554, quid ni (quid nunc, A) fateare ? 1120, quid ego ni ita 
censeam ? 1311, quid ego ni fleam ? So also Pseud. 96 ; 652, quid 
ego ni teneam ? Stich. 333, quid ni rogitem ? H. T. 529, quid ego 
ni sciam ? Eun. 674, quid ni habeam ? Ad. 573, quid ni noverim ? 
662, quid illam ni abducat ? 726, quid ni patiar ? 

b) With non : Asin. 489, tibi non dicatur ? Epid. 588, non patrem 
te nominem ? And. 921, non tu f eras ? H. T. 583, non accedam ? 
Hec. 341, non visam ? Lucil. 551, non appellem ? 

The foregoing examples have non alone. The following have non 
in combination with another particle : Aul. 713, quo non curram ? 
M. G. 317, cur non rogem ? Most. 209, cur non curem ? Cure. 10, 
egon non feram ? Phor. 260, egon illi non suscenseam ? 

c) With quin. The only example of this category ordinarily 
reckoned here is M. G. 426, quin rogem ? But with equal confidence 
I should recognize also the following: Eun. 811, quin redeamus ? 
(taken as " deliberative" by Sjogren, Zum Gebrauch des Futurums im 
Altlateinischen, p. 77) ; Phor. 1015, sed ea quin sit ignoscenda ? 
Lucil. 336, quin potius vitam degas quietam ? may also belong here. 1 

d) With qui minus: Amph. 76, qui minus eadem histrioni sit lex 
quae summo viro ? 986, mihi qui minus liceat ? Merc. 825, qui minus 
contentus sit ? 

e) Other forms : Hec. 811, nil aliud dicam ? Phor. 412, an ne hoc 
quidem adipiscar ? Pacuv. 129, nonne ofheium fungar volgi ? 

Imperfect Tense. 
Cure. 552, nonne is crederem ? The use of nonne in questions of 
this type, if not absolutely unknown in the later language, is at all 

1 Morgan also, Addresses and Essays, p. 137 f., recognizes the Terentian and 
Lucilian passages as illustrating the deliberative with quin. 

184 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

events exceedingly rare. Other examples : Trin. 133, non ego illi 
argentum reclderem ? Most. 454, cur non tangerem ? Eun. 481, quid 
ni esset ? Lucil. 463, quid nei illitteratum me diceres ? 

True Deliberative Subjunctives. 1 

The number of subjunctives that can with accuracy be called 
deliberative is exceedingly small. Most of those subjunctives ordi- 
narily designated as deliberative have nothing deliberative about 
them, but are more properly classified under the two preceding 
categories or under the following one. The only uses to which the 
term " deliberative " may fairly be applied are those in which the 
speaker is represented as actually deliberating with himself as to 
what course of action he shall pursue. Instances of this sort are 
few. As examples may be cited : Cure. 589, quid ego faciam ? 
maneam an abeam ? M. G. 305, quid ego nunc faciam ? So also 
Merc. 712 ; Cist. 528, quid ego nunc agam ? So Most. 662 ; Trin. 
718 ; And. 846 ; Ad. 784 ; And. 639, sed quid agam ? adeamne et 
expostulem? ingeram mala? H. T. 674, quid agam? aut quid com- 
miniscar ? Ad. 625, nunc quid faciam, Asin. 258, unde sumam ? 
quern intervortam? quo hanc eeloeem conferam ? Capt. 531, quid 
machiner ? quid comminiscar ? Cist. 641, utrum hac me feriam 
an ab laeva ? And. 259, nunc quid primum exsequar ? 468, quod 
remedium nunc inveniam ? So Phor. 200 ; Eun. 46, quid igitur 
faciam ? non earn ? an me comparem . . . redeam ? 966, quid 
faciam ? quidve incipiam ? dicam an non dicam ? Ad. 625, dicam 
f ratris esse hanc ? Enn. Trag. 231, quo nunc me vortam ? quod iter 
incipiam ? 

Most of these cases seem fairly certain illustrations of the usage 
under discussion. But I should not venture to add to the foregoing 
examples. Most of them, it will be noted, contain the particles 
nunc or igitur, both natural concomitants of a question of delibera- 
tion ; or else we have a double question, an equally natural sign of 
deliberation. In one or two instances we have negative questions. 
With these the negative is non. 

In origin these deliberatives are very closely related to the fore- 

1 See Drager, Hist. Synt. i, § 148, who takes this usage as potential ; Kiihner, Ausf. 
Lat. Gramm. ii, § 47, 2 ; Guthmann, Ueber eine Art unwilliger Fragen, p. 5; Morris, 
Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 288. 

"Deliberative " Subjunctive. 185 

going category of the subjunctive of duty and fitness. The question 
in the subjunctive of duty or fitness is addressed to some one else. 
In the true deliberatives it is addressed to oneself. 

Subjunctive of Impossibility or Helplessness. 

The subjunctive of duty or fitness often develops by a perfectly 
natural process into a question or exclamation implying impossibility 
or helplessness; i.e. quid faciam, for example, from meaning, 'What 
should I do ? ? comes as a result of the context to mean, c What can 
I do ? J in the sense of, ' I can do nothing.' The usage occurs 
mainly in the present tense and in the 1st person, but instances of 
the imperfect and perfect occasionally occur. Sometimes too we 
find the 2d person. From the nature of the case there are no nega- 
tive subjunctives of this type. 

It is not always easy, as it is not necessary, to draw a sharp line of 
division between subjunctives of duty or fitness, on the one hand, 
and subjunctives of impossibility or helplessness, on the other. 
Doubtless interpreters would differ in their understanding of nu- 
merous passages. This, however, is of small significance. That in 
a large number of cases the notion of impossibility or helplessness 
has developed, is sufficiently obvious, and the extent of the material 
coming under this head amply justifies the recognition of the cate- 
gory. As typical cases may be cited the following : 

Present Tense. 

Amph. 155, quid faciam ? So Merc. 207 ; Pers. 42. Often in the 
fuller form: quid ego nunc faciam? as Cas. 549; Cure. 555; Men. 
963 ; Amph. 1046, quid nunc agam ? So Aul. 274 ; Most. 378 ; Bacch. 
630, unde habeam ? Capt. 208, quo fugiamus ? Eud. 204, quam spem 
capessam ? 653, quid ilium porro praedicem ? Phor. 199, quid agam ? 
So 728 ; Hec. 444; Ad. 789, quid faciam ? quid agam ? Eun. 610, ubi 
mutem ? 822, quid ego dicam misera? Phor. 185, quod remedium 
inveniam ? Ad. 256, quid ego nunc te laudem ? 528, quid dicam ? 
614, quo modo me expediam ? Enn. Trag. 75, quid petam ant 
exsequar ? quove auxilio freta sim ? 77, quo accedam ? quo applicem ? 
Turp. 196, quid agam ? 

The following are examples of the second person : H. T. 317, quid 

186 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

illo facias? 642, quid agas? So Eun. 74; Ad. 433; Ad. 330, quid 
credas ? quoi credas ? 431, quid facias ? 

The three following examples seem also to belong here, though 
it is possible that they may be of potential origin: Asin. 506, ubi 
pieni Pietatem? Pseud. 1095, unde ea sit mihi? And. 613, qua 
(auda)cia id f acere audeam ? 

Imperfect Tense. 

Here we have the natural projection of the present into the past, 
as in previous related categories : Merc. 884, quid ibi faceres ? The 
Mss. have qui Ubi facer his (facere vis, B); faceres is Laehmann's 
conjecture. And. 53, qui scire posses ? Eun. 831, quid facerem ? 
So Ad. 214; 691, qua resciscerem ? 

Perfect Tense. 
This usage arises by an extension analogous to that already noted 
under the imperfect. The perfect here functions as a true present 
perfect: Amph. 748, ubi audiverim ? 'Where am T to have heard 
it? ? 'Where am I to be supposed to have heard it? 7 i.e. 'I can't 
have heard it.' Cas. 617, quid (quod, Mss.; quot, Lindsay) ego 
inique f ecerim ? 'What wrong can I ever have done?' i.e. 'I can 
never have done any such wrong.' 

Subjunctive in Repudiating Questions and 
Exclamations. 1 

In these the speaker repudiates with scorn or indignation some 
command or imputation, or expresses his disdain at some proposal 
of another person. The origin of these repudiating questions or 
exclamations is, I believe, to be found in passages like M. G. 496, 
vicine ausculta : : ego auscultem tibi ? The context shows that the 
inquiry is uttered with contempt. The subjunctive in such cases 
was the subjunctive of inquiry after a command, but the indignant 
attitude of the speaker develops a repudiating force. As a result of 

1 Kraz, Sogenannte unwillige oder missbilligende Frage, 1862; Miiller, G., Ueber 
die sogenannten unwilligen oder misbilligenden Fragen, 1875 ; Schnoor, Zum Gebrauch 
von ut bei Plautus, 1885, p. 3; Guthmann, Ueber erne Art unwilliger Fragen, 1891; 
Dahl, Lat. Partikel VT, 1882, p. 298 ff. ; Morris, Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 288 ff. ; 
Drager, Hist. Synt. ii, § 520 ; K'uhner, Ausf. Lat. Gramm. ii, § 47, 2; Dittmar, Studien 
z, Lat- Moduslehre, 1897, p. 79 ff. 

Repudiating Questions and Exclamations. 187 

the frequency of such, expressions, a new category was formed. As 
soon as it became firmly established, it naturally began to extend 
beyond its original limits, and as a result we find repudiating 
questions and exclamations where no vestige of an inquiry after a 
command is discernible or even conceivable, e.g. Capt. 207, fingitis 
f ugain : : nos fugiamus ! The idiom is even transferred to the past, 
e.g. Phor. 120, ille daret illi! Men. 678, pallam quam tibi dedi 
mihi redde : : . . . mihi tu dederis pallam ! 

Repudiating questions and exclamations may be used either with 
or without particles. The particles employed are -ne, ut, -ne id, utin. 
Whether these particles are interrogative or merely strengthening, 
will be considered below. 

Negative repudiating questions and exclamations also occur. The 
negative is regularly non. In a single instance we find ni. The 
connecting negative neque is also found once. 

Affirmative Repudiating Questions and Exclamations. 

No Introductory Particle. 


Illustrations of origin : Aul. 81, intus serva : : ego intus servem ! 
Asin. 91, me defraudato : : defrudem te ego! Bacch. 627, non taces? 
(= tace) : : taceam ! Cure. 553, vale : : quid ! valeam ! Men. 1023, med 
emittas maim : : liberem te ! Most. 618, iube obicere : : iubeam ! 633, 
die te daturum : : ego dicam dare ! Pseud. 1226, Pseudolum mihi 
dedas : : Pseudolum ego dedam tibi! And. 649, habeas :: habeam ! 
894, audi : : ego audiam ! Eun. 796, Pamphilam hue redde : : tibi illam 
reddat aut tu earn tangas! Phor. 987, non taces :: taceam ! 1000, 
narra : : tibi narret ! 

Uses modelled on the preceding type. In these there is no inquiry, 
after a command: Amph. 813, vir ego tuos sim ! Asin. 482, tibi sup- 
plicium detur! Aul. 45, tibi ego rationem reddam ! Bacch. 1176, 
exores tu me ! Cas. 114, tua illaec praeda sit ! (est, P) ; 454, deoscu- 
lere! Most. 896, tibi obtemperem! Pseud. 486, aps ted auf eram ! 
Asin. 812; 814; Merc. 575; Pseud. 318; 626; Stich. 471; Trin. 515; 
And. 619, tu rem restituas ! 900, adducas ! 915, hie vir sit bonus ! 
Hec. 524, vir ego tuos sim ! Eun. 676 ; Hec. 589 ; 671 ; Ad. 938 ; 

188 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses, 

Enn. Trag. 195, Helene redeat, virgo pereat ! tua reconcilietur uxor, 
raea necetur filial 121, ego letum inimico deprecer! Afran. 161, 
pistori nubat! 


The instances of the imperfect all represent derived uses of the 
present projected into the past: And. 282, mem or essem! Phor. 120, 
ille daret illi ! 382, nossem ! Ad. 396, sinerem ilium ! 


Of the three instances of the perfect tense in this use, one is 
aoristic and looks forward to the future, viz. True. 625, quid! 
manu vicerim ! The other two refer to the past : Most. 1026 d, ille 
aedis emeriti Hec. 138, cum virgine una adulescens cubuerit, sese 
ilia abstinere ut potuerit ! 

Introduced by -ne. 


Illustrations of origin : Asin. 91, me defrudato : : ten ego defru- 
dem ! 696, meum collum circumplecte : : ten complectatur ! Cure. 
119, salve : : egon salva sim ! Pers. 186, da pignus : : egon dem pig- 
nus tecum ! Pseud. 1315, onera : : egon istum onerem ! 1327, mecum 
i (cle conj.) : : egone earn ! And. 383, die : : egon dicam ! H. T. 1015, 
confitere : : egon confitear ! Eun. 152, nil respondes ? (= responde) : : 
egon quicquam tibi respondeam ! 

Uses modelled on the preceding type : Asin. 628, tun verberes ! 669, 
ten osculetur ! 700, ten ego veham ! tun hoc f eras ! 810, egon haec patiar 
aut taceam ! Aul. 756, tun habeas ! 824, egon te emittam ! Bacch. 
1192; Cas. Ill; Cure. 494; Epid. 518; 574; Men. 559; M. G. 686; 
1276; Most. 301; Pers. 135; 295; Poen. 368 ; Pseud. 205 b; 290; 
Stich. 132 ; True. 276 ; 312 ; 775 ; 925 ; And. 270, egon istuc conari 
queam ! 271, egon illam decipi sinam ! 910, tun haec facias ! 943, 
egon patiar ! Eun. 191, egon quid velim ! 808 ; Phor. 431 ; Hec. S52 ; 
Ace. 231, egone Argivom imperium attingam aut Pelopia digner 
domo ! Stat. 221, egon vitam meam contendam cum tua ! 232 ; Lucil. 

Repudiating Questions and Exclamations. 189 


Triii. 961, eine aurum crederem ! And. 584, egon istuc facerem ! 
Ad. 676., advorsumne ilium causam dicerem ! 


Am ph. 818, tun mecum fueris ! In this instance the reference is 
to the past. In the four following examples we have ausim used 
aoristically : Merc. 154, egon ausim proloqui ! Most. 923, egon te 
ausim f allere ! So 924 ; Poen. 149. 

Whether -ne in the foregoing examples is the interrogative or 
asseverative particle, cannot be determined conclusively. Warren in 
Amer. Jour. Phil, ii, 50 f£., seems to have established the existence of 
an affirmative or asseverative -ne, and (p. 78 f.) recognizes it in ex- 
pressions of the sort under discussion. Dahl (Lat. Partikel VT, p. 
299 ff.) does the same, urging as a reason the greater force thus lent 
to the repudiation. But we can hardly regard this as final. I regard 
the question as still open, therefore. 

Introduced by ut. 


Amph. 694, te ut deludam ! Bacch. 375, ut celem patrem tua flagi- 
tia ! Most. 14, comesse ut quisquam possit ! Pers. 132, me ut quis- 
quam norit ! Poen. 316, ut quidem tu huius oculos tractes ! Trin. 750, 
ut ego thesaurum indicem ! And. 618, tibi ego ut credam ! H. T. 1050, 
mea bona ut dem Bacchidi ! Phor. 669, me ille ut inrideat ! Ad. 654, 
virginem ut secum avehat! This may be simply an echo of the 
previous purpose clause, in v. 653. 


Enn. Trag. 227, ut ego illi supplicarem ! 


Men. 683, mihi tu ut dederis pallam ! Some take this as depend- 
ent on the following numquam factum reperies. But this is tame 
and quite unnecessary. Most. 1017, mecum ut ille gesserit ! H. T. 
954, ut pater eiecerit ! 

Ut in the foregoing examples is variously interpreted. Dahl (Lat. 

190 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Partikel VT, p. 301) confidently asserts that the ut here cannot be either 
the indefinite or the interrogative particle, and so proposes to explain 
expressions of this type as the result of ellipsis, supplying in sense 
putasne fieri posse or something of the sort. Morris, on the other 
hand (< Sentence Question/ Amer. Jour. Phil, xi, p. 176), says, " it is 
plain that ut is interrogative in these questions." Morris's view is 
the traditional, and probably, the prevailing one ; yet I have never 
been able to accept it. Unless we abandon the volitive theory of 
these clauses, I am at a loss to see how ut can here be interrogative. 
And I cannot abandon the theory of their volitive origin in view of 
their logical and formal relationship to expressions like ego intus 
servem! defruclem te ego! It seems to me, therefore, much more 
probable that ut in these expressions is the indefinite, or strengthen- 
ing, ut. I should therefore regard the ut in And. 618, tibi ego ut 
credam ! as of precisely the same nature as in miJii ut credas (' Just 
believe me!'), i.e. in both cases as an asseverative or strengthening 

particle ; cf . p. 165. 

Introduced by -ne ut. 


Aul. 690, egon ut mentiar ! Bacch. 375, egone ut haec gestem clancu- 
lum ! 637, egone ut putem ! 842, meamne ut retineat mulierem ! Cure. 
616, mean ancilla libera ut sit ! Pseud. 516, egone ut cavere nequeam ! 
Kud. 1244, egone ut celem ! Trin. 378, egone indotatam te uxorem 
ut patiar ! True. 758, egone ut haec mihi patiar fieri ! And. 263, em 
ego ut advorser ! H. T. 784, egon ut ei despondeam ! Eun. 771, han- 
cine ego ut contumeliam accipiam ! Phor. 304, egon illam ut patiar ! 
955, hicine ut tantum argentum auferat ! 992, hicine ut tibi respon- 
deat ! Ace. 427, egone ut hosti me off eram ! 


M. G. 962, egone ut auderem ! 

Introduced by utin. 

Present Tense : Merc. 576, utine vomitum excutias mulieri ! Kud. 
1063, utine istic prius dicat ! Hec. 199, utin omnes mulieres eadem 
studeant nolintque! 

Imperfect : Phor. 874, utine haec ignoraret suom patrem ! 

Perfect : Epid. 225, utin impluvium induta fuerit ! 

Optative Uses. 191 

Negative Kepudiating Questions and Exclamations. 

The negative here is non, to be explained in the same way as in 
connection with the subjunctive of duty and fitness (p. 179). There 
is also a single instance of ni. The same introductory particles are 
employed as in affirmative repudiating questions, viz. -ne, ut, -ne ut, 
utin, but these particles are not necessary. The imperfect tense 
occurs as well as the present. 

No introductory particle : Phor. 419, ne agas : : non agam ! Eun. 
798, ego non tangam meam ! Poen. 352, ego non (nunc, codd.) te 
curem ! Rud. 723, mihi non liceat (licet, codd.) abducere ! True. 443, 
ego isti non munus mittam ! Hec. 342, non visas ! — Imperfect 
Tense : Eun. 591, ego hoc homuncio non facerem ! 

Introduced by -we: Capt. 139, ne fie : : egone ilium non fleam! 
egone non defleam ! Titin. 81, tibin ego non delicem ! 

Introduced by ut: Poen. 429, ut non ego te emittam manu ! 

Introduced by utine : Hec. 66, utine eximium neminem habeam ! 

Introduced by -ne ut: Asin. 884, egon ut non subripiam pallam 
atque ad te deferam ! True. 441, egone illam ut non amem ! egone illi 
ut non bene velim ! — Imperfect Tense: Bacch. 197, egone ut non 
redderem ! 

Negative ni: Pseud. 917, quippe ego te ni contemnam! 

Connecting Negative : Hec. 199, utin omnes inulieres eadem stu- 
deant nolintque neque quicquam reperias ! 


The optative is extensively used in Early Latin. All four tenses 
occur, though the imperfect and pluperfect are relatively rare. The 
usual negative is ne, but other negatives (numquam and non) occur in 
a few instances. As connecting negatives we find both neve (neu) and 
neque (nee). The present and perfect are frequently reenforced by 
strengthening particles, especially utinam, uti, qui. A special use is 
that in asseverations. Here the optative is introduced by ita and is 
often followed by an i^-clause correlative with ita. 

1 Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Sprache, iii, p. 131 ; 154 ; 179 ff. ; 232 ; Delbriick, Vergl. 
Synt. ii, p. 385; 389; 398 f . ; Drager, Hist. Synt. i, p. 310 ff.; Kiihner, Ausf. lat. 
Gramm. ii, § 47, 4, 5; Morris, Independent Subjunctive in Plautus, Amer. Jour. Phil, 
xviii, p. 133 ff. 

192 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Present Optative. 


Without Particles. 

Under this head belong the bulk of all independent optatives found 

in Early Latin. The material is extensive, but falls chiefly under a 

few oft-recurring formulas, of which di te ament, di te perdant, di 

faciant, di dent, salvos sis, valeat, etc., are the types. 

a) Type di te (me, vos, ilium, etc.,) per dant : Aul. 645; 658-, Capt. 
868; 909; Cas. 275; 609; and in 20 other passages. —In the form 
di te perduint : Asm. 467 ; Cas. 642 ; Cure. 720 ; and in 8 other pas- 
sages. — In the form Tupiter te perdat: Amph. 569; Cure. 622; and 
in 2 other passages. — Iupiter te perduit: Epid. 66-, Poen. 739. 

b) Type salvos sis: Aul. 182; Bacch. 456; 536; Epid. 548; 549; 
and in 16 other passages. 

c) Type di faciant : Amph. 380; Aul. 545; 789; and in 11 other 

d) Type di tibi dent: Asin. 46; Epid. 6; M. G. 1038; and in 9 
other passages. — The form duint occurs in this formula in Pseud. 
936 ; Trin. 436 ; and in 3 other passages. 

e) Type di te ament: Aul. 183; Bacch. 457; and in 14 other pas- 

f ) Type di bene vortant : Aul. 175 ; 257 ; and in 10 other passages. 

g) Type valeas: Cas. 216; Pers. 224; and in 3 other passages. 

h) Type di te infelicent: Cas. 246; Epid. 13; and in 4 other 

i) Expressions similar in general character to those already noticed, 
but not occurring with frequency, e.g. Aul. 546, istuc sospitent ; Capt. 
355, di tibi omnia offerant ; so Ad. 978 ; Cure. 130, male tibi di faciant; 
so Phor. 394 ; Cure. 588, male sit tibi ; Merc. 327, bene sit tibi ; so 
Pseud. 714 ; Trin. 715, bene eveniat ; Cure. 39, male istis evenat ; 
H. T. 1038, di istaec prohibeant; so Hec. 207 ; Ad. 700, di me oderint ; 
And. 761, di te eradicent ; so H. T. 589. Other expressions of curs- 
ing occur at Aul. 776 ; Most. 192 ; 655 ; Pers. 831 ; of praying : Pseud. 
121 ; Ace. Praetext. 36. 

j) Apart from the foregoing, there are few instances of the con- 
struction. Examples are: Asin. 770, caeca sit; Amph. 392, Mercu- 

Optative Subjunctive. 193 

rius Sosiae iratus siet ; 935, propitius sit potius ; Asin. 15, pariter 
nunc Mars adiuvet ; M. G. 936, bene rem geras ; Pers. 189, bona pax 
sit potius; 269, vapulet ; Pseud. 934, Iupiter te mihi servet; Trin. 
351, quod non habes habeas ; cf. also Poen. 1002 ; 1409 ; Ace. 156. 

k) In Poen. 860, quern anient igitur ? we have an interrogative 
optative, ' Whom do you wish that they love ? ? Cf . 859. 

Present Optative with Reenforcing Particles. 

With particles the present optative has substantially the same use 
as without. We find several of the same oft-recurring formulas, 
notably qui (ut, utinam) di te perdant. But on the whole the con- 
struction is more flexible, and we find relatively a much greater pro- 
portion of non-formulaic expressions. 

In a few cases where the optative is introduced by utinam, the 
present is used for the imperfect and expresses a regret at the non- 
reality of the idea involved. 

a) Introduced by qui. This qui is the indefinite adverb. By origin 
it was probably an instrumental or ablative : hence the meaning, ' in 
some way/ 'just/ 'only.' Examples: Cas. 279, qui ilium di per- 
dant; so Eud. 1166; Trin. 923; 998; Men. 451, qui ilium di omnes 
perduint; 933; Phor. 123. 

b) Introduced by ut. For the force and origin of this particle, see 
p. 164. Examples: Aul. 785, ut ilium di perduint; so Merc. 710; 
H. T. 810 ; Cas. 238, ut te Mercurius perdat ; so Ad. 713 ; Plaut, 
Frag. 21, ut ilium di perdant; so Pers. 298; Eun. 302; Phor. 687; 
Naev. Com. 19 ; Stat. 114, ut te di inf elicent ; Asin. 21, ut superstes 
uxor siet, atque ut pestem oppetas ; Pers. 290; Poen. 912, valeas 
beneque ut tibi sit ; Rud. 82, ut hostes diffidant sibi. 

c) Introduced by utinam. Wishes introduced by utinam show an 
absence of the formulaic expressions so common in wishes introduced 
by ut and qui. Examples : Asin. 615, utinam sic eff eramur ; 840, 
utinam rideant ; Epid. 196, utinam conveniam * Periphanem ; Men. 
1104 ; M. G. 1010, utinam potestas evenat ; Most. 233 ; Pers. 289 ; 
Pseud. 108 ; Eud. 158 ; Trin. 618, utinam te rediisse salvom videam ; 
And. 931, utinam id sit ; Eun. 655, utinam sic sint ; 1028, utinam 

1 Schmalz, Synt. u. Stil. 3 p. 329, denies the use of the optative 1st sing, in Early 
Latin ; but this and several following examples sufficiently attest the usage. 

194 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

videam ; Hec. 536, utinam sciam ; Ad. 972 ; Enn. Trag. 170 ; Pacuv. 
139 ; Ace. 167 ; Turpil. 125 ; 192 ; 207 ; Stat. 57. 

In the following the present has the force of the imperfect: A sin. 
418, utinam stimulus mini sit; Enn. 210, utinam possis. 

d) Introduced by utinam modo, modo id : Aul. 433, utinam mea 
modo auferam ; And. 409, modo ut possim ; Phor. 712, ut modo fiant ; 
773, modo ut possiet. 

Asseverative Use of the Present Optative. 

A typical illustration of the asseverative use is Cas. 452, ita me 
di anient, ut ego vix reprimo labra. Numerous also are the 
instances in which the asseverative optative with ita is followed, not 
by an ^-clause, but by an independent indicative or subjunctive, as 
M. G-. 501, ita me di anient . . . dedecoris pleniorem erum faciam 
tuom (512). In both types of usage the almost unvarying formula 
is : ita me di anient (Venus amet, Iupiter amet). 

a) Type ita . . . ut: Aul. 445, ita me amet Laverna uti te diffe- 
ram ; uti here is Gotz's conjecture. Similarly Bacch. Ill ; 892 ; Capt. 
878 ; Pers. 492 ; Pseud. 943 ; H. T. 686 ; Most. 182, ita tu me ames, ita 
Philolaches tuos te amet, ut venusta's ; Poen. 1258, med ita di ser- 
vent, ut hie pater est voster ; Phor. 807. In the foregoing we have 
the present indicative in the i^-clause. The following examples 
show other forms: Cure. 208, ita me Venus amet, ut ego numquam 
sinam; Hec. 579, ita me di anient itaque obtingant ut numquam com- 
mend ; H. T. 1030, ita mihi sis superstes, ut ex me natus es ; Poen. 
289, ita me di ament, ut malim ; Stich. 742, ita me Venus amet, ut 
ego exissem. 

b) Type without ut in the second clause. Usually the second 
clause stands in the present indicative, e.g. Most. 170, ita me di 
ament, lepidast; Poen. 504 ; 1413; Stich. 685; And. 947; Eun. 474; 
615; Phor. 165; Hec. 258; 276. In the following examples, ita me 
di ament is contained within the related clause or else follows it: 
H. T. 383, minume, ita me di ament, miror; Eun. 882, te quoque iam, 
ita me di ament, amo; Phor. 954; Hec. 206; 233; 642. 

Other tenses of the indicative also occur in the second clause, e.g. 
(Imperfect), Amph. 597, neque, ita me di ament, credebam ; (Future) 
Cure. 574, ita me bene iuvent, iam ego te faciam ; Stich. 754 ; (Per- 

Optative Subjunctive. 195 

feet) M. G. 725, ita me di anient, aequom fuit; 1403; Poen. 1325; 
H. T. 569 ; Eun. 1037 ; Phor. 883. Sometimes the ita me di anient is 
followed by a mere exclamation, as Pers. 639, ita me di ament, sapi- 
enter! Trim 1024, — graphicum furem! Sometimes it occurs alone, 
without corresponding clause, as Hec. 864. The subjunctive follows 
in Poen. 827 and H. T. 953. 

Negative Present Optatives. 

Introduced by ne : Most. 307, ne umquam quisquam invideat ; 
Trin. 351, quod habes ne habeas ; Ad. 835, ne modo nos tuos animus 

Introduced by non, numquam : Bacch. 504, mihi numquam quis- 
quam creduat; Cist. 555, utinam non queas; True. 306, numquam 
mihi quisquam creduit. 

Connecting negatives. Here we find only neque (nee) : Bacch. 
847, neque Bellona mi neque Mars creduat; Pseud. 272, neque 
ament neque faciant bene; Enn. Trag. 363, neque umquam extollas. 
Cf. also Poen. 859, di omnes ament — : : quemnam hominem? : : nee 
te nee me. 

Perfect Optative. 1 

Without Particles. 

The material under this head is restricted almost exclusively to 
s-forms, and of these, faxit, faxint are by far the most frequent. They 
look forward to the future. 

Faxit, faxint: Aul. 149, ita di f axint ; so 257; 788; Capt. 172; 
and in 14 other instances. 

Other verbs: Asin. 654, di te servassint; so Cas. 324; Pseud. 37; 
Trin. 384; Cist. 742, servassit; Pseud. 14, prohibessit; Plant. Frag. 
63, mihi Laverna in furtis celebrassit manus; Afran. 264, di te 
mactassint malo; Pacuv. 112, di monerint meliora, amentiam aver- 
runcassint tuam, quoted by Lucil. 466; Men. 295, perieris; Stich. 
385, perierint. 

1 Cf. Liibbert, Der Conjunktiv Perfecti und das Futurum Exactum im alteren 
Latein, 1867, p. 30 ff. 

196 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses, 

With Particles. 
Amph. 632, utinam di f axint ; so also H. T. 161; Hec. 354; Aul. 
50, utinam me adaxint ad suspendium; Cas. 398, utinam sors deli- 
querit; Poen. 799, utinam abierit malam crucem ; Enn. Trag. 289 
qui ilium di mactassint malo; And. 463, utinam hie surdus aut haec 
muta facta sit ; Ad. 507, utinam hie sit moclo def unctum. In the 
preceding the reference is to the future. In the following example 
we have a true present perfect, H. T. 617, ut satis contemplata sis, 
' may you have examined it enough/ i.e. ' I hope you have examined 
it sufficiently/ 

Asseverative Uses of the Perfect Optative. 
Capt. 622, ita me faxit patriae compotem, ut Philocrates non est ; 
Cure. 577, ita me amassint, ut non facio ; Stich. 505, ita meas servas- 
sint filias, ut mihi volup est. 

Negative Perfect Optatives. 

Bacch. 468, ne di sirint; so Merc. 323; 613; Cornelia (Peter), 
p. 222, 36 ; Eud. 790, numquam hercle quisquam me lenonem dix- 
erit, si te non ludos pessumos dimissero. Connecting negative, Cure. 
27, nee me sirit (sinit, codd.) Iupiter. 

Morris, Independent Subjunctive in Plautus, p. 166, notes that 
perfects in -sit, sint are restricted almost exclusively to the optative 

Imperfect Optative. 

In the imperfect tense the optative expresses a regret at the 
non-existence of something, and is regularly accompanied by utinam. 
Usually the reference is to the present, but in two instances it is 
to the past. Examples : Amph. 575, utinam ita essem ; Merc. 823, 
utinam lex esset; Rud. 533, utinam uterer. The other examples 
are Trim 1028 ; And. 606 ; Eun. 91 ; 175 ; Ad. 453. Referring to 
the past : Capt. 537, utinam te di prius perderent ; Rud. 494, utinam 
prius in Sicilia perbiteres. 

A peculiar instance of the imperfect optative is found in Most. 
183, ita ego istam amarem. This is simply an asseverative ita ego 
istam amem (cf. 182, ita Philolaches te amet) projected into the past. 

No illustrations of the negative with the imperfect optative occur 
in Early Latin. 

Potential Uses. 197 

The Pluperfect Optative. 

Here utinam is invariably present A number of negative uses 

Affirmative: Amph. 386, utinam istuc pugni fecissent tui; Bud. 
497, utinam eubuissem; True. 375, utinam rei parsisses ; Naev. Com. 
43, utinam nasum abstulisset ; Ace. 52, utinam me mactasset. 

Negative : Enn. Trag. 205, utinam ne accedisset trabes ; 241, uti- 
nam ne umquam pedem extulisses ; Phor. 157, utinam ne in mentem 
incidisset. — Connecting negatives : Enn. Trag. 205, utinam ne acce- 
disset trabes neve coepisset ; Phor. 157, utinam ne Phormioni in 
mentem incidisset neu me impulisset. 


Potential uses fall into several categories. The commonest of 
these is that indicated by the English auxiliaries ' should, 7 ' would.' 
But there are also 'may' and <can ? potentials. These last two 
varieties, however, are much less frequent. 

The 'Should'- 6 Would' Potential. 

Under this head belong those uses in which the validity of the 
statement is represented as dependent upon some condition expressed 
or understood. When the condition is expressed, we get one of the 
regular types of conditional sentences. But there is really no differ- 
ence in putem, for example, whether we say, eitm fidelem esse putem, 
or eum si laudes, fidelem esse putem. 

All four tenses of the subjunctive occur in this use, though the 
present is much the commonest. 

Present Tense. 

1 have elsewhere 2 applied the designation ' Contingent Futurity' 
to the use now under consideration. The usage is Indo-European, 
and is probably the starting-point of the somewhat different uses of 

iKiihner, Ausf.Lat. Gramm. ii, §46; Drager, Hist. Synt.i, § 148; Blase, Hist. Gramm. 
iii, p. 139 ff. ; 155 ff. ; 202 ff.; 226 ff. ; Delbriick, Vergl. Synt. ii. p. 387 ff. ; 399; Morris, 
Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 284 ff.; 384 ff.; Rodenbusch, De temporum usu Plautino, 
1888, p. 57 ff. 

2 Latin Language, § 355 ; 360 ; Critique of Subjunctive Theories, Cornell Studies, ix, 
passim ; see also above, p. 161. 

198 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

the imperfect and pluperfect tenses. In a number of instances the 
contingency is so slight and so vague that the difference between 
subjunctive and indicative sinks to a minimum. Here belong par- 
ticularly velim, nolim, malim, as softened forms of statement foivolo, 
nolo , malo; but a number of other typical uses of a similar sort also 

Examples : Amph. 985, nee quisquam tarn audax f uat ; 1060, nee 
me miserior feminast neque ulla videatur magis; Asin. 558, qui possis 
collaudare ? Bacch. 97, id flagitium sit; 149, ut te usurpem lubens ! 
Merc. 125, nimis nili tibicen siem ; True. 907, numquam hoc efficiatur 
opus ; And. 489, hoc quis non credat abs te esse ortum ? 814, clami- 
tent me sycophantam; Eun. 460, ex homine hunc natum dicas ? 
Phor. 186, incendam, instigem, laterem lavem ; Hec. 434, vovisse 
hunc dicam ; Cato, Frag. (JorcL), p. 50, 7, periniurium siet. H. T. 454, 
nedum tu possis, also probably belongs here. If we except instances 
of velim, nolim, malim (to be considered presently), examples of the 
6 should' -' would' potential are relatively rare in Early Latin out- 
side of the apodosis of conditional sentences. In addition to the 
examples just cited, I have noted only 31 other instances in the 
entire range of this period. 

Velim, Nolim, Malim. 

These forms are traditionally taken as ' should' -< would' potentials. 
They are here accorded separate consideration because Morris 
(Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 137 if. ; 284 ff .) dissents from the usual 
view and explains the subjunctives as optative in character, — not as 
true optatives with the force of 'may I desire,' etc., but as optatives 
resulting primarily by attraction. Morris would find the origin of 
velim, nolim, malim (in the uses here under discussion) in expres- 
sions like veniat velim. Velim, he holds, is here attracted from volo. 
The somewhat frequent use of velim, nolim, malim in Early Latin 
with the infinitive, and with the accusative, he regards as extensions 
by analogy from the original attracted use. But this theory involves 
several difficulties : 

1. In Plautus (in whose works are found most of the instances for 
Early Latin), velim occurs with the simple subjunctive some 14 times. 
Against these 14 instances, we have 27 other instances of velim 

Potential Subjunctive. 199 

unaccompanied by the subjunctive, including 10 with the infinitive, 
7 with participles and adjectives, 4 with a direct object, and 6 abso- 
lute uses. As to malim, that is found twice with the subjunctive. 
Against these two instances there are 21 others where there is no 
accompanying subjunctive, including 13 with the infinitive, 4 with 
participles and adjectives, 1 with a direct object, and 3 absolute uses. 
Nolim with the subjunctive does not occur, but is found twice with 
the infinitive and once with a participle. Out of 70 occurrences, 
therefore, of velim, nolim, malim, pervelim, 54 are not accompanied by 
the subjunctive. Granting now that attraction may account for the 
16 cases of the subjunctive, how are we to account for the subjunctive 
in the 54 remaining instances? As already stated, Morris accounts 
for them by analogical extension. But this is not a plausible hy- 
pothesis. There is nothing to show that veniat velim is older than 
hoc velim or adire velim. In fact the reverse seems more likely to be 
true. If it is so, the theory of analogy at once becomes untenable. 

2. If the theory be correct that the notion of wishing involved in 
veniat has led to the use of velim in veniat velim, then we should like- 
wise expect a similar assimilation of mood in orders preceded by 
iubeo, edico, impero, etc., in expressions of permission accompanied 
by licet, expressions of obligations accompanied by oportet, and 
expressions of necessity accompanied by necesse est; i.e. we should 
be warranted in expecting iubeam haec vasa auferant instead of iubeo 
avferant; liceat abeas in place of licet abeas; confiteare necesse sit in- 
stead of necesse est; oporteat sit diligens, instead of oportet. 

3. Morris's theory of modal attraction of a governing verb is not 
supported by other phenomena of the language. 

4. The theory is gratuitous. I cannot share Morris's feeling that 
in a large majority of the instances of velim, etc., under discussion a 
potential sense is excluded. On the contrary, I find no instance in 
which it is unnatural to take the words in the ordinary potential 
sense of ' I should like/ ' 1 should be loth/ ' I should prefer.' English 
abounds in instances of this use of 'I should like/ 'I shouldn't 
want/ 'I should prefer/ equivalent to 'I want/ 'I don't want/ k I 
prefer/ e.g. 'I'd like to be rich/ 'I'd like to go to Europe/ 'I'd 
prefer to remain here/ etc. See my Critique of Subjunctive Theories 
(Cornell Studies, ix), p. 74 ff., for a fuller discussion of this topic. 

200 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Examples : 3 Aul. 670, veniat velim ; Bacch. 334, mihi dederit velim ; 
Men. 909, adeas velim ; Asin. 274, velim servire; Aul. 120, velim te 
arbitrari; Cas. 326, illam diruptam velim; Stich. 191, lumbos diffrac- 
tos velim ; Amph. 1058, aquam velim ; Most. 266, velim lapidem ; 
Cas. 464, lit velim ! 862, pervelim progrediri ; Cure. 102, me pervelim 
sepultam ; Capt. 942, te nolim suscensere ; Merc. 539, nolim quidem ; 
Poen. 1150, facias mavelim ; Asin. 810, emori me malim ; Bacch. 
514, malim vincere ; Aul. 661, emortuom me malim ; Poen. 151, istuc 
mavelim; Epid. 119, malim amicos mersos ; Eun. 2 979, te arbitrari 
velim ; Phor. 449, velim facias ; Stat. 51, velim te opperiri ; Titin. 
160, velim arare ; Ad. 727, malim quidem ; Eun. 66, mori me malim ; 
Ad. 695, nolim te socordem ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.) p. 24, 7, nolim. 

Besides the foregoing examples of velim, nolim, malim in the 
weakened sense of the indicative, we find somewhat numerous in- 
stances of other potentials similarly employed. A typical example 
is, M. G. 689, hoc numquam audias. By origin this is a ' should '- 
< would ' subjunctive, but the notion of contingency has faded out, so 
that the idea is, 'you would never hear under any circumstances/ i.e. 
1 you never do hear.' Other examples of the same kind are: M. G. 
615, quis homo sit magis meus quam tu's? 761, neminem audias; 
94, videas ; Most. 148, nee quisquam esse auxilio queat ; 278, quid 
olant nescias ; Poen. 1416, nescias ; Trin. 554, quamvis malam rem 
quaeras, illic reperias ; And. 460, fidelem haud ferme mulieri invenias 
virum, i.e. l you scarcely ever find a man faithful to a woman ; ? H. T. 
606, possit quidem ; 620 ; Hec. 58, paucos reperias fidelis evenire 
amatores ; Afran. 198, non invenias locum ubi facias lutum; Cato, 
Agr. 17, 1, id semen legere possis ; Lucil. 346, non rectius vivas ; 
Amph. 576 ; 769, quid hoc sit hominis ? So And. 191 ; cf. Poen. 
92 ; Asin. 407, quid hoc sit negoti ? Scotch-English in particular 
abounds in similar instances of this use of the ' should '-' would ' 
potential with the value of the indicative, e.g. ' How old would he 
be ? 7 i He'd be five and forty; ' where in ordinary English we say, 
' is.' 'So also in Sanskrit and Greek we find the same use of the 
potential ; Delbriick, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 371 f . ; Blase, Hist. Gramm. 
der lat. Spr. iii, p. 123. Cf. German, ich wiisste nicht = ich iveiss nicht 

1 Full material in Morris, op. cit., for Plautus. 

2 The examples are complete for Terence and other Early Latin writers. 

Potential Subjunctive. 201 

Sometimes this attenuated ' should'-* would ' potential is equivalent 
to a future indicative, e.g. Hec. 288, at sic citius qui te expedias his 
aerumnis reperias ; Eun. 1080, facile pellas ubi velis ; Ad. 829, quovis 
die redducas. 

Instances of the kind just cited seem to me to make it unnecessary 
to adopt the theory propounded by Hale, Classical Philology, i, p. 
21 if. In the article referred to, Hale, in a sentence like Trim 914, 
quod teneas, id desideres, explains desideres as the result of formal 
attraction to the indefinite 2d singular subjunctive of the subordi- 
nate clause. But in the passage just cited and in others of the same 
sort, I should be (i.e. 'am ') inclined to regard the subjunctive of the 
main clause as simply the same attenuated ( should '-'would ' subjunc- 
tive that we have already seen in the examples enumerated above. 
Other instances of the same kind (several of them cited by Hale in 
the article referred to) are: Pseud. 137, quos quom ferias, tibi plus 
noceas; Trim 496, ubi mortuos sis, ita sis; 1052, quom repetas 
invenias ; Lucil. 783, quantum habeas, tantum ipse sies tantique 
habearis ; Amph. 705, si obsequare, una plaga resolvas ; Aul. 505, 
quoquo venias videas; 517, 520, iam hos absolutos censeas; Cas. 
562, at quom aspicias tristem, f rugi censeas ; Cist. 33, eas si adeas, 
abitum quam aditum malis; 97, si ames, melius illi consulas quam 
rei tuae ; Pseud. 1176, ubi suram aspicias, scias posse eum ; H. T. 
1023, rem quom videas, censeas ; Eun. 61, si postules, nilo plus agas ; 
Phor. 344, haec quom rationem ineas quam sint suavia et quam cara 
sint, non tu hunc habeas praesentem deum ? 

In the following we have the indicative in the dependent clause : 
Capt. 118, si data est, numquam possis prendere; Bacch. 914, si non 
est, nolis neque desideres ; 915, si est, non queas ; Trim 671, quom 
inopiast, cupias ; quando copiast, turn non velis ; Ad. 254, abs qui vis 
homine, quom est opus, beneficium accipere gaudeas. 

' Should '-' Would ' Potential as Apodosis of Conditional 


By far the most frequent use of the ' should '-< would ' potential is 
in the apodosis of conditional sentences. The protasis of such 
sentences varies in form, not only in mood (though the present sub- 
junctive is commonest), but also in tense, and in the introductory 

202 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses, 

particles. For a fuller discussion of these points, see Conditional 

Examples : Amph. 183, (si studeant), hominem allegent ; Asin. 459, 
(si sciat), suscenseat ; Cist. 45, (si non nubat), f amilia pereat ; Kud. 
473, (si abstulerit), mi exhibeat negotium ; And. 143, (si obiurges), 
quid facias ? H. T. 74, (si sumas), plus agas ; Ad. 147, (si augeam), 
insaniam ; Ace. 102, (nisi nobis tulat opem), peream ; Stat. 32, (anubi 
vos sitis), ibi consilium claudeat ? Afran. 31, (si non verear), nemo 
vereatur ; Lucil. 40, (si coniuret), vix satis sit ; Cato (Jord.), p. 58, 8, 
nolim, (si sim). 

The total number of instances of the 'should '-' would ' potential in 
apodosis is not far from 175. 

In a considerable number of instances the present tense has a 

contrary- to- fact force like the imperfect, e.g. Amph. 907, cum ea 

sermonem nee habeas (nisi sis stultior) ; Asin. 393, (si sit domi), 

dicam ; Epid. 331, (si habeam), pollicear ; And. 310, (si hie sis), aliter 

sentias ; 551, neque postulem (ni res moneat) ; Enn. Trag. 271, (si 

curent), bene bonis sit ; Stat. 126, si linguas decern habeam, vix 

habeam satis. For a fuller discussion of this topic, see Conditional 


Perfect Tense. 1 

There are some 35 instances of the perfect subjunctive used as a 
1 should '-' would ' potential. Like the present, the perfect also looks 
forward to the future. Originally the perfect, being an aorist op- 
tative by origin, denoted momentary (i.e. non-continuing) action, as 
opposed to the present, which denoted a continuing action. This 
original distinction seems to hold fairly well for the Early Latin 
instances of the perfect potential. In no one of them is there any 
suggestion of continuance or duration. Elmer's theory, 2 that the per- 
fect potential is more energetic than the present, does not seem to 
have won the approval of scholars. 

The scanty material belonging under this head is about evenly di- 
vided into two classes : First, cases in which the subjunctive stands 
alone ; second, those in which it is the apodosis of a conditional sen- 

1 See especially Cramer, De Perfecti Conjunctivi Usu Potentiali apud Priscos 
Scriptores Latinos, 1886; also Lubbert, Der Conjunctly Perfecti und das Futurum 
Exactum ira alteren Latein, p. 35 ff. 

2 Cornell Studies, vi, p. 114 ff . 

Potential Subjunctive. 203 

tence. In the first class the variety of expressions is small. For 
the most part we have first personal forms, particularly of the 
s-perfects faxim and ausim. I give the material in full : Aul. 494, 
faxim ; so also, Poen. 1091; 1093; True. 62 a; 348; Ad. 887, lubens 
bene faxim ; so 896 ; Aul. 474, non ausim praeterire ; similarly, Poen. 
1358: Eun. 884; 904; M. G. 11, haud ausit dicere ; Asin. 491, hoc 
nunc dixerim ; 503, hand negassim ; Cas. 347, M. G. 316, non emp- 
sim (both conjectural, though extremely probable and generally 
accepted); True. 629, arbitrum ceperim ; 349, ego istos qui nunc me 
culpant, confutaverim ; And. 203, ubivis facilius passus sim quam in 
hac re me deludier ; Ad. 443, haud cito mali quid ortum ex hoc sit. 

The three following passages are uncertain : Capt. 309 reads in the 
MSS., hoc te monitum volueram. Brix here reads voluerim, which 
certainly makes better sense. He is followed by Leo, who perti- 
nently observes, "sanum illud esset, si dixisset 'etiam hoc/" Phor. 
426, tu te idem melius feceris, and 430, tuis dignum factis feceris, are 
usually regarded as future perfects (so Dziatzko and Elmer), but 
it is quite possible that they may be perfect subjunctives. 

In the apodosis of conditional sentences the perfect subjunctive 
occurs some 17 times. A typical example is Cas. 424, (si me sus- 
pendam), operam luserim, fecerim, creaverim. Sometimes the prot- 
asis also stands in the perfect, e.g. H. T. 316, (si quid te fugerit), ego 
perierim. For the full material, see Conditional Sentences. In no 
instance does the perfect subjunctive represent an apodosis as con- 
trary-to-fact, as is often the case with the present subjunctive in 

this use. 

Imperfect Tense. 

By a development of usage the details of which are not clear, the 
'should'-' would 7 potential appears also in the imperfect tense. In 
Plautus the usage is restricted almost wholly to the forms vellem and 
mallem, expressing a regret. In the case of other verbs, the imper- 
fect in this use denotes what would be true if some contingency 
more or less clearly implied were real. In the great majority of 
cases the imperfect constitutes the apodosis of a formal conditional 
sentence, containing a protasis introduced by si, nisi, ni. 

a) Without formal protasis: Asin. 589, vellem habere; so also 
Cist. 93; 506; Most. 980; Poen. 681; 1107, magis quam vellem; 

204 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

Pseud. 309 ; 1057 ; Sticli. 312 ; 713 ; Amph. 512, experiri istuc mavel- 
lem ; so also Bacch. 199 ; 452 ; 1047 ; 1201 ; Cure. 512 ; Pseud. 131. 
Apart from the foregoing, the only other examples in Plautus are : 
Bacch. 314, privatim servaretur rectius ; Men. 160, esses agitator 
probus; Poen. 1139, hodie earum mutarentur nomina facerentque 
indignum quaestum ; Pseud. 494, iuberes hunc trahi ; And. 326, quam 
vellem ; so H. T. 185 ; 815 ; 978 ; Eun. 597 ; 786 ; Phor. 257 ; 792 ; 
Hec. 464 ; Ad. 532 ; Phor. 796, nollem datum ; so also Ad. 165 ; 775 ; 
H. T. 953, non auderet ; Eun. 606, turn pol ego is essem ; 787, f acerent 
f ugam ; Phor. 121, numquam faceret; 160, non cura haec angeret 
animum ; 208, illud minus possem ; 793, ego ostenderem ; 797, quor 
nolles? Ad. 395, num sineres? Afran. 308, vellem intervenissem ; 
Turpil. 10, apisci haut possem (posse, codd.) ; Soranus (Baehrens, 
Erag. p. 273), Accius nollet, mallet. 

In a few instances the imperfect is used referring to the past, like 
the pluperfect, viz. Cas. 910, quom cogito, non habuit gladium, nam 
esset frigidus ; And. 138, diceret (= dixisset) ; H. T. 1022, pareret 
(= peperisset). Eun. 606, turn pol is essem qui simulabar. In Ad. 
314 if., animam exstinguerem, lacerarem, arriperem, statuerem, eripe- 
rem, darem, ruerem, agerem, raperem, tenderem, prosternerem, the 
imperfect seems to fulfil the function of the present and to refer to 
the future. So also Poen. 681, videre vos vellem quom aurum darem. 

b) With accompanying protasis. Only a few typical examples of 
the use are here given. Eor the full material, see Conditional Sen- 
tences. Asin. 860, (ni essent), numquam faceret ; Aul. 286, (si vel- 
let), non velles; Capt. 755, (absque hoc esset), usque me ductarent; 
Hec. 220, (ni id fecisset), magis mirum foret. 

As regards the origin of the imperfect subjunctive in this use, we 
can hardly proceed beyond hypothesis. Presumably the use of the 
imperfect alone is older than the imperfect with accompanying prot- 
asis. In view of this consideration and of the practical restriction 
of the use in Plautus (outside of conditional sentences) to vellem and 
mallem, one might conclude that the usage originated with these 
verbs. If so, it is possible that an original vellm or malim adesset 
became first vellem {mallem) adesset by a species of tense assimilation. 
The vellem or mallem might then easily become detached and embark 
upon a career of independent usage. After this usage became well 

Potential Subjunctive. 205 

established for vellem and mallem, it would naturally extend to other 

Pluperfect Tense. 

The pluperfect potential is simply the imperfect projected into 
the past. But except in formal conditional sentences with expressed 
protasis, the usage is rare in Early Latin. Plautus has but two 
instances ; Terence but six. Material : Epid. 628, prius venisset ; 
Stich. 590, hau maligne vos invitassem ; H. T. 540, mansisset ; Eun. 
453, quanto melius invitasses ? 667, ilium conclusissem neque com- 
misissem; Phor. 159, non potitus essem ; Ad. 397, non olfecissem ? 
630, exorassem. 

In formal conditional sentences the material, though more exten- 
sive, is not abundant. For the full lists of occurrences, see Condi- 
tional Sentences. A few typical examples are here given : Asin. 
396, (si adesset), recepisset; M. G. 718, (si habuissem), satis cepis- 
sem miseriarum; Eun. 673, (si cessassem), non offendisseni. 

'May' Potentials. 1 

Elmer in Cornell Studies, vi. p. 176 ff\, protests against recognizing 
a ( may ' potential for Latin. Certainly the instances of the usage 
are not numerous either in Early Latin or at any other period of the 
language. Yet, in common with practically all students of Latin 
syntax, I am inclined to recognize its existence in a few cases. It 
is impossible here to review the evidence bearing on this question. 
I must content myself with referring to the literature cited in the 
footnote. I will only urge that the ' may ' use, though rare, is w r ell 
established for Greek (Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, 238), and that 
the 'may' idea bears to the ' should'-' would' idea the relation of 
the general to the special. Both the ' should'-' would' and the 
< may ' conceptions are phases of the category of future contingency. 
The auxiliaries ( should '-< would ' suggest a future contingency 
which w r ill be realized in case some special act, more or less clearly 
indicated, is fulfilled ; the auxiliary ' may ' suggests a future contin- 

1 Elmer, Studies in Latin Moods and Tenses (Cornell Studies, vi), pp. 17G-197 ; 
Classical Review, xiv, 4; Transactions Amer. Phil. Assoc, xxxii, p. 205 ff., Proceed- 
ings, p.cxvii; Bennett, Critique (Cornell Studies, ix), p. 31 ff.; Hale, Transactions 
Amer. Phil. Assoc, xxxi, p. 140 ff. 

206 Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. 

gency dependent upon nothing in particular but upon things in gen- 
eral. Material: And. 640, aliquis dicat ; Eun. oil, roget quis ; And. 
957, aliquis fors putet (aliquis forsitan me putet, codd.) ; Pseud. 
432, fors fuat an, ( there may be chance whether ; ' Hec. 610, fors 
fuat pol. 

Less certain are the following : Asm. 465; sit; non sit ; non ede- 
pol scio, taken by Elmer and others as subjunctive of indirect ques- 
tion, ' whether he is or not.' But this type of indirect question is 
unexampled elsewhere in the early period, and occurs at best only 
sporadically later. It seems more natural to me, therefore, to inter- 
pret the passage as meaning, 'may be he is; may be he isn't.' 
Ad. 830, metuas, ' perhaps you are afraid/ < you may be afraid ; ' 
so also Ash more, ad loc. 

' Can ' - ' Could ' Potentials. 1 

In his Studies (op. cit.), Elmer protested against the indiscrimi- 
nate rendering of Latin subjunctives by the modal auxiliaries i can/ 
' could/ ' might ' (in the sense of ' could '). In the main I believe 
this attitude is sound, but with regard to one category of uses, I am 
equally confident that we should recognize the existence in Latin of 
a 'can' and 'could' potential. I refer to uses of the indefinite sec- 
ond singular such as videas, videres, ' one can see/ ' one could see.' 
As the English 'one could see' is ambiguous, I will say that I am 
here using this auxiliary in the sense of the German kornite, in man 
Jconnte sehen. Outside of the indefinite 2d singular of the present 
and imperfect, I do not believe that the ' can '- 'could' use ought 
to be recognized ; within these limits I am prepared to admit it in 
the following instances : 

Present Tense : Capt. 420, videas corde amare inter se ; Most. 243, 
videas earn me amare ; Poen. 831, quodvis genus ibi hominum videas; 
836, ibi tu videas litteratas epistulas; Trim 1031, vetera amare hunc 
scias; And. 95, scias posse habere suae vitae modum. It will be 
noted that in the present tense the use is restricted to videas and 

1 Elmer, Studies in Latin Moods and Tenses, Cornell Studies, vi, p. 198 ff. ; 207 ff. ; 
Bennett, Critique, Cornell Studies, ix, p. 41 ff. ; Hale, Transactions Amer. Phil. 
Assoc, xxxi, p. 140 ff. 

Potential Subjunctive. -07 

The origin of the usage is probably to be sought in the ' should '- 
6 would ; potential, particularly in those weakened potentials consid- 
ered at p. 200. Cf. passages like Afran. 242, scias abesse ab lustris 
procul, where the meaning seems to hover between the 'would' and 
the 'can' meaning; similarly, Poen. 585, ibi habitant, ibi eas con- 
spicias quam praetoreni saepius. Other passages which suggest the 
origin of the usage are M. G. 689, 761, audias ; H. T. 1008, credas ; 
Pacuv. 176, putes ; Ace. 395, credas. 

Imperfect Tense : Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 34, 5, mare velis florere 
videres ; Cure. 331, scires velle gratiam tuam; Ad. 827, scires (scire 
et, MSS.) liberum ingenium atque animum ; Ace. 321, ]Mavortes duo 
congressos crederes ; Lucil. 382, haerere putares ; Afran. 9, terrain 
ruere diceres ; H. T. 192, miserum ? quern minus crederes ? 

These imperfects simply represent the present use projected into 
the past. Elmer (Cornell Studies, vi, p. 207 ff.) regards expressions 
of this type as < should'- 'would' potentials, — 'you would have 
seen (had you been present).' For a criticism of this view, see 
Bennett, Cornell Studies, ix, p. 41 ff. 



Parataxis and Hypotaxis. 2 

In the most primitive stages of language there are no formal sub- 
ordinate clauses. Subordinate relations, however, exist, being in- 
dicated by the juxtaposition of independent sentences, as in English 
' I believe, he is ill; ? 'I fear, he will die.' In course of time every 
language develops certain types of independent sentences into sub- 
ordinate clauses. When fully developed, such subordinate sentences 
usually have introductory conjunctions. But these conjunctions, 
like the subordinate clauses themselves, are not original. They are 
for the most part adverbs, which grew into conjunctional force as 
the sentences they introduce grew into subordinate clauses. 

The name 6 parataxis , is used to designate the primitive grammatical 
structure above referred to. While such structure is largely out- 
grown in time as a language develops and matures, yet it never 
entirely disappears as a type. Long after the development of sub- 
ordinate clauses, we still continue to find, in every language, illustra- 
tions of the expression of subordinate relationship by paratactic 
means. Thus in Early Latin we find examples like the following: 
Asin. 350, ausculta; scies ; 723, exopta id quod vis ; fiet ; Eucl. 1010, 
tange ! adfligam ad terrain te ; and many others in which an imperative 
is equivalent to a condition ; see below, p. 353. At times the jussive 
subjunctive is used as a protasis, e.g. Cato, Agr. 157, 4, in ea volnera 
teras brassicum ; sanum faciet ; Trin. 441, hie postulet frugi esse ; 

1 See in general Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina. 

2 See especially Morris, Principles and Methods in Syntax, p. 113 ff. ; Bennett, 
Critique of Recent Subjunctive Theories (Cornell Studies in Classical Philology, ix, 
p. 66 ff.) ; Jolly, Curtius' Studien, vi, p. 215 ff. ; Weissenhorn, Parataxis Plautina, 1884 ; 
Weninger, De parataxis in Terenti fabulis vestigiis, 1888; Becker, Beiordnende und 
unterordnende Satzverhindung bei den altromischen Buhnendichtern, 1888 ; Lindskog, 
Quaestiones de parataxi et hypotaxi apud priscos Latinos, 1806; Sven Tessing, Syn- 
taxis Plautina, 1892, p. 82 if. ; Paul, Principien der Sprachgeschichte, 3 p. 133 ff. ; 
Brugmann, Kurze Vgl. Grammatik, p. 650; Delbruck, Vgl. Syntax, iii, p. 413. 


Parataxis and Hypotajcis. 209 

nugas postulet ; see above, p. 178. Sometimes a causal relation is 
involved, as And. 670, hac non successit, alia adgrediemur via • 
Epid. 590, negat haec filiam me suam esse; non ergo haec mater 
mea est. 

In a narrower sense the name c parataxis ? is applied to those speci- 
mens of paratactic structure which ultimately develop in the history 
of a given language into subordinate clauses. Hypotaxis is merely 
another name for subordination, convenient as marking the contrast 
with its opposite parataxis. 

It must not be thought, however, that the absence of a special sub- 
ordinating particle is necessarily the mark of a paratactic form of 
expression and that where such particles are lacking we are to 
recognize independent uses. The subordinate relation often estab- 
lished itself without the help of special subordinate conjunctions. 
Thus in tibi impero abeas, abeas is just as truly subordinate as ut abeas 
in tibi impero at abeas. In Early Latin we find many such sub- 
ordinate clauses without an introductory conjunction. While these 
were undoubtedly at one time at the paratactic stage, they are at 
present best regarded as but the relics of an earlier parataxis. Many 
circumstances point to this. But the detailed discussion of this topic 
is best postponed until after the presentation of the main facts of 
usage falling under this head (p. 244 f.). 

The present chapter is devoted to a consideration of the use of the 
subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Our object will be to determine 
as far as possible the original paratactic usage out of which the 
several varieties of subjunctive constructions have arisen, and to give 
the material belonging under each. 

Subjunctive Substantive Clauses. 1 
Subjunctive substantive clauses form an extremely large category, 
probably the largest single category of subordinate subjunctive uses. 
All the main original types of usage (volitive, optative, potential) 
appear in these clauses. 

For Plautus we have a detailed study of these substantive clauses 
in the work of C. L. Durham, Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in 
Plautus (Cornell Studies in Classical Philology, xiii). This work 
1 Indirect questions are not included here, but will be considered later. 

210 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

has been made the basis of treatment, so far as Plautus is concerned, 
in what follows. For Terence and the minor Early Latin writers, I 
have made independent collections. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 

Most of these are regarded by many grammarians as substantive 
clauses of purpose, — such clauses for example as taceat oportet ; 
licet dbeas; necesse est loquamur ; tibi impero ut hoc mihi cles; siuo 
dicat. Such a designation implies either that the clauses in question 
are purpose clauses, or that they once ivere such. Neither of these 
alternatives, however, represents the probable truth. Most clauses 
denominated ' substantive clauses of purpose ' are developed more or 
less directly from fundamental volitive uses (jussive, prohibitive, 
deliberative), and never indicated purpose at all. The fuller justi- 
fication of this statement is best presented in the following discus- 
sion of the various types of clauses falling under this head. But 
before proceeding to our classification, it is necessary to make certain 
preliminary observations on original uses and extensions. 

Original Uses and Extensions. 

As a typical illustration of the general type here under discussion, 
let us take the sentence, tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des. Whether ut is 
present or absent is immaterial to our present purpose. In either 
case the dependent clause is of jussive origin (cf. Schnoor, Zum 
Gebrauch von ut bei Plautus, p. 1) ; ut is simply the adverbial 
particle which we have already met in independent sentences (see 
p. 165). The original difference between tibi impero hoc mihi des and 
tibi impero ut hoc mihi des, could hardly have been more than that 
between ' I command you, give me this/ and ' I command you, 
just give me this.' Probably even this distinction soon passed 
away, and the two forms of expression came to be felt as practically 
equivalent in force. 

Taking now our tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des as the type, let 
us consider a variety of extensions to which it gave rise : 

a) ' Extensions within the Present/ After the analogy of tibi 
impero (ut) hoc mihi des it became natural to form sentences 
like : 

Subjunctive Substantive Clauses. 211 

milii imperat (ut) hoc sibi clem ; 
tibi imperat (ut) hoc sibi des ; 
illi imperat (ut) hoc sibi det; 
illi imperas (ut) hoc tibi det ; 
mihi imperas (ut) hoc tibi dem. 

Our original sentence, tibi impero (ut) hoc mild des was undoubtedly 
once paratactic: 'I command you: give this to me!' But the 
developments just enumerated could obviously never have stood in 
parataxis ; they are analogical ; Extensions within the Present.' 

b) 'Future Extensions.' An illustration would be, tibi imperaho 
(id) hoc mihi des. A sentence like this could obviously have never 
stood in parataxis. It is simply tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des pro- 
jected into the future. 

c) ' Past Extensions.' An illustration would be, tibi imperavi (ut) 
hoc mihi dares. Here similarly we have our tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi 
des projected into the past. 

d) ' Negative Extensions.' These are exemplified by tibi non 
impero (ut) hoc mihi des. These negative extensions may also be 
combined with extensions of the kinds already noted, e.g. tibi von 
imperabo (ut) hoc mihi des (future extension) ; tibi non imperavi (ut) 
hoc mihi dares (past extension) ; mihi non imperat (ut) hoc sibi dew ; 
(within the present). 

e) ' Interrogative Extensions.' These are exemplified by quare 
tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des ? These interrogative extensions may 
be at the same time also future, past, within the present, or negative, 
e.g. quis tibi imperat (ut) hoc mihi des ? quis tibi imperavit (ut)hoc mihi 
dares? cur mihi non non imperavi sti (ut) hoc tibi darem ? 

f) ( Conditional Extensions,' e.g. si tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des. 
These similarly may be also future, past, within the present, or 
negative ; or they may contain a combination of these extensions, 
e.g. si mihi non imperavisti (ut) hoc tibi darem, a conditional negative 
past extension. 

g) i Extension by Analogy of the Meaning of the Verb.' Thus 
te oro (ut) abeas undoubtedly represents an original parataxis : ' Just 
go away ! I beg you,' = ' I beg you to go away.' Now after the 
analogy of this we get te exoro (ut) abeas, 'I induce you to go away/ 

212 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

' I succeed in my-request-that-you-go-away. ? Similarly after tihi 
suacleo (ut) abeas, ' I advise you to go away/ we get tihi persuadvo 
(tit) abeas, ' I succeed in my-advice-that-you-go-away/ i.e. i I per- 
suade you to go away.' Neither te exoro (ut) abeas nor tihi persuadeo 
(ut) abeas could have stood in parataxis. Such combinations would 
have made no sense. 

A recognition of the foregoing varieties of ' Extensions ' is of 
great importance for an understanding of substantive clauses devel- 
oped from the volitive, and in fact for many other varieties of 
subordinate clauses of subjunctive origin, e.g. purpose clauses, sub- 
stantive clauses developed from the optative, clauses of character- 
istic, result clauses, etc. No theory of origin can possibly account 
for all, or even any proportionally large part of the phenomena 
ordinarily classified under any one of these syntactical usages. The 
greater portion of all the instances belonging under each of these 
heads would doubtless represent analogical extensions of one sort or 

Classification of Substantive Clauses developed 
from the volitive. 

Developed from the Jussive and Prohibitive. 

1. With verbs of ordering and commanding. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of the subjunctive substantive clause with 
verbs of ordering and commanding is well illustrated by Poen. 1155, 
dico, tuam mihi flliam despondeas; originally paratactic : 'pledge me 
your daughter; I bid you;' cf. True. 839, eloquere haec erae; puerum 
reddat ; Pseud. 511, dico ut caveas ; cf . Capt. 844, ita dico, magnus 
ut sit, which may represent the paratactic stage ; Merc. 465, ne bitas, 
dico ; cf. And. 205, tibi dico, ne temere facias, which may represent 
the paratactic stage. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (12) : 

dico (3) : Poen. 1155 (cited above) ; Stich. 624, dixi equidem 
in carcerem ires ; Afran. 316, se obsequentem atque hilare dixi 

i Durham, p. 13 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 213 

iubeo (8): Men. 955, servos iube himc acl me ferant; Most. 
930, iube in urbem veniat ; Pers. 605 ; Rud. 708 ; Stieh. 396 ; Eun. 
691, iube respondeat; H. T. 737, iube maneat; Ad. 915. 

postulo : Lucil. 526, rem cognoscas et adtendas postulo. 

praedico : Merc. 51, praedicere omnes timerent. 
2) With ut (87) : 

dico (21): Capt. 844, ita dico, magmis ut sit; Men. 990, dico 
ut imperium meum sapienter habeatis curae ; 1044; M. Gr. 1089, die 
domum ut transeat ; Pers. 281, dico ut pereas ; Trin. 583, die me ut 
conveniat ; And. 594, ut adparetur dico; H. T. 340, dicam ut revorta- 
tur; 651; 781, dicebam ut dares; Eun. 735. 

edico (11) : Pseud. 855, edico tibi ut properes ; Men. 784, 
edixi tibi ut caveres ; Pseud. 897 ; Pacuv. 187, edicam frequentes 
ut eant ; Ace. 508, edicite ut omnes adhibeant ; C1L, i, 196, 3, ex- 
deicendum censuere, utei venirent. 

iubeo (3) : Am ph. 205, Telobois iubet sententiam ut dicant ; 
Poen. 4, audire iubet bonoque ut animo sedeant ; Pseud. 1150, me 
iussit ut mecum mitteres. 

mando (10) : Merc. 835, mando rem ut tutemini ; Bacch. 526, 
mandas mihi Mnesilochum ut requiram ; Merc. 426, mandavit mihi 
ut emerem; 428; Stich. 652; Cato, Agr. 141, 1, mando uti cures. 

impero (5) : Bacch. 702 ; Men. 840, imperat ut illic oculos 
exuram ; 855] Pseud. 697; Pacuv. 331, mihi classem imperat ut 

flagito : Merc. 178, flagitas me ut eloquar. 

decerno : CIL, ii, 5041, decreivit utei leiberei essent. 

censeo : CIL, i, 196, 26, utei inceideretis censuit. 

postulo (4) : And. 550, postulo ut fiat ; Eun. 1058, postulo ut 
mihi tua domus pateat. 

praecipio (3): M. G-. 795, ita praecipito mulieri ut simulet; 
Pseud. 161. 

doceo (3) : Pseud. 1194, docuit ut abduceres ; Epid. 364. 

perdoceo : Capt. 719, perdocere ut consulerem tibi ; Poen. 195. 

edoceo : M. G. 355, edocebo ut sint malae. 

disco : Poen. 280, haec didici omnia : : etiamne ut ames ? 
Disco here serves as the passive of doceo, and therefore takes the 
same construction. 

214 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

nuntio (3) : Poen. 1118, nuntiate ut prodeat ; Eun. 339. 

monstro : Men. 788, quotiens monstravi tibi viro ut morem geras. 

praemonstro : Trin. 342, praemonstro tibi ut te miserescat. 

praedico : Pseud. 517, praedico ut caveas. 

provoco : Cure. 355, provocat me ut ludam. 

elainito : Pseud. 1276, clamitant me uti revortar. 

vocito : Most. 876, ut eant vocitantur (vocantur, codd.). 

respondeo : Am ph. 214, respondent se suos tutari posse, pro- 
inde uti deducerent. 

tabulas fero: Bacch. 811, tabulas tetuli ut vincirer. 

negotium dare (3): Eun. 544, mi hoc negoti dedere ut quae- 
ram; And. 3. 

verbis arcesso : M. G. 1185, matris verbis arcessito ut eat 

Also with the following nouns suggesting the idea of ordering : 

lex : Phor. 125, lex est ut orbae nubant. 

multa ('fine/ suggesting the order of the court) : Asin. 801, 
haec multa esto, vino ut careat ; Capt. 494. 

nuntius : Trag. Incert. (Ilibb. i, p. 275), postquam ut venirem 
tetigit aures nuntius. 

The substantive clause may also depend upon the general idea in- 
volved in the context, e.g. Phor. 719, transito ad uxorem, ut con- 
veniat, i.e. ' go over to my wife and tell her to meet ; ' so also Pers. 
165 and elsewhere. 
3) With ne (41). 

edico (14) : Pseud. 506, ne quisquam credat nummum, edicam ; 
903 ; Eun. 578, edicit ne adeat ; 806, edico ne vim facias ; Hec. 56r> ; 
CIL, i, 196, 4, 7, exdeicendum censuere, neiquis velet ; ibid. 19, 
exdeicendum, ne quisquam velet neve velent ; ibid. 10, exdeicendum 
sacerdos nequis eset. 

dico (6) : Merc. 465, ad portum ne bitas dico ; Trin. 520, per 
deos dico ne tu illunc agrum tuom siris fieri; Epid. 164, dicam ne 
hinc foras exambulet neve veniat ; Asin. 938; Ad. 796, dictum fuit 
ne curares. 

interdico (4) : M. G. 1057, interdixi raeara ne sic volgo polli- 
citere operam ; Pers. 621 ; Hec. 563, interdico ne velis. 

mando : Cure. 549, mandasti nuntium ne spernerem ; Pacuv. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 215 

116, niandat ne fuat copia. 

impero : Eun. 578, mihi ne abscedam imperat. 

postulo : Stat. 139, hoc postulo ne limassis caput. 

eminor interminorque : Capt. 791, eminor interminorque 
nequis mihi obstiterit j And. 496, interminatus sum ne faceres. 

consuefacio : Ad. 54, ne celet consuefeci. 

desuesco : Titin. 46, desuevi ne quo ad cenam iret. 

edoceo : Phor. 783, Phanium edocebo ne quid vereatur. 

praedico : Aid. 99, praedico ne intromiseris. 

praecipio : M. G. 247, id praecipiundumst ne titubet. 

nuto : Men. 612, nutat ne loquar. 

monstro : Men. 788, monstravi tibi ne id observes. 

auris obtundo : Cist. 118, amis obtundo ne quern ames. 

signum do : M. G. 123, mihi signum dedit ne se appellarem. 

documentum do : Capt. 752, illis documentum dabo ne tale 
quisquam facinus incipere audeat. 

Also with nouns suggesting the idea of ordering : Enn. Frag. 481, 
hoc erit argumentum ne quid expectes amicos. 

4) With ut ne (3) : M. G. 185 a, hoc ei dicito ut ne quoquam de 
ingenio degrediatur; Poen. 888, indicasso ei ut ne enuntiet ; Bacch. 
749, quid istis ad istunc usust conscriptis modum, ut tibi nequid 
credat ? 

5) In CIL, i, 196, 10, we find neque . . . neque after edico, viz. 
magister neque vir neque mulier quisquam eset. 

2. With volo and nolo in the senses, 'I want you to,' 'I want you 
not to.' 1 

These verbs often express a mere desire. As such they govern a 
substantive clause developed from the optative (p. 249), or the infini- 
tive. But they are often used to convey an authoritative command, 
and in that sense the substantive clause used with them is volitive 
in character. 

a) Origix. The origin of such clauses is seen in expressions like 
M. G. 546, erum exhibeas, — volo; And. 418, uxorem ducas, volo. 
In both of these passages volo is equivalent to iubeo, praecipio, or 
some such word. 

b) Form. The material falls under the following categories : 

1 Durham, p. 20 ff . 

216 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

1) With volo, expressed or clearly understood from the context 
(31) ; the examples are about evenly divided between the simple sub- 
junctive (17) and the subjunctive with ut (14), e.g. M. G. 546, eruni 
exhibeas volo ; Hec. 753, scin quid volo facias ? And. 418, uxorem 
ducas volo ; Poen. 593 ; Pseud. 1147 ; Bacch. 988 a, volo ut facias ; 
Pud. 1216, volo ut memineris; Epid. 463 ; Turpil. 68. There is also 
an instance of volo ne .... quidem, viz. Phor. 819, ne filii quidem 
resciscant volo. 

2) In answers to the query, numquid vis or numquid aliud (14). 
Here also we find the simple subjunctive (5), the subjunctive with ut 
(7), and ne (2). Examples: Bacch. 604, numquid vis? : : abeas; 
Cure. 525 ; Poen. 801 ; Pseud. 665, numquid vis ? : : ut abeas ; M. G-. 
259 ; 575, numquid vis ? : : ne me noveris ; Bacch. 757. 

3) With quid vis (8). Here we regularly find the simple sub- 
junctive, e.g. Stich. 115, quid vis dicam? Bacch. 692, quid vis 
curem ? H. T. 846. But Phor. 322 has the subjunctive with ut, 
quid vis nisi uti maneat ? 

In quid vis curem? and similar expressions Durham (p. 23) suggests 
the possibility of taking the subjunctive as independent, as in the 
Greek ri fiovkei 7roiw; but rejects this as less natural. It may even be 
questioned whether ttoilo in such cases was not subordinate. 

4) With vis, vin, visne, voltisne (28) ; always with the simple 
subjunctive, e.g. Capt. 360, vin vocem ? : : voca ; Stich. 397, vin ad~ 
ministrem? M. G. 335 ; Pers. 575; Eun. 894. Here again some may 
prefer the theory of an independent subjunctive (deliberative) reen- 
forced by vin, etc., but it seems more natural to regard the subjunc- 
tive as dependent. 

5) Expressions of the type, nolo ames. See below. 

Durham (Subjunctive Substantive Clauses, p. 24) brings under the 
volitive head several clauses dependent upon malo, but these all seem 
to me purely optative in character. 

The Type Nolo Ames. 

Nolo followed by a simple subjunctive occurs in the following 
passages : Pers. 245, nolo ames ; Cas. 232, quam ted amo ? : : nolo 
ames; Pseud. 436; Most. 1176, nolo ores (bis); Stich. 734, nolo 
obtaedescat j True. 558, vasa nolo auferant; Trim 945, nolo prae- 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Yolitiue. 217 

dices; H. T. 701, nolo mentiare; Imbrex (Eibb. Com. p. 39) nolo te 
vocent; Afran. 155, nolo exeas (es pas, codd.) ; 203, nolo te videat. 

Expressions of this type are best explained as arising by analogy 
and as modelled after expressions like volo videos, 'I want (direct) 
you to see.' English, 'I don't want you to stay out after dark/ and 
many similar expressions are likewise analogical, 'I don't want' 
having the force of i I want you not to.' 

Morris (Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 298 ; Principles and Methods, 
p. 137) offers another explanation of expressions of this kind. Ac- 
cording to him, nolo ames begins with the prohibition ne antes and 
"then when the emphasis of an added verb of will is desired, nolo 
is used instead of ne volo" But this seems cumbrous and unnatural. 
The theory of analogical extension, on the other hand, finds support 
from Merc. 1004, nil opus resciscat. 1 

3. Verbs of Begging, Requesting, etc., including, as extensions, verbs 
of succeeding in one's request (impetro, exoro). 2 

a) Origix. The origin of the substantive clause with verbs of 
begging, requesting, etc., is seen in such expressions as Merc. 992 a, 
pacem faciatis oro ('make peace, I beg you'); cf. also sentences like 
the following, in which the imperative is used instead of the jussive 
subjunctive : Ad. 281, obsecro te, istum absolvitote ; And. 351, obse- 
cro, me libera. A negative example is Most. 744, obsecro, ne indi- 
cium ero facias meo. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (14). 3 

quaeso (3) : Capt. 340, te quaeso hunc mini des ; Men. 1073, 
quaeso ignoscas ; And. 305, quaeso id velis. 

oro (8) : Amph. 257, orant ignoscamus peccatum suom ; Merc. 
992 a, modo pacem faciatis oro; Most. 680, roga circum ducat ; Pers. 
634, rogarat diceret; Hec. 721, te oro adiutor sis; Pacuv. 122, hoc 
oro minus inexorabilem f axis ; CIL, i, 1175, te orant se condemnes ; 
M. G. Arg. Acros. 13. 

1 For a fuller discussion of the question here at issue, see my Critique, p. 71 ff. ; 
Durham, p. 25 f. 

2 Durham, p. 26 ff. 

3 In some of the examples it may be possible that the quaeso, oro, or obsecro is 
merely parenthetical. It is difficult to draw the line between the parenthetical use 
and that with an object clause. 

218 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

obsecro (3): Aul. 715, obsecro vos mi auxilio sitis ; Most. 
1156, te obsecro stultitiae eius ignoscas ; M. G. 510, te obsecro 
iuscitiae meae ignoscas. 

amabo : Bud. 427, amabo vel tu mi aias vel neges. 
2) With ut, very frequently (over 200 instances). 

oro (73): Amph. 1144, te oro promissa ut serves tua; Epid. 
728, oro te mihi ut ignoscas ; Baccb. 909, oro ut facias ; Merc. 997, 
ora ut ignoscat delictis tuis ; Poen. 1015, orat operam ut des sibi ; 
And. 538, oro ut adiuves ; 548 ; H. T. 493, idem oro ut facias ; Eim. 
533, orabat ut redires; Phor. 1020, oro ut f eras ; Turp. 211, hoc te 
oro ut commiserescas. 

obsecro (37): Amph. 388, obsecro ut per pacem liceat alloqui; 
Cist. 767, te obsecro ut reddas mihi; Cure. 630, obsecro ut nos facias 
certiores; Men. 1007, opsecro te operam mihi ut des; And. 402, obse- 
cravit ut darem ; H. T. 1026, obsecro ut memineris ; Titin. 31, obsecro 
ut mihi subvenias. 

quaeso (23): Bacch. 1019, quaeso ut sat habeas id ; Cure. 629, 
quaeso uti mihi dicas; M. G. 1362, quaeso ut memineris; Aul. 611, id 
te quaeso ut prohibessis ; Ad. 598, quaeso ut eas atque dicas ; Hec. 

786, quaeso ut serves ; Eun. 466. 

rogare (19): Cure. 330, argenti rogo ut faciat copiam; Merc. 

787, rogato meum patrem ut veniat ; Bud. 1212, roga ut relinquat 
alias res; Pers. 600, roga ut tibi percontari liceat; Ad. 776, rogat ut 
redeas; Hec. 390, ut sibi des rogat; CIL, i, 542, rogans ut faxseis. 

obtestor (2) : Aul. 791, te obtestor ut mi ignoscas ; Bud. 635. 

amo, particularly amabo (4) : Cist. 104, nunc te amabo ut hanc 
hie sinas esse; True. 872; Eun. 537, amabo ut transeas. 

invoco (3) : Merc. 864, invoco vos ut me tutetis ; Amph. 1093. 

peto : Phor. 378, peto mi ut respondeas. 

postulo : Aul. 318, inht postulare ut liceat. 

expeto : Men. 762 b, expetit me ut ad sese irem ; Cas. 430. 

veneror : Aul. 8, venerans me ut id servarem. 

exposco: Enn. Trag. 142, exposco ut fiat. 

exobsecro : M. G. 169, exobsecrant videre ut liceret. 

invito : Trin. 27, ni id me invitet ut faciam tides. 

mentionem facio : Aul. 204, ubi mentionem f ecero mi ut de- 
spondeat; Cist. 134. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volltive. 219 

litteras (epistulam) do : Bacch. 389, litteras misi ut inveniret; 
561 ; M. G. 130. 

Also upon the general idea of the context in expressions like Bud. 
274, tibi amplectimur genua ut tuo recipias tecto servesque nos ; 
Bacch. 589, paucis me misit miles, vel ut cc Bhilippos reddat vel ut 
liinc eat; Phor. 38. 

3) With ne (34). 

obsecro (15) : Cure. 605, obsecro parentes ne meos mihi pro- 
hibeas ; Most. 744, obsecro ne indicium ero facias meo ; Capt. 443, 
opsecro infidelior mihi ne fuas ; H. T. 291, obsecro, ne me conicias ; 
1028; Phor. 944, obsecro ne facias; Liv. And. Trag. 23; Ace. ooo, 
quod te obsecro aspernabilem ne haec taetritudo me faxsit. 

quaeso (7) : Aul. 210, quaeso ne id te pigeat ; Bacch. 1013, 
quaeso ne me deseras; Stat. 125, quaeso ne adclas malum; 78. 

oro (5) : Capt. 244, te oro ne me secus honore honestes; H. T. 
26, vos oratos yoIo ne plus possit oratio ; 623 ; Hec. 338. 

obtestor (3) : Capt. 727, te obtestor, ne tu istunc hominem 
perduis ; 319, optestor, ne tuom animum avariorem faxint divitiae 
meae; And. 291. 

venero : Bacch. 173, venero te ne me sinas convenire. 

deprecor: Asin. 946, deprecari huic seni ne vapulet. 

ago: Eud. 605, ago cum ilia nequid noceat. 

4) With tit ne (7) : Poen. 392, obsecro ut huic irata ne sis ; And. 
326, obsecro ut ne ducas ; 899; Bud. 627, quaeso ut te ne pigeat; 
And. 834, oro ut ne inducas ; Eun. 956, orante ut ne faceret; Pers. 
109, (mentionem feceras) ut muraena et conger ne calefierent. 

5) With ni : Men. 880, quaeso ni me indicetis ; Pacuv. 123, ni 
turpassis vanitudine aetatem tuam, oro ; cf. the occasional use of ni 
for ne in independent volitive uses (above, p. 169). 

'With impetro, exoro. 1 
Just as the foregoing verbs of begging and requesting take a 
subjunctive substantive clause, so impetro and exoro, signifying, i to 
succeed in one's request/ take by analogy the same construction ; see 
p. 211 f. 

1) Without ut : Trin. 591, tandem impetravi abiret ; Cas. 270, 

i Durham, p. 12; 32 ff. 

220 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

quid si impetro earn illi permittat ? (most editors, following Guyet, 
make this verse conform to the mode of expression in 269, where we 
have impetro ut). 

2) With ut (28). 

impetro (19) : Cas. 269, si impetro atque exoro ut earn illi 
permittat ; Capt. 515, ut impetres eum hominem ut convenias ; Merc. 
544, impetravi egomet me ut corrumperem ; And. 313, impetrabo ut 
prodat ; Eun. 181, impetrare ut concedas; Enn. Trag. 299, impetrem 
ut cernat ; Stat. 154, quae hoc impetrarit, paelice ut meum privarem 
virum ? Turp. 86, haec si impetro ut facias. 

exoro (9) : Men, 1049, si possum exorare ut pallam reddat ; 
Kud. 1218, exores Plesidippum ut me manu emittat ; Cas. 705 ; H. T. 
358, exora ut adsimulet ; 705 ; Phor. 489, exorare ut maneas. 

3) With ne (5) : Bacch. 521, exorabo pater ne noceat neu quid ei 
suscenseat; 690; Cas. 304, exoraverit ne Casinam ducat; Cist. 303; 
Hec. 52, impetrare ne inrideant. 

4) With ut ne: only Bacch. 533, impetravi ut ne quid ei sus- 

Some regard the substantive clause with these verbs as one of 
result, arid if one were to decide the question purely on the basis of 
the logical relation of the dependent clause, this attitude might 
seem justified; but in view of the fact that the dependent clause 
sometimes lacks ut, and in the negative form has ne (ut ne), the 
explanation of an extension by analogy seems sufficiently established. 

In Most. 1170, aliud quidvis impetrari a me facilius perferam quam 
ut non ego istum pessum premam, the ut non clause seems to indicate 
that after quam the substantive clause was felt to be so loosely attached 
that the original negative (ne) was no longer retained. 

4. Verbs of Advising, Warning, Exhorting, Reminding, Admonishing, 
etc., including (as extensions) verbs of Inducing, and (as extensions of 
verbs of Inducing) verbs of Compelling. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of this type may be seen in expressions 
like Merc. 1015, dicamus senibus legem censeo ; Lucil. 594, submittas 
alios censeo ; Eun. 583, adhortor properent ; Hec. 766, hoc te moneo 
periclum facias ; Phor. 102, censeo eamus ; cf . Men. 569, male habeas ; 
sic censeo. 

1 Durham, p. 35 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 221 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (12) : Besides the examples already cited under 
a, we find: Asin. 644, quod faeiamus nobis suades ; Trin. 681, meam 
sororem tibi dem suades; Poen. 730; Eud. 1275; 1277; Seipio 
(Meyer), p. 110, censeo relinquamus, eamus; Turp. 81, hortatur 
quam primum proficisceret ; Pers. Arg. 3. 

2) With ut (62). 

moneo (6) : Capt. 240, ted ut memineris moneo ; Stich. 42 ; 
Trin. 674 ; And. 22, ut quiescant moneo ; 904, ut faciam monet. 

censeo : Merc. 483, quo leto censes me ut peream. 

suadeo (11) : Cure. 163, ut sistas suadeo ; Kud. 879, suadeo ut 
ad nos abeant ; Asin. 914 ; And. 577, suadet ut maturem ; Gracchus 
(Meyer), p. 232, suadent ut accipiatis ; Enn. Ann. 194, 11, suasset ut 

hortor (7) : Cas. 422, hortemur ut properent ; M. G. 1189 ; 
Pers. 841, hortantur tuo ut imperio paream; Ace. 229, hortatur me 
ut meos manderem natos ; Afran. 140 ; Turp. 123, hortari ut celerent 

insto (4) : And. 661, instare ut dicam ; H. T. 895 ; Hec. 827, 
in stare ut dicat. 

com moneo : And. 280, neque commoneat ut servem fidem. 

submoneo: Eun. 570, submonuit. : : quid? : : ut vestem mutein. 

canto : Trin. 287 b, canto ut caveas. 

auctor sum (7) : Merc. 312, auctor sum ut me amando enices ; 
Aul. 251 ; Stich. 128, auctores ita sunt, ut hinc abducam ; Phor. 625, 
auctores fuere ut daret. 

consilium do : Stich. 73, consilium dabo ut exoremus ; Eun. 

verba facio : Gracchus (Meyer), p. 232, verba facio ut 

famam trado : Trin. 642, hanc maiores famam tradiderunt ut 
eorum anteparta perderes ? 

venit in mentem, 'the suggestion presents itself : Cure. 558, 
venit in mentem mihi argentum ut petam ; Pseud. 134. 

Also with nouns like verbum, sententia in the sense of ' advice ? : 
Cure. 32, quid istuc est verbi ? : : caute ut incedas ; Pseud. 379, haec 
meast sententia, ut consulas. 

222 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

In the table of contents of Cato's De Agr. the topics take the form 
of substantive clauses dependent upon the general idea of advising 
or recommending, e.g. cap. 110, virgas ut serves. 

3) With ne (11) : Pers. 680, ne permittas domum moneo ; 
Pseud. 915 ; Hec. 64, moneo et hortor ne misereat ; Eun. 16, ne erret 
moneo ; Stich. 608, suades ne bitat ; Asin. 462 ; Cas. 341, instat ne 
detur ; Enn. Ann. 253, horitatur ne f aciam ; Phor. 910, me dehortatus 
est ne darem ; Gracchus (Meyer), p. 232, dissuasuri ne accipiatis ; 
Trin. 81, ne admittam promus (= monitor) sum. 

4) With ut ne : only Epid. 355, ita suasi seni ut ne tibi eius 
copia esset. 

5) Ut nullus : Phor. 547, ni instigemus ut nullus locus relinqua- 

6) Ut non : Enn. Erag. 515, suadent Saturno ut de regno non 
concedat, where non may be adhaerescent. 

With Verbs of Inducing, Persuading, etc. 

Durham (p. 37) observes, "That the subjunctive with verbs of 
these meanings is purely an extension after the analogy of verbs of 
urging, seems a necessary conclusion for two reasons: (1) Their 
meaning is incompatible with any theory of a jussive origin ; e.g. we 
cannot imagine an original paratactic type of expression such as, 
abeas, persuadeo in the sense of ' depart : I persuade you to/ for such 
a collocation would be meaningless. (2) In striking confirmation 
of the foregoing impossibility is the fact that verbs of inducing are 
never found in Plautus with subjunctives which can be regarded as 
representing the original type." 

It remains then to consider persuadeo and verbs of similar meaning 
as following the analogy of suadeo, etc. ; cf . the use of impetro with 
the subjunctive after the analogy of its use with oro. In refutation 
of the view advocated by some scholars that the substantive clause 
with verbs of persuading and inducing is one of result, cf. the 
discussion in connection with impetro, exoro, etc. Verbs of inducing 
and persuading, like impetro and exoro, take ne as a negative and in 
the affirmative clauses sometimes have the subjunctive without ut; 
both of which facts point to a volitive origin. The following verbs 
of inducing and persuading occur in Early Latin : 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 223 

1) Without ut : Lucil. 503, mihi non persuadetur mutem ; M. G. 
Arg. I, 10, impellit militeni omissam faciat concubinam. 

2) With, ut (21). 

persuadeo (3) : Merc. 331, persuadere ut illam vendat ; Bacch. 
964, persuasit se ut amitteret; True. 201. 

auiuium indueo (3) ; Cist. 633, animum indueam ut consulam ; 
Stieh. 346, animum indueam ut arbitrer ; Poen. 877. 

indueo (3) : Asin. 494, numquam hodie induces ut tibi credam ; 
M.G. 254; Merc. 350. 

impello (4) : And. 524, impulit ut crederem ; Phor. 733, quod 
ut facerem egestas me impulit ; Hec. 426 ; Gracchus (Meyer), p. 232, 
te impulit ut sis. 

perpello (2) : Epid. 87, perpuli ut censeret ; Bacch. 644 ; 
And. 828. 

perduco : Most. 198, nequis perduci ut vera haec credas. 

adduco : Lucil. 418, adducta ut reiceret. 

delenio : Stich. Arg. II, 4, delenitur ut sineret. 

exsculpo: Cist. 541, exsculpsi ut diceret; Lucil. 49. 

animum domo : Cas. 252, domuisti animum ut facias. 

3) With ne (5) : Asin. 832, possum inducere animum ne aegre 
patiar ; M. G. 187, ut vincat ne is se viderit ; 568, vincam animum 
ne arbitrer; 1269; Merc. 331, huic persuadere ut illam vendat 
neve det. 

With Verbs of Forcing. 
Durham (p. 38) notes, "No original uses with verbs of forcing 
occur and this can hardly cause surprise ; for an originally paratactic 
cogo, abeas is logically inconceivable. The only explanation of the 
substantive clause with these verbs seems to be that they are a 
further extension by analogy of verbs of inducing. Just as soon as 
eum perpuli ut abiret came to be a part of the mechanism of the 
language, just so soon an eum subegi ut abiret could be counted on 
as its inevitable successor." This attitude seems the sound one. 

1) Without ut : only Eud. 681, quae vis vim mi afferam ipsa 

2) With ut (24). 

cogo (11) : Bacch. 508, cogam ut mendicet ; Men. 877 ; Most. 
893, non potes cogere ut maledicam; Hec. 268, cogere ut rediret; 

224 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

571; 787 ; Ad. 851 cogam ut cubet; Enn. Ann. 122, cogebant ut 

subigo (12) : Epid. 235, subigunt ut faciant ; Most. 917, subegi 
utsumeret; Poen. 290 ; Stich. 193 ; Trin. 848, nunc subigor ut dicam. 

redigo: Ace. 515, ut credam, multa argumenta redigunt 

5- With /etc, facitOy and other forms of facio. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of the subjunctive substantive clause with 
facio is probably to be sought in such combinations as Poen. 1035, 
linguam compescas face; Asin. 726, animo sis bono face; Cas. 146, 
f acite accersatis ; Trin. 800, uti celes face ; Bud. 1218, f ac ut exores ; 
cf. Stich. 185, veni : sic face. No fewer than 175 instances like the 
above are found in Early Latin with and without tit, — nearly 150 of 
the latter alone. Apparently the construction started in connection 
with the imperative of facio, and from that extended to other forms 
of facio, e.g. Amph. 876, faciam res flat palam ; Pers. 73, faxim 
appareant; Stich. 177, paupertas fecit ridiculus forem; Aul. 797, 
feci ut esses ; 545, di faciant ut siet ; Pseud. 1100, facere ut det. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (140). 

a) Following fac, f acite (68): 2 

Present: Amph. 976, fac adsis, Sosia; Asin. 726, animo sis 
bono face; Capt. 439, fac fidelis sis ; Cas. 421, fac accures ; 521, fac 
vacent aedes; 527, fac habeant linguam tuae aedes; Cure. 414, fac 
sciam; so also 617; Men. 890; M. G. 277; Pseud. 696; End. 
1023; Trin. 174; Epid. 567, fac videam ; Merc, 498, face cum 
praeda recipias; M. G. 812, praecepta sobrie adcures face; 1360; 
Most. 854, canem abducat face; Pers. 195, has tabellas fac des; 
198; 438; Poen. 893, fac id noscam; 1035; Pseud. 157, fac plenum 
ahenum sit ; 236 ; 481 ; Frag. 67, face olant aedes arabice ; Aul. 407, 
f acite totae plateae pateant; Bacch. 754, f acite accubitum eatis; Cas. 
146, f acite accersatis; Pseud. 181, f acite iam hie aclsint; Pud. 621, 
f acite hie lege potius liceat ; H. T. 925, fac sentiat ; Eun. 189, fac 
adducantur; 196, meus fac sis postremo animus; 207; 311; 320; 

1 See Durham, p. 40 ff. 

2 Blase, Hist. Lat. Gramm. iii, 1, p. 250, counts only 16 instances of this usage in 
Plautus. In reality there are 41. Full material in Durham, op. cit. p. 40 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 225 

501; 769; 1042; Ad. 381, fac macerentur ; 511; 512; 813; H. T. 28, 
f acite aequi sitis ; Eun. 506, domi adsitis f acite ; Ad. 24, f acite 
aequanimitas poetae augeat industriam ; Pacuv. 208, fac hanc 
operam mihi des ; 281 ; Stat. 290, fac velis ; Turp. 146, fac potiar ; 
Enn. (Frag), 529, 7, fac em as ; Cato, Agr. 5, 7, opera omnia mature 
conficias face; 26, fac extergeantur ; 31, 1 ; 32, 1 ; 37, 5; 161, 4. 1 

Perfect: Aul. 273, curata fac sint; Amph. 971, parata fac 
sint omnia; 979, fac commentus sis; 981, haec curata sint fac sis; 
Most. 400, aedes iam fac occlusae sint ; Pseud. 190, fac sis delatum 
hue mihi frumentum ; Capt. 736, in lapicidinas facite deductus siet ; 
Men. 867, facite inflexa sit pedum pernicitas; 992, facite ablatus 
sublimen siet. Morris (Independent Subjunctive in Plautus, p. 165) 
takes these perfects (with the exception of Amph. 979) as presents ; 
without good reason, as it seems to me. See below, p. 242, for 
further examples of the perfect in substantive clauses. 

b) Following f actio, faciunto, facitote (40) : 2 A sin. 238, syn- 
graphum facito adferas ; Cas. 523, facitodum colas ; Most. 216, hoc 
unum facito cogites ; Pers. 445, facito mulier ad me transeat ; Poen. 
1084, facito sis reddas ; 1278 ; 1414 ; 1418 ; Pseud. 166, glandium 
sum en facito in aqua iaceant; Pud. 1219, tua filia facito oret; Stich. 
47, memineris facito; Trin. 485, semper tu hoc facito cogites; Men. 
866, facitote sonitus ungularum. appareat. A single instance of the 
perfect occurs in Bacch. 96, facito opsonatum nobis sit opulentum 
opsonium ; H. T. 550, facitodum eadem memineris; Ad. 500, hoc tu 
facito cum animo cogites; 808; Titin. 169, facito exvibrisses ; 172; 
Cato, Agr. 25, facito studeas ; 26, facito habeas ; 41, 3, facito coniun- 
gas; 41, 4; 43, 1; 46, 2; 55; 69, 2; 71 (bis); 76, 3; 77; 87 (bis) ; 
101 ; 108, 1 ; 143, 1 ; CIL, i, 197, 10, facito ioudicetur ; ibid. 11, bona 
eius possideantur facito; 198, 15, facito recitentur ; 23, facito iouret; 
so 44 ; 57, facito possideantur ; 200, 28, faciunto pateant. 

c) With fatiam : Amph. 63, faciam sit tragicomoedia ; 876, 
faciam res fiat palam ; M. G. 1398, ut faciam pendeant crepundia. 

d) With faxo (18): Amph. 589, faxo ista expetant mendacia; 
972; Asin. 876, faxo ipsum hominem manufesto opprimas; Bacch. 

1 Blase, Hist. Lat. Gramra. iii, 1, p. 250, following Holtze, reckons only 3 instances 
of fac with the simple subjunctive in Cato. 

2 Blase, Hist. Lat. Gramm. iii, 1, p. 251, counts only 4 instances of this usage for 
Plautus. In reality there are 14 instances. 

226 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

864, f axo haud dicat ; Cure. 587, f axo reperias ; Men. 113 ; 540 • 
644; Most. 68, aliquis faxo ad villain adferat; 1133; Pseud. 949; 
Trin. 62 ; 882 ; True. 643 ; Ad. 209, accipiat faxo ; 847 ; with the 
perfect : Phor. 1028, faxo sit mactatus; Afran. 67, mitem faxo faciant 

e) With faxim — only in Plautus — (7): Amph. 511, faxim 
ted Amphitruonem esse malis ; Aul. 494, faxim muli sint viliores ; 
Merc. 826, faxim plures sint vidui; Pers. 73, faxim nusquam 
appareat; Trin. 221; True. 62 a; 348. 

/) With other forms of facio : Amph. 632, utinam di faxint 
infecta dicta re eveniant tua; Cato, Agr. 20, 2, faciat habeat ; Titin. 
103, me facit festinem. 
2) With ut (230). 

a) With fac, facite (47) : 1 Amph. 978, f ac Amphitruonem ut 
abigas ; 981 ; Asin. 824, fac ut illi turbas concias ; Capt. 337, fac is 
homo ut redimatur ; Cas. 714, face ut impetres ; Men. 948, ad me 
face ut deferatur; 1014; Most. 1145, fac ut tu meam timeas vicem ; 
Pers. 526 ; Poen. 422, fac ut hunc lenonem perdam ; Pseud. 210 ; 
696 c; Bud. 698, fac ut ulciscare; 1088; 1218; Trin. 800; True. 
478 ; with the perfect : Asin. 90, face id ut paratum sit ; Poen. 580, 
fac modo ut condocta tibi sint dicta (with present perfect force) ; 
Cas. 746, facite cenam mihi ut ebria sit ; Cure. 314, facite ut gau- 
deam ; M. G. 1395, facite inter terrain atque caelum ut sit; Most. 
78 ; Pers. 92, collyrae facite ut madeant ; Poen. 1390 ; Pseud. 163 ; 
177 ; Stich. 65 ; 309, fores facite ut pateant ; And. 408, fac apud te 
ut sies ; 483 ; 712, fac ut venias ; H. T. 84, fac me ut sciam ; 592 ; 
Eun. 281, fac ut admittar; 362; Eun. 815, fac ut memineris; Phor. 
671 ; 784 ; Hec. 764 ; 47, facite ut sit ; Ace. 114, facite gratum ut 
sit ; Titin. 130, facite in suo quique loco ut sita sint ; Lucil. 616, face 
dignam me ut vobis putem ; Cato, Agr. 23, 1, fac ut parentur. 

b) With facito (40) : 2 Aul. 257, illud facito ut memineris ; so 
also Cure. 210; Baech. 327; M. G. 354; Pseud. 515; Bacch. 36, 

1 Blase, Hist. Gramm. iii, 1, p. 250, reports the instances of fac ut in Plautus as 7. 
In reality there are 29. Following Holtze, Blase (ibid.) gives the instances of the 
same usage occurring in Cato as 3. But in 2 of the 3 examples cited by Holtze 
there is no authority for the ut. The only instance I have discovered in Cato is Agr. 
23, 1, fac ut parentur. 

2 Blase reports 15 instances of this usage for Plautus and 14 for Cato. The correct 
figures are 20 and 17 respectively. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 227 

f acito ut subvenias ; 1153 ; Cist. 62 ; Capt. 689 ; Cas. 524, f acito ut 
veniant ; Cure. 213 ; Cist. 64 ; Men. 437, facito ut venias ; so M. G-. 
1177 ; Merc. 279, f acito ut nunties ; 278 ; 565, f acito ut cogites ; so 
also Stick 519 ; Pers. 388 ; Stich. 148, facito ut sciam ; Hec. 769, ut 
sit facito ; Ad. 845, facito ut serves ; Titin. 23, facito ut multetur 
nialo; Cato, Agr. 5, 6, aratra facito uti habeas; 8, 2, facito uti 
serantur ; 23, 3, facito uti pendeat ; 25, facito uti servetur ; 31 ; 32, 
1, facito uti ducas ; 32, 2 ; 33, 1 ; 42, facito ut conveniat ; 48, 2 ; 69, 
1, facito ut suppleas ; 70, 2 ; 85-, 90 ; 141, 4 ; 151, 4, facito uti addas ; 
facito uti purges. 

c) With, other forms of facio (115). 

Present indicative (15), e.g. Cist. 645, ut vivam facis ; Pud. 
244, facis ut velim : H. T. 58, f acit ut moneam ; Phor. 766 ; Hec. 
211, inimici ut sint facis ; 275, f aciunt ut videamur ; Stat. 233, facis 
ut velim. 

Future indicative (53), e.g. Amph. 1085, f aciam ut praedices ; 
Capt. 856, faciam ut cupias ; Cure. 691, f aciam ut accubes ; M. G. 
661, ut fateare faciam ; Poen. 372, f aciet ut sis civis Attica ; Pud. 
1084 ; And. 701, faciam ut credat ; Eun. 309, faciam ut cognoscas ; 
801 ; Phor. 776. There is one instance of the perfect, Men. 1061, 
facietis ut abstulerim. 

Perfect indicative (17), e.g. Aul. 797, quern avom feci ut 
esses; Capt. 931, fecisti ut possim; M. G. 1257; And. 603, feci ut 
fierent; Hec. 36, fecere ut exirem; 121 ; CIL, i, 551, feci ut cederent. 

Future perfect indicative : Phor. 430, feceris ut amici 
simus ; Cato, Agr. 139, fecerit uti id recte factum siet. 

Present subjunctive (7), e.g. Aul. 545, di faciant ut siet ; 
M. G. 346 ; Poen. 489 ; CIL, i, 196, 30, faciatis utei dismota sient. 

With faxo, faxim : Asin. 897, faxo ut scias ; Pseud. 923 e, 
ita ille faxit Iuppiter ut adsiet. 

Infinitives (15), e.g. Pers. 414, possum te facere ut argentum 
accipias; Poen. 442, si nequeo facere ut abeas; Hec. 774, facere ut 
redeat ; Cato, Agr. 133, 3 ; Cure. 555, quid refert me fecisse ut oboe- 
dirent; H. T. 396, fecisse ut compararem; Most. 423, facturum ut 
fugiat ; Ad. 750, facturum ut habeas. 

Opus est facto, usus est facto : Merc. 566, opus hoc facto 
existumo, ut earn ; Bud. 398, usus f actost ut earn intro. 

228 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

An instance of nisi ut following faciam occurs, Merc. 712, 
quid nunc faciam nisi ut adeam atque adloquar ? 

3) With ne. This form is rare, the idea being usually ex- 
pressed by a prohibitive subjunctive or by cave with the subjunc- 
tive. The examples are : Most. 1145, fac ego ne metuam ; 389, ita 
patrem faciam tuom non modo ne intro eat; Cist. 523, faxint ne 
ego oppingam (SchoelPs conjecture; the MSS. have a lacuna) vivos 
savium ; Poen. 908, ita di faxint ne apud lenonem hunc serviam ; 
Hec. 839, f ecisse ne eveniret ; Ace. 88, facit ne dubitem. 

4) With ut ne, Most. 423, facturum ut ne etiam aspicere aedis 
audeat ; M. G. 149, eumque ita faciemus ut, quod viderit, ne viderit. 

Most scholars have regarded these substantive clauses with ne and 
ut ne after facio as consecutive in character, but it seems methodi- 
cally much sounder to regard them as purely formal extensions of 
the type fac cures, etc. Logically, to be sure, the dependent clause 
denotes a result, but so it does in fac cures and similar expressions. 
In three passages (Most. 389 ; Poen. 909 ; M. G. 149) we find ita in 
the main clause, but ita here is not a particle of intensity, but is used 
merely to anticipate the dependent clause; cf. my Critique, p. 10; 
Durham, p. 49. Yet facio does also at times take a genuine substan- 
tive clause of result. This, however, is rare ; see below, p. 299. 

With Efficio, Perficio, and Similar Verbs. 

These verbs mean e to succeed in one's effort/ and bear the same 
relation to fac that persuadeo bears to suadeo ; or exoro to oro; see 
above, p. 219. The subjunctive clause with efficio and perficio, there- 
fore, arises by analogy ; for while linguam compescas face was undoubt- 
edly originally paratactic, ' hold your tongue ! mind you do ! ' it 
seems unnatural so to explain, e.g. Asin. 103, perficito ut habeat. 
This and similar expressions, therefore, are purely formal exten- 
sions of facio with the subjunctive. The material under this head 
is not extensive. It is as follows : 

perficio: Asin. 103, perficito argentum hodie ut habeat filius ; Eun. 
21, perfecit sibi ut inspiciundi esset copia; 1055, perfice hoc ut hae- 
ream in parte aliqua apud Thaidem ; Hec. 20, perfeci ut specta- 
rentur; Lucil. 543, hau perficiam ut me amare expediat; CIL, i, 33, 
Mors perfecit tua ut essent omnia brevia ; 542, perficias ut f aciat. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 229 

efficio : Most. 416, efficiam ut liqueant omnia. 

The influence of these verbs seems to be responsible for the employ- 
ment of the subjunctive with the following verbs also: And. 389, 
reddes omnia incerta ut sient; Most. 706, exsequi certa res est ut 
abeam ; Am ph. 1055, videntur omnia consequi ut opprimar ; Cas. 
701, perpetrem ut nubat mihi ; Pers. 237, numquain exterebrabis tu 
ut sis peior quam ego siem ; Cato, Agr. 114, 1, vinum si voles concin- 
nare ut alvom bonam faciat ; Stich. 746, repperit odium ocius sua 
inmunditia quam in perpetuom ut placeat munditia sua. In And. 
334, we have efficere qui used instead of efficere ut : efhcite qui detur. 

6. With euro and expressions of striving. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of the substantive clause with euro and 
expressions of striving is seen in Cato, Agr. 73, bibant curato, lit. 
' let them drink ; see to it ! Cf . ibid. 143, 1, curato faciat. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut. Besides the passages above cited, the only 
instances seem to be Bacch. 550, ille accuratum habuit quod posset 
mali faceret ; Gael. Antip. p. 102, 35 (Peter), curabo tibi cena sit cocta. 

2) With ut (70). 

euro (29) : M. G. 1, curate ut splendor meo sit clipeo ; Most. 208, 
istuc (cures) ut ille amet; Pers. 527, cura ut curetur ; Pseud. 72, 
ut scires curavi ; Kud. 193; Stich. 679; Trim 1105; Phor. 905, curavi 
hoc ut esset fides; 830; Cato, Agr. 2, 5, curare uti perfleiantur; 5, 4. 

accuro : M. G. 165, adcuratote ut agitent convivium ; Trim 78. 

contendo : Ace. 369, contendam ut habeam. 

id ago: Trin. 699, id agis ut efTugias ; Paulus (Meyer), p. 201, 
id egerunt ut vos potius doleatis quam ego ingemiscerem. 

nitor (3): Merc. Ill, nitere erus ut servetur; Most. 128; 
Lucil. 439. 

studeo (6) : Poen. 575, lenonem ut perdas, id studes ; H. T. 
382, id studuisti ut mores forent; Hec. 262; Ad. 868 ; Capt. Arg. 4, 
studens ut recuperet; Cato, Agr. 5, 8, stude ut habeas. 

adnitor : Amph. 13, adnitier lucrum ut vobis suppetat. 

festino : Trin. 615, quid f estinet sentio, ut evortat Lesbonicum. 

tento : Ace. 66 f tenta (tanta, codcl.) ut protrahas. 

experior : Most. 237, ut sim parcus experiri. 
1 Durham, p. 50. 

230 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

incipio: Ad. 238, hoc incipere ut postulet. 

operam do (addo) (20) : Poen. 1204, addunt operam ut pla- 
ceant; Cas. 16, verum ut cognoscant dabimus operam; Trin. 860, 
dabo operam ut sentiat ; And. 243, operam dat ut abstrahat ; Eun. 63, 
des operam ut insanias ; Phor. 760. 

rem gero : M. G. 577, scio quam rem gerat : ut comprehendar. 
After the analogy of substantive clauses with euro, we find similar 
clauses dependent on the noun cura and other nouns of related mean- 
ing. Thus: 

cura (4) : Stich. 652, curaest ut videam ; M. G. 41 ; Aul. 

dolus : Capt. 47, confmxerunt dolum ut maneat. 

f allacia (3) : Poen. 774, compositast fallacia ut eo me privent ; 
Pseud. 1193. 

sycophantia (3) : Bacch. 740, sy cophantias componit ut auf erat ; 
M. G. 767. 

fabrica: Poen. 1099, hanc fabricam apparo ut te allegemus. 

astutia : M. G. 237, hanc astutiam ut dicam. 

techina : Bacch. 392, techinam fecit ut mihi copia esset. 

tela : Bacch. 350, haec tela ut copem facerem filium. 
We find also the adjective diligens : Amph. 630, memor sum et 
diligens ut compareant. 

Qui = ut occurs in the following : M. G. 768, sycophantiam qui 
admutiletur miles ; 138, machinas qui facerem ; Trin. 688. 

3) With ne (12): Cure. 30, curato ne sis intestabilis ; 138 
Bacch. 1030, ne perierem cura ; Phor. 713, curabo ne duit ; Hec. 227 
738, ne faciam adcuro ; Ad. 710, magnam inicit curam ne faciam 
Cas. 772, ei rei dant operam, ne cenet senex ; Pers. 372 ; And. Alt. 
Ex. 2, operam dedi ne dicas. 

4) With ut ne : Trin. 688, prospicere ut in ops ne siem ; Hec. 
595, haec nunc curast maxuma ut ne quoi mea longinquitas aetatis 

5) With qui ne = ut ne: And. 335, id agam qui ne detur. 

6) Ut neque . . . neque: H. T. 964, cepi rationem ut neque 
egeres neque posses perdere. 

7. With Vide, Videto, « see to it,' etc. 1 

1 Durham, p. 52. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 231 

a) Origin. The origin of substantive clauses with vide, videto, is 
seen in such expressions as Asm. 755, scribas, vide ; Amph. 629, vide 
ex navi efferantur; Most. 558 (549 a), videto ut capias. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut. This is found only in Plautus (3). Besides 
Amph. 629 and Asin. 755 already cited above, we find: Poen. 578, 
vide sis calleas. 

2) With ut (13) : True. 711, vide ut tu tuom item efneias ; Pers. 
607, in proelium vide ut ingrediare ; M. G. 1397, vide ut istic tibi sit 
acutus culter ; Aul 614, vide ut auferam ; Most. 558, videto ut 
capias : And. 735, ut subservias vide; Ace. 313, quam ut serves vide ; 
Afran. 177, vide ut puellam curent ; Cato, Agr. 9, id videto uti opus 
siet; 60, videto ut seras ; 76, 4; 84 ; with perfect: Hec. 841, vide ut 
mi haec certa attuleris. 

3) With ne (24) : Capt. 584, vide nequid insistas ; Cure. 325, vide 
ne me ludas; M. G. 1279, vide ne sies in exspectatione ; Poen. 358, 
vide ne pectas ; Pseud. 663 ; 942, vide ne titubes ; Bacch. 201, vide 
nequis tractet ; 744 ; M. G. 983, ne amittam vide modo ; Pers. 28, 
vide ne transfigant ; 383, videto ne f aciat. Perfect : Most. 966, vide 
ne devorteris atque biberis; Pseud. 1096, vide modo ne illic sit con- 
techinatus quippiam. H. T. 212, vide ne abeas ; 352 ; 369, vide ne 
ruas ; Eun. 380, vide ne nimium calidum hoc sit; Phor. 803, vide ne 
pecces ; Hec. 484, vide ne insistas ; Ad. 550, vide ne inruat ; Ace. 
Praet. 32, vide ne gerat ; Afran. 186, ne requiram te vide ; Cato, Agr. 
1, 5, videto sumptuosus ager ne sit ; 107, 2, videto ne aduras. 

c) Eange of Use. The usage is confined almost entirely to 
combinations with the imperatives vide, videto. There is one 
instance of an equivalent jussive, viz. Cato, Agr. 5, 5, videat clausa 
uti siet; also five instances of videndumst : Epid. 37, videndumst ut 
suppetat ; Most. 412 ; H. T. 694, videndumst amici res in tuto ut con- 
locetur ; *■ Hec. 729, videndumst ne impetrem. Other forms are : 
And. 456, ut fiant videro; Phor. 622, quor non vides ut conponamus? 
H. T. 670, nisi aliquid video, ne resciscat. Provideo occurs Phor. 
779, provisum est ne abeat. 

1 H. T. 689 reads amici res est videnda in tuto ut conlocetur. If Terence wrote 
videnda and not videndum (as in the same expression in 694), it is a purely formal 
attraction due to the proximity of res. 

232 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

8. With Cave, Caveto, etc. 1 

a) Origin. With Morris (Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 379) and 
Delbriick (Vergl. Synt. iii, p. 420), I regard cave facias, etc., as a 
purely analogical phenomenon. Just as the Eomans said : fac abeas, 
i see that you go away ! ; so also they came to say by analogy : cave 
abeas/ 2 ' avoid going away ! ' ' don't go away ! ? In expressions of 
the type, cave ne cadas, we have an originally paratactic prohibitive. 

b) Form. 

1) Without at. Here we have both the present and perfect 
subjunctive. The perfect in such case always refers to the future, 
never to the past. It is slightly commoner 3 than the present. 
Where ut is absent, the governing verb is almost exclusively re- 
stricted to the forms : cave, cavete, caveto. The only exceptions I 
have noted are : Cas. 902, cavebunt f aciant ; Cato, Agr. 66, 1, caveat 
quam minimum in cellam introeatur, where, however, caveat = videat. 

a) Present Tense (31) : Bacch. 1033, cave tibi cc nummi 
dividiae f uant ; Capt. 431, cave tu mi iratus f uas ; 439, cave fidem 
fluxam geras ; Cure. 461 ; Cas. 530, cave tu in quaestione mihi sis ; 
902 ; Epid. 437, cave praeterbitas ullas aedis ; Most. 810 ; 1025 ; Pers. 
51 ; 816, cave sis me attigas ; so Ace. 304 ; Bud. 704. In Poen. 117, 
cave dirumpatis, we even have the plural after cave. And. 403, cave 
sentiat ; H, T. 1031, cave audiam ; 1032 ; Phor. 764, cave resciscat ; 
993; Ad. 170; ISTaev. Trag. 36, cave sis contendas; Stat. 116, decolles 
cave ; Incert. vaticin. Baehrens, Frag. p. 35, cave sinas ; Cato, Agr. 1, 
4, caveto alienam disciplinam temere contemnas ; 28, caveto effodias 
aut f eras ; 34, 1 ; 66, 1 ; Aul. 660, cave sis te videam ; Stich. 37, cave sis 
audiam istuc; Xaev. Com. 82; Ace. 456, cave lassitudo cursum levet. 

b) Perfect Tense (38) : Amph. 608, cave quicquam mihi respon- 
deris; Asin. 256, cave tu idem faxis; so also: 625; M. G. 1125; 
1245 ; 1372; Most. 808 ; True. 943 ; H. T. 187 ; Naev. Com. 47 ; Asin. 
467, cave supplicassis ; Aul. 90, cave quemquam in aedis intromiseris ; 
608, cave quoiquam indicassis ; 618, cave tu illi fidelis fueris ; Bacch. 
910, cave parsis in eum dicere ; 1188, quod di dant cave culpa tua 
amissis ; 402, cave sis te superare servom siris ; so Epid. 400 ; Most. 

1 Durham, p. 54 ff. 

2 For other explanations of origin, see Durham, p. 54 f. 

8 Not "bedeutend haufiger," as stated by Blase, Hist. Gramm der lat. Spr., iii, 
1, p. 254. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Yolitive. 233 

401 ; Cas. 332, tu istos cave deos flocci f eceris ; so also M. G. 1368 ; 
Poen. 1023; Stich. 285; Trin. 513; Men. 994, cave quisquam vostrum 
flocci fecerit ; Cas. 404, cave (Bothers conj. for ne of the MSS.) obiexis 
manum; Cist. 300, cave tu umquam bellum sumpseris; Epicl. 439, 
cave ad me rettuleris pedem ; Merc. 113, cave pigritiae praevorteris ; 
484, cave tu istuc dixis ; so also Yid. 83 ; Most. 523, cave respexis ; 
Pers. 389, cave sis tu istuc clixeris ; so also Trin. 555 ; Ad. 458 ; Yid. 
91, cave demutassis ; And. 760, cave excessis ; H. T. 826 ; cave admi- 
ratus sis. 

2) Caveo ne (60). 

a) With cave, caveto (24) : Am ph. 845, cave sis ne tu te per- 
duis ; Asm. 372, caveto ne suscenseas ; Aul. 584, cave ne tu inmutas- 
sis nomen; Most. 324, cave ne cadas; 326; Pseud. 1296; Trin. 1011; 
H. T. 302, cave ne studeas ; Eun. 751, cave ne, prius quam hanc ac- 
cipias, amittas; Ace. 191, cave ne implices; Afran. 279, cave ne pen- 
deas ; Cato, Agr. 5, 6, cave ne ares neve impellas ; 20, 2, caveto ne 
shit ; 32, 2, caveto ne praecipites et ne praestringas ; 37, 4, caveto doles 
neu caclas neu tangas ; 38, 2 ; ibid, neve noctu neve ullo tempore inter- 
mittatur caveto; 38, 4 ; 40, 2 ; 45, 2 ; 49, caveto ne saucies ; 53 ; 161, 
2; 161,4; 162,2; 31,2. 

b) With other forms of caveo (35), e.g. Aul. 101, ne intromit- 
tatur cavet ; Capt. 255 ; Bacch. 544 ; H. T. 235, caves ne videat; Asin. 
873, cavebis ne me attingas ; Merc. 189, quin cavisti ne earn videret? 
And. 444, cavit ne esset ; Eud. 378 ; Merc. 958 ; Men. 270, cavero ne 
tu delinquas neve ego irascar ; Pseud. 478 ; 128, a me ut caveant ne 
credant mihi; Stich. 121; Cato, Agr. 66, 1, caveat ne tollat; 67, 2; 
22, 1 ; Amph. 944, primum cavisse oportuit ne diceres ; Hec. 470, 
cavisse ne ulla contumelia fieri posset ; Capt. 253, ne in quaestione 
essemus cautum intellego; Merc. 466, ne hie resciscat cauto opus 
est ; Most. 902. 

c) With cautio, cautior : Bacch. 597, cautiost ne nucifrangi- 
bula excussit ex malis meis ; Poen. 445, mihi cautiost ne obiexim 
moram ; Pseud. 170 ; And. 400, ne resciscat cautiost ; Ad. 421 ; 
Pseud. 298, cautiores sunt ne credant alteri. 

In expressions of the type cave facias, we noted that the perfect 
tense is slightly commoner than the present. In expressions of the 
type caveo ne, the perfect is extremely rare, the only instances I have 

234 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

noted being Aul. 584 ; Poen. 445 ; Bacch. 597. The governing verb 
is not restricted to the imperative (as in case of cave facias, cave 
feceris), but we more often find other forms, as cavere, cavet, cavero, 
cavistis. See the examples cited above. By analogy we find also 
cautio est (Pseud. 170) and cautior (Pseud. 298) followed by a ne 
clause. Peculiar is Men. 785, edixi ut caveres neuter ad me iretis. 
As regards meaning, there seems a slight difference between cave 
and cave ne ; cave with the simple subjunctive always conveys a pro- 
hibition ; cave ne, sometimes at least, expresses genuine concern or 
solicitude, e.g. Most. 324, cave ne cadas ; 326 ; Amph. 845 ; Trim 

3) Caveo ni : CIL, 200, 6, exceptum cavitumque est nei divi- 
deretur ; Most. 924, ausim non cavere ni quid committam tibi ? 

4) Caveo ut. Of this the following examples occur : Bacch. 42, 
qui caveat ut se revehat domum; cf. 44 ; Capt. 225, cauto opus est ut 
hoc sobrie agatur; Com. Incert. Bibb. p. 132, lege cavit vitia uti 
transcenderent auctoris poenae. But cave here has the force of ' see 
to it/ not, as in the foregoing material, of ' avoid,' ' guard against.' 

For a discussion of the untenable theory that cave, cave ne with 
the perfect are more energetic than cave, cave ne with the present, see 
Elmer, Amer. Jour. Phil, xv, 133 ff. ; Bennett, Critique, p. 48 ff. 

9. Verbs of Permitting, Granting, Allowing. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of substantive clauses with verbs of per- 
mitting is indicated by And. 895, age dicat ; sino (probably paratac- 
tic); cf. Ad. 996, sino; habeat. With licet: Phor. 347, ludas licet j 
originally, ( play ! you may ;' i.e. ' you may play.' 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (65). This is the commonest form, being very 
frequent with sino and licet in Early Latin. With licet, ut is never 
used in Early Latin, and with sino but once : Hec. 590, neque sinam 
ut dicat. With sino the imperative (sine, sinito, sinite) is practically 
the unvarying form of the verb when governing a substantive clause 
in Early Latin. The only exceptions are Hec. 590 (just cited) and 
M. G. 54, sivi viverent. Examples : 

sino (48) : sine : Asin. 460, sic sine astet ; Cas. 206, sine quod 
lubet id faciat ; 206, sine amet ; 437, sine modo rus veniat ; M. GL 

i Durham, p. 60 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Yolitive. 235 

1244 ; H. T. 1050, sine te exorent ; Eun. 185 ; 283, sine praetereat ; 
739, sine veniat ; Hec. 744, sine dicam ; Ad. 815 ; Stat. 72, sine 
nictentur ; 73; smite; M. G. 1084, sinite abeam; Hec. 10, sinite sim ; 
sinito (only in Cato) ; Cato, Agr. 24, sinito distabescat ; 91, sinito 
combibat ; so 109 ; 91 sinito arescat ; so 116 ; 92 ; 95, 2 ; 96. 

licet (15) : Capt. 303, laedat licet ; Epid. 471, habeas licet ; 
Merc. 989, habeat licet ; Most. 713, incusses licet; Rud. 139, sis licet ; 
Trin. 1179, et tute item videas licet ; Asin. 718, licet laudem Fortu- 
nam ; Phor. 347, ludas licet ; Naev. 127 ; Stat. 50, liceat legant ; 
Titin. 27, nee licet fullonibus quiescant ; Lucil. 60, licet erret ; Cato, 
Agr. 83, licebit f aciat ; 158, 2, licebit bibas ; 161, 3, usque licebit vellas. 

concedo, do: Amph. 11, concessum et datum nuntiis praesim. 
2) With ut (29). This usage is relatively rare with verbs, but 
is common with nouns. Examples : * 

sino : Hec. 590, neque sinam ut dicat. 

concedo : Hec. 258, haud tibi hoc concedo ut velis. 

do : Eun. 395, est istuc datum ut grata sint ; And. Alter Ex. 
10, ut obsequerer dedit. 

mitto : Amph. 546, mitto uti cedas. 

patior : Epid. 148, patierin ut ego me interimam? In the 
classical period patior regularly takes an ^-clause only when accom- 
panied by a negative (non patior). 

committo (5): Aul. 450, neque committam ut siet; Bacch. 
1037, haud committam ut dicas ; Stich. 640 ; Ad. 159, non umquam 
committam ut vapulet ; Lucil. 560, committit ut pereat. 

nihil interdico : Capt. 694, nihil interdico aiant vivere. 
After the analogy of verbs of permitting, several nouns denoting 
permission, opportunity, etc., also take an w£-clause. Thus : 

copia (5) : M. G. 769, hanc ecficiamus copiam ut abducat ; 
Pers. 255. 

potestas (5) : Capt. 934, di earn potestatem dabunt ut mu- 
neres ; H. T. 35, date potestatem ut liceat; 721. 

occasio (5) : Bacch. 673, occasio fuit ut sumeres ; Epid. 645, 
non habeo ullam occasionem ut fabuler. 

spatium (2) : And. 623, spatium ut sumam ; Hec. 130, spa- 
tium solitudinis ut conloqui posset. 

ansa : Pers. 671, quaerere ansam infectum ut f aciat. 

236 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

3) With qui (= ut) and the subjunctive : Trin. 135, nee qui de- 
terior esset faceres copiam ; Vid. 87, qui vivam copiam facis. 
10. With Verbs of Deciding, Resolving, etc. 1 

a) Origin. The starting-point of this usage may very well have 
been the employment of the subjunctive of determined resolution 
(see p. 161) in expressions originally paratactic, e.g. profestos fes- 
tos habeam : hoc decrevi, e I'm bound to regard ; that's what I've 
determined to do.' Starting thus in the first person, the usage might 
then easily extend itself to other persons, and then to nouns denoting 
< decision,' ( resolve/ etc. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (9) : Poen. 501, profestos festos habeam, decre- 
tumst mihi ; Asin. 248, certumst sumam faenore ; Amph. 1048, cer- 
tumst intro rumpam in aedis ; Cas. 448, certumst hunc praemittam ; 
Bacch. 382, certumst iam dicam patri; Aul. 681, certumst malam 
rem potius quaeram cum lucro; Capt. 778, nunc certa res est 
coniciam in collum pallium ; Amph. 635, dis est placitum plus mali 

In view of Merc. 472, certumst ibo atque dabo, the subjunctive 
is uncertain in most of the above examples ; yet with Durham (p. 84) 
and Morris (Amer. Jour. Phil, xviii, p. 145) I am inclined to 
regard the ambiguous forms as subjunctive. 

In Men. 1058, certissimumst mepte potius fieri servom quam 
te emittam, we have an instance of this subjunctive after quam. 

2) With ut (16). 

paro : M. G. 295, ut pereas paratumst. 

comparo: Phor. 41, comparatumst ut addant; Afran. 117, 
comparatumst uno ut simus contentae viro. 

statuo : M. G. 727, statuit ut veneat. 

constituo : Pseud. 549, ut irem constitueram. 

visum est : Phor. 619, visumst mi ut temptarem. 

voveo : Hec. 434, vovisse hunc dicam ut me rumperet. For 
the later period I have discovered only one similar example, Justin, 
xxi, 3, 2, voverant ut virgines suas prostituerent. 

placitum est: Amph. 635, divis est placitum voluptatem ut 
maeror consequatur. 

i Durham, p. 63 ff. ; 83 f. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Yolitive. 237 

animatus sum : Asm. 505, an ita tu's animata ut qui matris 
expers imperi sies ? 

animus (' resolve'): Aul. 371, volui animum confirmare ut 
bene haberem me ; so Capt. 242. 

sententia: Aul. 383, ,accessit animus ad meam sententiam 
ut nuptum darem ; Cure. 217, sententiam ut qui me nili faciat nee 
salvom velit. 

consilium : Most. 1049, capio consilium ut senatum convocem. 

sors (' doom ') : Cas. 300, mini optinget sors. : : ut quidem 

3) With ne : Cure. 704, dum quidem iudices ne quisquam argen- 
tum auferat ; M. G. 725, aequom f uit deos paravisse uno exemplo ne 
omnes vitam viverent. 

4) With uti ne: Cato, Agr. 1, 1, sic in animo habeto, uti ne 
emas, neve parcas, et ne satis habeas. 

11. With potin, etc. 1 

a) Origin. The original meaning in expressions like potin abeas 
(Pers. 297) was ' Go away ! Can't you ? ? So Poen. 916, potin ut 
taceas, i Just hush ! Can't you ? ; Pers. 175, potin ne moneas. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut, only in Plautus, Pers. 297, potin abeas; Cas. 
731, potin a med abeas. 

2) With ut (17): Bacch. 751, potin ut cures; so Merc. 495; 
Pseud. 235 ; Pers. 175, potin ut taceas ; so Poen. 916 ; Pseud. 940 ; 
942 ; Men. 466, potin ut quiescas ; Merc. 890, potin ut animo sis tran- 
quillo; Most. 396, potin ut animo sis quieto; Amph. 903, potin ut 
abstineas manum ; so Eud. 424 ; Trim 62S, potin ut sinas ; Pseud. 
263, potin ut hue respicias ; 393, potin ut abeas ; M. G. 926, potin 
ut hominem mihi des ; Ad. 539, potin ut desinas ; Af ran. 202, potin 
ut dicta facessas. 

3) With ne : only Pers. 175, potin ne moneas. 

4) With ut ne (8) : only in Plautus and chiefly in the phrase 
potin ut molestus ne sis, viz. Epid. 63 ; Cist. 465 ; Men. 627 ; Merc. 
779 ; Pers. 287 ; True. 897 ; Bacch. 751, potin ut ne parcas mihi ; 
Merc. 441, potin ut ne licitere. 

Besides potin, we find also potis est ut: Bacch. 35, potis est ut 

1 Durham, p. 69 f. 

238 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

taceas; Eun. 263, si potis est ut parasiti Gnathonici vocentur. 
Also 2i°t es t ut ne: Pseud. 633, potest ut alii arbitrentur et ut ne 
credam tibij and fieri potest ne, ut ne: Poen. 1251, si id fieri possit 
ne indigna indignis di darent ; Ad. 626, fieri potis est ut ne qua 
exeat ? And. 699, si poterit fieri ut ne pater credat. These last I 
regard as purely formal extensions of the common type, potin ut ne. 
Expressions of the general type under discussion are practically con- 
fined to Plautus (30). Terence has but 4 examples ; Afran. 1. 

12. With Optumum Est, Aequom Est, Oportet, Decet, Tempus Est, etc. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of substantive clauses with the above 
expressions is indicated by such passages as Aul. 567, optumum est 
loces; Most. 724, sic decet, morem geras; Cato, Agr. 14, 1, haec 
faciat oportet ; Pacuv. 32, et aequom et rectum est quod postulas : 
iurati cernant. Cf. also Cato, Agr. 5, 1, haec erunt vilici officia: dis- 
ciplina bona utatur ; feriae serventur. 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (11). 

optumum est (4) : Asin. 448, adeam optumumst ; Aul. 567 (cited 
above) ; Men. 947, scin quid faciam optumumst ? Eud. 377, capillum 
promittam optumumst. 

melius est (3) : Merc. 497, meliust sanus sis (the reading of 
A, followed by Lindsay). Also with quam, viz. Men. 832, quid mihi 
meliust quam med adsimulem insanire ? Eud. 328, quid mihi melius 
est quam hie opperiar erum ? 

oportet : only Cato, Agr. 14, 1 (cited above) and 21, 5, idem 
trapetum oportet accommodet. Elsewhere in Early Latin, oportet 
takes the infinitive ; see p. 393. 

decet : besides Most. 724 (cited above) I have noted only 
Poen. 21, decet animo aequo nunc stent. 

2) With ut (23). 

optumum est (3) : Aul. 582, hoc mihi f actust optumum, ut ted 
auferam ; Pseud. 185 ; Trin. 485, cogites id optumum esse tute uti 
sis optumus. 

tempus est : M. G. 72, videtur tempus esse ut eamus ; 1101 ; 
cf. H. T. 667, ita tempus fert ut cupiam {fert is Bentley's accepted 
emendation for est of the MSS.). 

1 Durham, p. 71 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 239 

melius est (4) : Aul. 76, neque quicquam meliust quam ex me 
ut unam faciam litteram; Pseud. 1121, neque quicquamst melius 
quam ut hoe pultem ; Eud. 220, quid mihi meliust quam a corpore 
vitam ut secludam ? 1189. 

bonum est : Poen. 45, bonum factum quisque ut meminerit. 

aequom : Eud. 1230, aequom videtur tibi ut dicam? 

iustum est : Bacch. 994, iustum est ut serviat. 

par videtur : Bacch. 139, non par videtur ut siet. 

ex tua re est : Pseud. 336, ex tua re est ut ego emoriar; 338; 
Aul. 154 ; cf . And. 546, in rem est ut fiant ; Hec. 834. 

ius : Aul. 747, si ius est ut istuc excusare possies. 

officium (4) : Pers. 616, scio ego officium ut eloquar ; Most. 
27; Pseud. 913; And. 168, tuomst officium has ut adsimules nup- 
tias. Cf. the use of partis, <role ? in Phor. 835; 836, with following 

3) With ne : only Aul. 587, servi f acinus Q duty ') f rugi ne 
morae molestiaeque imperium erile habeat. 

13. With Opus Est, Usus Est, Necesse Est 1 

a) Origin". The origin of the substantive clause with these 
expressions is illustrated by Lucretius, iii, 593, fateare, necesse est, 
' You must admit ; ? originally, ' Admit ! You must/ 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut: only Poen. 1244, patronus sim necesse est; 
Merc. 1004, nil opust resciscat, an analogical extension of opus est 
resciscat; cf. nolo abeas after volo abeas; p. 216. 

2) With ut (11). 

opus est (5) : Poen. 1421, hie opus est ut maneas ; True. 328, 
opus est ut lavem ; 500, opust aegram ut te adsimules ; Pseud. 740 ; 
Phor. 204, opus est ut sis. 

necesse est : Eun. 969, necesse est ut subveniam ; Enn. Sat. 481. 

usus est (4) : M. G. 1132, nunc ad me ut veniat usust ; Epid. 
167, usust ut pudeat; Phor. 505, neque umquam usus venit ut 
conflictares ; H. T. 81. 

14. With Verbs of Hindering, Preventing, etc. 1 

a) Origin. We can only conjecture the original paratactic usage 
that has given rise to the subjunctive with ne and ut ne after verbs 

1 Durham, p. 74 f. 

240 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

of hindering. Possibly the usage began in combination with impera- 
tives, e.g. eum prohibe; ne adveniat, whence easily, ( prevent him 
from coming. 5 
b) Form. 

1) With ne (10). 

prohibeo (4) : Men. 794, prohibere ad cenam ne promittat 
postules neu quemquam accipiat; Trin. 87, qui prohibere me potes 
ne suspicer ? Poen. 399 ; Eun. 808, tun me prohibeas ne tangam ? 

deterreo (4) : True. 929, hau deterrere potes ne amet ; Phor. 
3, deterrere ne scribat parat j Hec. 27. 

absterreo : Most. 420, ut absterreres ne intro iret. 

in manu est (involving the idea of preventing) : Hec. 493, 
tibi in manust ne fiat. 

In Most. 539, the idea of preventing is conveyed by occurro in 
nisi quid occurro ne resciscat, e unless I am beforehand with some- 
thing to prevent his finding out.' 

2) With ut ne: only Trin. 104, est atque non est mihi in manu; 
quin dicant, non est ; merito ut ne dicant, id est ; where est mihi in 
manu involves the idea of preventing. 

3) With qui ne: only Com. Incert. Eibb. p. 140, haud facilest 
defensu qui ne comburantur. 

4) With the simple subjunctive : Pseud. 206, prohibet faciant 
quod nolint (bracketed by some editors). Explanation is difficult. 

15. With Verbs of Deserving. 1 

a) Origin. I quote from Durham, I.e. : "Apparently no genuine 
instance is preserved of an original use of the substantive clause 
with mereo and kindred verbs, but the jussive origin seems well 
established by the occurrence of the negative ne (e.g. Men. 1100, 
promeruisti ut nequid ores). . . . Probably an original use would 
be something like hoc mihi dones; merui; or ut hanc coronam accipias; 
meruisti; i.e. 'just take this crown! you have earned it. ? " In sup- 
port of this theory of origin, may be urged the fact that in the great 
majority of cases of a substantive clause with verbs of deserving, 
the governing verb is in the perfect. But assuming that the con- 
struction began in the way suggested, its extension to the present 
would naturally follow. 

l Durham, p. 75 f . 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volltive. 241 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut : no instance. 

2) With ut (14). 

mereo, mereor (10): Capt. 744, aliter ut dicam meres; Men. 
359; Poen. 1407, ego te meruisse ut pereas scio; Hec. 760, meritus 
est ut commodem ; Turp. 85, meres ut diligare. 

commereo: Hee. 580, commerui ut caperet. 

dignus sum : only M. G. 1140, non sum dignus ut figam palum 
in parietem. 

promereo : Epid. 442, promerui ut mihi omnis mortalis agere 
deceat gratias. Cf. also Pers. 496, tuom promeritumst ut faciam. 

3) With ut ne : Men. 1100, cited above under a. 
16. With Quid Est Quod; Nihil Est Quod; etc. 1 

a) Okigin". I quote from Durham, I.e.: " These expressions are 
a development of relative clauses of purpose. 2 ... In accordance 
with this theory, quid est quod metuas originally meant, 'what is 
there for you to fear ? ' whence naturally, c what reason is there for 
you to fear ? J 'why is it that you fear ? ' To the Eoman mind, quod 
apparently came to be felt as an interrogative conjunction. This 
paved the way for expressions of the type, quid est quod abeas ? 
where quod obviously could not have been a pronoun, or the depen- 
dent clause one of purpose. These last are therefore secondary in 
origin and an extension of the original purpose type. That such 
clauses were distinctly felt as causal, seems clear, not merely from 
the context in which they occur, but also from the answer given in 
Amph. 502, quid istuc negoti est quod abeas ? : : haud quod tui me 

b) Range of Use. 

1) Quid est quod (10): Amph. 502; Capt. 541, quid istuc est 
quod meos te dicam f ugitare oculos ? Cure. 166, quid est quod voces 
Palinurum ? Rud. 628, quid sit expedi (quod tu)multues ; 638 ; Poen. 
867; H. T. 901, quid est quod am plius simuletur? Hec. 676. 

2) Nihil est quod (7) ; non est quod : Asin. 146, quod (quid, codd.) 
suscenseam ipsi nil est ; so Phor. 361 ; Merc. 317, nil est quod tu mihi 
suscenseas ; H. T. 175, nil est quod vereare ; 834 ; Lucil. 257, non est 
quod quaeras neque labores ; Capt. 741. 

1 Durham, p. 77 f. 2 A jussive development. 

242 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

3) Est quod (6) : Trin. 310, est quod gaudeas ; 1166 ; Rud. 516, 
bonam est quod habeas gratiam; Merc. 502, tibi quod rideas magis 
est quam ut lamentere; Aul. 203; Hec. 741, est magnam gratiam 
quod tibi habeam. 

4) Nil scio quod : Capt. 842, nil scio quod gaudeam. 

To the same influence, probably, we should assign Aul. 92, ne 
causae quid sit quod te quisquam quaeritet. 
17. Miscellaneous Expressions. 1 

a) With memento: Cas. 823, ut subdola sis, memento; Afran. 194, 
illud memento, ne quid imprudentius blateres. 

b) Eestat : Phor. 586, ut egrediar, id restat, i it remains for me to 
go out ; ' Hec. 300, quid restat nisi ut flam miser ? 

c) Satis est: Cato, Agr. 69, 2, tepeat satis est; Bacch. 491, satin 
ut nescias, also possibly belongs here. 

d) Expressions of exempting and refraining: Trin. 293, hisce de 
artibus gratiam facio ne colas neve imbuas ; M. G. 576, gratiam fecit 
ne iratus esset; Trin. 314, ne penetrarem, neu irem, neu parerem 
parsi ; Stich. 117, ne id faciat temperat. 

e) Causa est: Capt. 257, non iusta causa est ut vos servem? taken 
by Durham, I.e. as a negative interrogative extension of ut serves; 
causa est, 'just watch! there's reason for it.' 

f ) Note also the loose use of substantive «£-clauses, following nisi : 
Cas. 952, quid nunc again nescio nisi ut famulos imiter; Most. 663; 
Trin. 718, quid ego nunc agam nisi ut sarcinam constringam? Eun. 
74, quid agas ? nisi ut te redimas quam minumo ; Pseud. 1101, non 
edepol scio, nisi ut observemus quo eat. 

Perfect Subjunctive Used with Future Eorce in Substantive 
Clauses Developed from the Jussive and Prohibitive. 

Just as in the case of independent volitive subjunctives, so also 
in their dependent use as substantive clauses, the perfect tense is 
occasionally used with future force in Early Latin. Thus : Trin. 
520, dico ne siris; Aul. 99, praedico tibi ne intromiseris ; Capt. 791, 
eminor interminorque nequis mihi obstiterit; Aul. 611, quaeso ut 
prohibessis; Capt. 319, optestor ne faxint; with fac, facite, we find 
the perfect only in deponents and passives, e.g. Amph. 979, fac com- 

i Durham, p. 77. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 243 

mentus sis; Pseud. 190, fac sit delatum mihi f runientum ; Men. 992, 
facite ablatus siet; Capt. 736, facite deductus siet; Men. 867; Bacch. 
96; Poen. 580; Asin. 90; Amph. 971; 981; Aul. 273; Most. 400. 
Frequently with cave (38), 1 e.g. Amph. 608, cave responderis ; Aul. 90, 
cave intromiseris; 618, cave tu illi fidelis fueris; Cas. 332, cave fece- 
ris; Epid. 439, cave rettuleris; Merc. 113; cave praevorteris; Most. 
401, cave siveris; Trin. 555, cave dixeris; H. T. 826, cave admiratus 
sis; Naev. Com. 47, cave faxis; cave ne only Aul. 584, cave ne im- 
mutassis nomen; Poen. 445, cautiost ne obiexim moram; Bacch. 597. 
Besides these instances of the perfect referring to the future, the 
perfect is also employed as a true present perfect, e.g. Most. 966, 
vide ne devorteris ; Pseud. 1096, vide ne sit contechinatus quidpiarn ; 
Hec. 841 ; M. G. 149 ; 187 ; but this use is rare. 

Coxnectentg Negatives isr Substantive Clauses Developed 
from the Jussive and Prohibitive. 

The connecting negative in these clauses is regularly neve (neu), 
viz. in Epid. 164, dicam ne hinc exambulet neve veniat; Bacch. 521, 
exorabo ne noceat neu quid ei suscenseat ; 689, exoravi tibi ne noceat 
neu quid ob earn rem suscenseat ; Men. 270, cavero ne tu delinquas 
neve ego irascar ; 795 ; 1006, opsecro te operam mihi ut des neu sinas 
in me fieri tantam iniuriam ; Amph. 1037, quaeso ut mi adsis neve 
abeas; Merc. 331, huic persuadere ut ill am vendat neve det matri 
suae ; Trin. 293, his de artibus gratiam facio ne colas neve imbuas 
ingenium ; CIL, i, 196, 10, sacerdos nequis vir eset, neve pecuniam 
quisquam eorum comoinem habuise velet (repeated four times in the 
same paragraph) ; And. 291, te obtestor ne abs te hanc segreges neu 
deseras ; Cato, Agr. 1, 1, sic in animo habeto uti ne cupide emas neve 
opera tua parcas visere et ne satis habeas semel circumire ; 5, 6, terram 
cariosam cave ne ares neve plostrum neve pecus impellas ; 31, 2 ; 37, 
4; 38, 2; Frag. (Jord.), 22, 2, mihi curae est ne quid advorsi e veniat 
neve haec laetitia nimis luxuriose eveniat ; Trin. 314; Ad. 798. 

The only exceptions to the foregoing principle are : Cure. 218, sen- 

tentiam ut qui me nili f aciat nee salvom velit ; Poen. 489, f aciat ut 

semper sacruficem nee umquam litem ; Hec. 729, videndumst ne im- 

petrem aut ne quid f aciam ; H. T. 964, cepi rationem ut neque egeres 

1 Full material above, p. 232. 

244 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

neque posses perdere ; Most. 418 ; Hec. 595, curast ut ne longinquitas 
aetatis obstet mortemve quis expectet. Et ne : Cato, Agr. 1, 1 j 32, 2. 

Absence of Introductory Particles in Subordinate Clauses. 

Attention has been called above (p. 209 ff.) to the fact that many 
of the subjunctives which I take as subordinate are by others re- 
garded as independent. In fact all those instances of the subjunctive 
without ut which I have classified above as "substantive clauses" 
are by Morris 1 taken as independent uses. Against this attitude 
there are serious objections. 2 Thus in the Amphitruo prologue, v. 8 ff.: 
Et uti bonis vos vostrosque omnis nuntiis 
Me adficere voltis, ea adferam, ea uti nuntiem, 
Quae maxume in rem vostram communem sient, 
adferam is taken by Morris as independent. It is true that there is 
no subordinating sign, but evidently adferam is logically identical 
with the preceding infinitive adficere and the following uti nuntiem, — ■ 
' You wish me to bless you with good tidings, to bring you and to 
announce to you things that make for your common good/ It is 
clearly impossible, I think, to conceive adferam as possessing an 
independent value here. The same is true of Amph. 11, vos quidem 
id iam scitis concessum et datum mi esse ab dis aliis nuntiis praesim ; 
Asin. 644, istnd facias quod faciamus nobis suades ; Amph. 257, 
velatis manibus orant ignoscamus peccatum suom. There is also 
special difficulty in the case of imperfects like Stich. 177, hoc nomen 
repperi eo quia paupertas fecit ridiculus forem. If for em be an inde- 
pendent subjunctive, the first question is what it means. Who says 
forem ? Gelasimus (the speaker in the passage) cannot say it, and 
it is equally impossible that a personified Paupertas should say it. 
It must, therefore, I think, be clear that forem is not an independent 
subjunctive, but a dependent one, — the object of fecit, — i poverty 
made me take to jesting.' Cf. also Stich. 624, dixi equidem in 
carcerem ires; Trin. 591, tandem impetravi abiret; M. G-. 54, at 
peditastelli quia erant, sivi viverent. Here if we take ires, abiret, and 
viverent as independent, we get a kind of subjunctive totally different 
from anything else familiar to us. My explanation therefore is that 

1 Independent Subjunctive in Plautus ; Principles and Methods in Syntax, p. 113 ff. 

2 For a fuller statement of these, see Bennett, Critique of Recent Subjunctive 
Theories (Cornell Studies, ix, p. UG ff .) . 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. 245 

they are modelled on expressions like clico eas ; e go, I tell you 
to ;' sino, vivant, 'let them live, I allow it.' Even in expressions of 
the latter type it seems necessary to recognize subordination, since a 
dixi ires would hardly have arisen until in dico eas the eas was felt as 

I pass to examples of which the following is a typical illustration : 
Merc. 107, earn me advexisse nolo resciscat pater ; Pseud. 436, vetus 
nolo faciat; so also Cas. 233, nolo ames; Pers. 245 (full material at 
page 216). ISTow if we here take ames as independent, we get the 
astounding nonsense : ' love her ; I don't want you to.' I have 
therefore above loc. cit. explained these expressions as modelled on 
volo resciscat ; volo ames. Cf. also Merc. 1004, nihil opust resciscat, 
which presumably follows the analogy of opus est resciscat. 

If the explanation of nolo ames and nihil opust resciscat be correct, 
it involves conclusions of far-reaching importance. At the time when 
nolo ames came into existence in the way suggested, ames in volo 
ames must have already passed the stage of independence and have 
come to be felt as an object clause. So nihil opust resciscat could not 
have arisen until in opus est resciscat the resciscat had come to be felt 
as a dependent substantive clause. 

But if this is so, one may well query whether any of the examples 
of so-called paratactic subjunctives in Plautus are anything more 
than vestiges of an original parataxis. It seems certain that, for the 
subjunctive, the paratactic stage had been passed centuries before 
Plautus, just as it had well-nigh disappeared in the Greek of Homer's 
day. A very few cases occur which may, perhaps, be vindicated as 
paratactic ; but in the main it seems clear that for Plautus and 
Terence, as well as for Cicero and the later Latin, the great body 
of subjunctive expressions of the type claimed by Morris as inde- 
pendent (and paratactic) were really felt to be subordinate and 
dependent. 1 

1 In his Principles and Methods, Morris replies to the strictures which I (in my 
Critique) had made upon the attitude above criticised. In this reply he shifts the 
ground to the question whether the subjunctives in controversy are properly to be 
called paratactic. But my criticism was not primarily intended to discuss the subject 
of the nature of parataxis. It was directed essentially to the discussion of the ques- 
tion whether the expressions involved were dependent or independent. I was con- 
strained to decide in favor of their dependence. Whether dependence is consistent 
with parataxis (as ordinarily understood) is doubtful. 

246 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Deliberative. 1 

A. With Quin. 

a) Origin. The origin of these clauses is indicated by Amph. 
559, quin loquar, numquam me potes deterrere; 2 cf. Cic. Epist. ii, 
17, 1, quin deeedam, nulla causa est; literally, "Why shouldn't I 
speak? You can't stop me ; " "Why shouldn't I withdraw? There's 
no reason." It is true that independent deliberatives introduced by 
quin are rare (see p. 183), but this circumstance is hardly of great 
significance in view of the many dependent gwm-clauses that naturally 
lend themselves to this explanation. 

In Classical Philology, iii, p. 408 ff., Fowler takes a different view 
of these giaVclauses, denying that quin ever had interrogative force, 
and explaining it as indefinite (= qui -+- -ne, asseverative). But 
Fowler's contention seems to ignore the Plautine minim quin ; while 
it likewise involves the arbitrary conjecture of quin for quia in Merc. 
191, as well as an unnatural interpretation in Stich. 576, quin vo- 
casti hominem ad cenam ? : : Nequid adveniens perderem. 

b) Range of Use. The substantive clause with quin developed 
from the deliberative occurs with : 

nulla causa est, numquid causae est, etc. (16) : Cas. 1003, nulla 
causa est quin verberes ; And. 600, quid causae est quin proficiscar ? 
Aul. 755, haud causificor quin earn habeam ; Trin. 1188, numquid 
causae est quin uxorem ducam ? 

dubito (6) : Poen. 881, quid dubitas quin faciat ? Africanus Minor 
(Meyer), p. 213, eumne quisquamdubitet quin idem fecerit? 

non (haud) clubium est (5, all in Terence) : And. 530, haud 
dubiumst quin possim. 

contineo (4) : Eud. 1172, contineri quin complectar non queo ; 
Eun. 859. 

deterreo (2) : Amph. 559, quin loquar numquam me potes 

prohibeo (3) : Amph. 1051, neque prohibebunt quin sic faciam. 

retineo, teneo (4): Trin. 641, retineri nequeo quin dicam; Cas. 239, 
vix teneor quin dicam ; Cure. 228. 

i Durham, p. 85 ff. 

2 See Kienitz, De quin particulae . . . usu, 1878; Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , 
p. 594. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from, the Deliberative, 247 

eomprimo : Most. 203, vix comprimor quin involem illi. 

reprimo (2) : M. G. 1368, vix reprimor quin te manere iubeam. 

nioror (4) : Bacch. 340, numquam te morabitur quin habeas. 

mora (3, all in Terence) : And. 971, nee mora est quin ducam. 

remoror: M. G. 920, si non nos materiarius remoratur quod opus 
quin det (reading, with Durham, p. 87, quin for qui of the MSS.). 

depello : Trin. 640, neque depellar quin rurnori serviam. 

numquid vis (3) : Amph. 970, numquid vis quin abeam? 

alieno : Amph. 399, me alienabis numquam quin noster siem. 

vinco : Stich. 756, numquam vinces quin pruriam. 

non possum (9) : Trin. 705, non possum quin exclamem ; H. 
T. 761. 

non potest fieri : Trin. 729, nullo modo potest fieri quin dos detur. 

fallit : Hec. 728, nee me fallit quin sit. 

abesse non potest (2, both from C. Gracchus) : Frag. (Meyer, p. 
230), abesse non potest quin dicamini ; p. 229. 

est in maim (= possum prohibere) : Trin. 105, quin dicant non est 
(in manu). 

nequeo (4) : M. G. 1342, nequeo quin fleam. 

recuso : Cure. 164, haud recusem quin mini male sit. 

intermitto : Cato, Agr. 38, 2, ne intermittas quin semper siet. 

facio (3) : Amph. 398, numquam f acies quin sim Sosia ; M. G. 
283; 474. 

audeo : Asin. 25, ut non audeam quin promam omnia. 

negotium : Capt. 525, neque negotiumst quin male occidam op- 
petamque pestem ; cf. Morris, ad loc, "nor is there anything to 
hinder me from dying." This sense of negotium is common. 

abstineo (2) : Bacch. 915, abstinere quin attingas non queas. 

In the two following the notion is to prevent by reward or en- 
treaty : Cas. 504, conduci non possum quin comparem magnum 
malum; Amph. 159, nee quisquam (qui impediat) quin omnes 

Peculiar are the following : Aul. Ill, veri simile non est hominem 
pauper em pauxillum parvi facere quin nummum petat ; Vid. 88, quin 
accedat faenus id non postulo ; Trin. 587, (nullo modo) aequom vide- 
tur quin quod peccarim mihi obsit ; Amph. 1106, non metuo quin 
meae uxori latae suppetiae sient ; Enn. Trag. 245, certatio est nulla 

248 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

quiii monstrum siet ; Phor. 971, neque sis veritus quin faceres ; Hec. 
398, scio nemini aliter suspectum ( = dubitatum) fore quin putent. 

The great bulk of the foregoing examples are perfectly clear and 
intelligible. In many of them we plainly see vestiges of an original 
parataxis. Others are manifestly extensions which have grown up 
under the influence of more primitive uses, after the construction 
had become generally prevalent. Some of the examples last cited 
are certainly far remote from their first source. 

Hale (Hale-Buck, Lat. Gram. § 510) does not regard the quin- 
clause with verbs of hindering as of deliberative origin, but appar- 
ently as a dependent purpose clause, like clauses introduced by 
quominus; but the fact that gwm-clauses are dependent only on 
negative expressions or interrogative expressions implying a nega- 
tive is not adequately accounted for on this hypothesis. It is 
accounted for on the theory of a deliberative origin. 

B. With cur (quor). 

a) Origin. The origin of the substantive clause introduced by 
cur developed from the deliberative is seen in And. 103, quid obstat 
quor non fiant ? 

b) Range of Use. But few instances of this usage are found 
in Early Latin. In addition to the Andria passage just cited I have 
noted only Stich. 52, nequest quor studeam has nuptias mutarier ; 
Ace. 147, quid est cur ausis ? Com. Incert. Ribb. p. 150, non est 
cur velis vivere ; Poen. 533, non iusta causa quor curratur ? Titin. 
65, quid ego feci quern pauperetis ? should, I believe, read quor 
pauper etis. 

C. With Quam ob Rem, 
a) Origin. This is seen in Hec. 453, quam causam dicam quam 
ob rem non redducam ? Further examples are : Hec. 695 ; And. 
382; Naev. Com. 128; Most. 987, quid merear, quam ob rem men- 
tiar? This last may have been paratactic, but Naev. Com. 39, 
ultro meretur quam ob rem ametur, is purely analogical. Other 
examples with mereo, promereo, are : Amph. 1142, haud promeruit 
quam ob rem vitio vorteres ; Stich. 82, nil quam ob rem id f aciam 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative. 249 

D. With Qua, Causa,. 
Under this head belong Men. 490, quid merui qua me causa 
perderes ? H. T. 989, inventast causa qua te expellerent. The 
second of these is an analogical extension. 

B. With Quapropter. 
Amph. 815, quid ego feci qua istaec propter dicantur mihi ? 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative. 

1. With Verbs of Wishing, Desiring, Preferring, etc. 1 

a) Origin. The origin of the substantive clause developed from 
the optative is clearly seen in expressions like True. 473, inveniat 
volo, originally paratactic, 6 may he find; I desire it; ? Cas. 559, 
veniat, velim, ' may he come ; I should like (him to) ' ; Poen. 289, 
amet malim, 'may he love; I should prefer (that he should).' 

b) Form. 

1) Without ut (45). This is very common in the early period, 
particularly in Plautus. With vellem, malo, mavellem, we find only 
the simple subjunctive, never an ^-clause. With volo, velim, nolo, 
both forms occur. Examples : 

volo (9) : Pers. 293, eveniant volo tibi quae optas ; 832, obsit 
volo ; Poen. 279, at ego elixus sis volo ; True. 473, inveniat volo ; 
Pseud. 1122; Eud. 1332; Trim 372; Epid. 463; Naev. Com. 37, diu 
vivat volo. 

velim (20) : Present: Cas. 559, veniat velim ; so also Aul. 670; 
Most. 1074 ; Poen. 1288 ; Pseud. 1061 ; Cas. 234, vera dicas velim ; 
Eud. 511, velim vomas ; 877, verum sit velim ; Phor. 449, velim 
facias; Ad. 681, velim ames ; Turp. 26, credas mihi velim. 

Perfect : Bacch. 334, mihi dederit velim ; Poen. 570, deci- 
derint velim ; Ad. 519, se def etigarit velim ; Poen. 1206, velim de me 
dixerit; Eud. 662. 

vellem (4): Poen. 1066, viverent vellem; Ad. 532, vellem 
mos esset ; Stich. 312, vellem hae fores erum fugissent ; Af ran. 308, 
vellem intervenissem. 

Other forms of volo (4) : Amph. 9, voltis ea adferam ; 56, 
utrum sit an non voltis ; Cato, Agr. 43, 2, si voles crescant ; so 46, 2. 

i Durham, p. 92 ff. 

250 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

malo : Pseucl. 209, at taceas malo ; Afran. 264, di te mactas- 
sint malo ; H. T. 928. 

malim (3): Poem 289, amet malim; 1150, facias modo malim; 
1184, malim istuc aliis videatur. 

mavellem : only Baceh. 1047, mavellem foret. 

Other forms of malo : Ad. 780, mavis cerebrum dispergam ? 

nolo: Merc. 107, nolo resciscat; And. 819, nolo videat; so 
also Eim. 906. These expressions are analogical, being modelled on 
videat volo ; cf. p. 216 f. 

satius est : Cato, Agr. 54, 1, pascantur satius erit. 

exopto : Pseud. 938, si exoptem quantum dignus es tantum 

In several cases, verbs of the above classes are followed by quam 
with the simple subjunctive: viz. Asin. 121, moriri mavolet quam 
non perfectum reddat; Cas. Ill, hercle me suspendio quam eius 
potior fias satiust mortuom ; Asin. 810, emori me malim quam non 
indicem; Aul. 661, emortuom me mavelim quam non dem. The 
negative in the first and last two examples shows that we probably 
have to do with secondary extensions, since a non indicem or non 
dem in an original use would be irregular. The natural negative 
would be ne. 

2) With ut (75). 

volo (6) : Baceh. 77, ut ille te videat volo ; Pers. 696, ut 
requiram volo ; End. 768 ; Most. 1098 ; Eun. 192. 

velim: Most. 632, velim ut uno nummo plus petas. 

Other forms of volo (15) : Asin. 720, opta id quod ut con tin gat 
vis ; Cist. 119, numquid me vis ? : : ut valeas ; so Epid. 512 ; Men. 328 ; 
Phor. 151 ; Pseud. 276, (voltis) ut male sit mihi ; Am ph. 8 ; Cato, 
Agr. 99, si voles ut integrae sint; 64, 1; Stat. 162, ut devomas volt. 

malim : Trin. 762, malim ut verum dicas ; Poen. 1184, malim 
videatur quam ut conlaucles ; True. 742, mortuom me quam ut patiar 

nolo : Lucil. 453, ut publicanus nam, id nolo (apparently the only 
instance of nolo ut, except Hyg. Fab. 189, 9 ; Firm. Mat., De Err. 8, 3). 

opto (4) : always with ut in Early Latin; H. T. 756, optabit 
ut abeat ; Ad. 874, ut vivat optant ; M. G. 669 ; 1038. 

quaeso (15): always with ut in early Latin; Amph. 720, 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative. 251 

deos quaeso ut pariam ; Cas. 390, deos quaeso ut sortitio eveniat ; 
And. 487, deos quaeso ut sit superstes ; Ad. 491, haec primum ut 
fiant deos quaeso ; JSFaev. 95, quaeso ut adimant. 

exopto: Men. 817, exopto ut nam; Bud. 874; Hec. 490, 
exopto ut vitam exigat. 

precor (9) : Bud. 640, te digna ut eveniant precor ; Enn. Ann. 
30, precor ut visas ; Cato, Agr. 134, 2, precor ut sies volens ; 139 ; 
141, 2, precor ut prohibessis ; Pacuv. 297, precor uti verruncent ; 
Paulus (Meyer), p. 201 ; Afran. 83, ut fortunassint precor. 

coin precor : Ad. 699, comprecare deos ut accersas. 

spero : Cist. 596, deos spero : : eosdem ego — uti abeas ; Eud. 
629, si speras ut sit. By analogy also 

spes : Bacch. 369, nemo nisi quern spes reliquere omnes esse 
ut frugi possiet. 

veneror (7) : Eud. 257, veneror ut eximat, ut adiuvet ; 305 ; 
1349 ; Poen. 278 ; 950. 

oro (3) : Trin. 57, oro ut suppetat ; Asin. 783. 

invoco: Most. 529, (invoco) ut det; Ace. Praet. 6, invoco ut 

expeto : Cas. 430, expetivisse ne ea mihi daretur atque ut illi 

praeopto : Trin. 648, praeoptavisti uti praeponeres. 

adiuro : Bacch. 777, per omnis deos adiuro ut lacerentur ? 

obtestor : Asin. 18, ita ted obtestor ut tibi superstes uxor siet 
atque ut pesteni oppetas. 

dico (' pray ') : Eud. 1345, die ut exradicet. 

satius est : Cist. 662 y quam ut sinam satiust mihi interire. 

magis in mentem est (= malo) : Bacch. 130, magis in men- 
temst mihi ut haec concuret, 

3) With ne (3) : Eud. 1067, ne videas velim ; M. G. 1086 ; Cas. 

4) With nine : M. G. 1050, quid vis ? : : ut ne spernas ; Eud. 629. 
Perfect with Aoristic Force, Referring to the Future, in Substantive 

Clauses Developed from the Optative. This occurs : Bacch. 334, mihi 
dederit velim ; Poen. 570, deciderint velim ; 950, deos veneror ut 
siritis; Cas. 396, quaeso ut tua sors effugerit; Eud. 305, Venereni 
veneremur ut nos adiuverit; Cato, Agr. 141, 2, precor ut prohibessis, 

252 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

uti siris; Afran. 83, uti fortunassint precor; 264, di te mactassint 

Besides this the perfect occurs as a true perfect in Poen. 950, 
deos veneror ut venerim ; Ad. 519, se defetigarit velim ; Poen. 1206, 
velim de me quid dixerit ; Eud. 662, velim malas edentaverit. 

2. With Verbs of Fearing. 1 

a) Origin. Ktihner (Ausf. Lat. Gramm. ii, p. 823) followed by 
Lattmann, (De Conjunctive) Latino, p. 89 f.) regards clauses intro- 
duced by ut and ne after verbs of fearing as indirect questions. 
According to this theory, timeo ut veniat meant originally, 'I fear 
how he will come ; ' and timeo ne veniat meant, ' I fear whether he 
will not come/ But this last involves the assumption of a meaning 
for ne not found in the literature. 

It seems much more natural to explain ut- and ne- clauses with 
expressions of fearing as dependent optatives ; i.e. to assume that 
timeo ne veniat meant originally, 'may he not come; lam afraid (he 
will);' and timeo ut veniat, 'may he only come; I am afraid (he 
won't).' Cf. the French, je crains quHl ne vienne, originally, 'may 
he not come; I am afraid (he will).' For the use of ut with inde- 
pendent optatives, see p. 193 ; and for support of the theory of origin 
advocated for these clauses, cf. Bottek, Ursprungliche Bedeutung des 
Konjunktivs in lat. Kebensatzen, p. 19 ; Cauer, Grammatica Militans, 
p. 119 ff.; Goodwin, Greek Moods and Tenses, 261; 262; 307. 

Hale, in Hale-Buck. Lat. Gramm. 502, 4, regards the dependent 
clause with expressions of this sort as of volitive origin. But this 
view seems psychologically less natural than the one above advocated. 
A state of fear is quite compatible with a wish, but hardly with a 
peremptory order. 

b) Form. 

1) With we (136). 
metuo (77). 

Present tense : Pseud. 1028, metuo ne erus redeat ; Poen. 883, ego 
hoc metuo ne me perduim ; Men. 989, metuo ne sero veniam ; Trin. 
1042, metuo ne aliam rem occipiat loqui ; H. T. 808, nee quicquam 
magis metuo quam ne extrudar ; Eun. 140, metuat ne relinquam ; 450 ; 
611, metuo f ratrem ne intus sit ; 855, hanc metui ne me criminaretur ; 

i Durham, p. 98 ff. 

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative. 253 

Phor. 491; Hec. 337; Bacch. 1173, non metuo nequid mihi doleat; 
Aul. 609, non metuo ne quisquam inveniat ; Cist. 495 ; Aul. 61, metuo 
ne mi verba duit neu persentiscat ; M. G. 996, metuo ne obsint neve 

Perfect as aorist : Bacch. 38, metuo lusciniolae ne defuerit cantio ; 
Men. 861, metuo ne quid male faxit; Pers. 478, nee metuo nequis 
mihi in iure abiurassit ; M. G. 526, metuo nequid inf uscaverit. 

Present perfect : Most. 550, metuo ne techinae meae perpetuo 
perierint ; 542, metuo ne indaudiverit ; M. G. 428 ; Asin. 286 ; Cas. 
304; 575; Titin. 107, metuo ne fecerim. 

Imperfect and pluperfect: Cas. 908; Poen. 1378; Pseud. 912; 
metuebam ne abisses ; M. G. 722, metuerem ne diffregisset crura. 

timeo (10) : M. G. 1348, metuo et timeo ne hoc tandem pro- 
palam flat; True. 774, timeo ne malefacta sint inventa omnia; And. 
269, hoc timet ne deseras se ; H. T. 434, timet ne adaucta sit ; 664, 
timui ne esses; Eun. 160; Lucil. 593, timeo ne accuser; Paulus 
(Meyer), p. 201, timerem nequid mali fortuna moliretur. 

timidus sum : Hec. 734, timida sum ne obsiet. 

formido (7) : Cist. 673, quae in tergum ne veniant male for- 
mido ; Poen. 378 ; Most. 511, formido ne me opprimat ; Catulus 
(Baehrens), p. 276, ne teneamur formido. 

adformido : Bacch. 1078, adformido ne pereat neu corrumpatur. 

paveo : M. G. 904, nequid peccetis paveo ; Pers. 626. 

vereor (21): Present tense : Capt. 308, non verear ne imperet; 
M. G. 943, haud verear ne pervincamur ; And. 73, vereor ne adportet ; 
Phor. 585 ; Hec. 412, vereor ne intellegat ; Ad. 684. 

Perfect as aorist: H. T. 198, nil magis vereor quam ne quid faxit. 
Present perfect: Merc. 380, non vereor ne illam me amare hie 
potuerit resciscere; Eud. 390, earn veretur ne perierit; Eun. 81, 
vereor ne tulerit neve acceperit ; H. T. 231, vereor ne corrupta sit. 

Imperfect and pluperfect: And. 582, veritus sum ne faceres; 
Turp. 112, veritus sum ne limasses. 

sollicitor : Ad. 36, sollicitor ne aut alserit aut ceciderit. 
Also with nouns denoting fear, danger, etc. : periculum (5) : Capt. 
91, quod mihi ne eveniat periculumst; M. G. 1151; Asin. 388; only 
in Plautus. metus: M. G. 1233, metus me macerat ne sententiam 
mutent. cura : True. 455, quantast cura dolus ne occidat ! 

254 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Even where no word suggesting fear is expressed, we often find 
a ?ie-clause dependent upon the general idea of fearing involved in 
the context. Instances of this use are rare outside of Plautus. 
Examples : M. Gr. 597, sinite me prius perspectare, ne insidiae sient ; 
True. 736, discant, dum mihi adcentare liceat, ni oblitus siem (with 
ni for ne) ; Aul. 39, aurum inspicere volt ne subreptum siet, ( for 
fear that it has been stolen ; ? 82, ego intus servem ? an ne quis aedis 
auferat? 647, ne inter tunicas habeas; Capt. 127, ad captivos meos 
visam, ne quippiam turbaverint; Cure. 558, venit in mentem mihi, 
ne tarpezita exsulatum abierit, argentum ut petam ; Men. 161, ne te 
uxor sequatur respectas identidem ; Pers. 77, visam hesternas reliquias, 
ne quis obreptaverit ; Pseud. 654, hue quidem hercle hand ibis intro, 
ni quid <harpax ? feceris. Note here ni for ne, and the perfect 
with aoristic force. Eud. 896, uxor me servat ne quid significem ; 1168, 
non circumspexi ne quis inspectaret; Trin. 146, circumspicedum ne 
quis adsit arbiter ; Phor. 508, (id dicis) ne parum leno sies. 

That these clauses do not denote purpose, is clear from the most 
superficial examination. In origin they were probably paratactic 
optatives. Yet that they contributed to the development of the pur- 
pose clause, is probable ; see below, p. 255. 

2) With ut (16). 

metuo (10): Bacch. 762, metuo ut possiem emolirier; Cure. 
464, ornamenta metuo ut possim recipere ; Most. 465 ; M. G. 355 ; 
Pers. 319; And. 914, metuo ut substet ; Hec. 257; Ad. 627; Lucil. 529, 
metuo ut possit ; 898. 

paveo : And. 349, id paves ne ducas ; tu autem ut ducas. 

vereor: And. 705, ut satis sit vereor ; 277; Phor. 965, vereor 
ut placari possit ; Hec. 101, flrmae vereor ut sint nuptiae ; Pacuv. 154, 
ut queam vereor. 

3) With ne non (4) : Cas. 575, metuo ne non sit surda; Pers. 686, 
ne non sat esses leno, id metuebas ; H. T. 1017, metuis ne non con- 
vincas ; Ad. 217, metuisti ne non faeneraret. 

4) With quo minus : Hec. 630, ne revereatur minus quo redeat 
(to avoid ambiguity, owing to the preceding ne). 

5) With ni : Men. 420, hunc metuebam ni meae uxori renuntiaret. 
Connecting Negatives after Expressions of Fearing. The regular 

connective is neve (neu) (4) : Aul. 61, metuo ne verba duit neu per- 

Subjunctive of Purpose. 255 

sentiscat; Bacch. 1078, adformido ne pereat neu corrumpatur; M. G. 
996, metuo ne obsint neve obstent; Eim. 81, vereor ne tulerit neve 
acceperit. In Ad. 36, aut occurs as connective, sollicitor ne alserit 
aut ceciderit. 

Perfect with Aoristic Force, Referring to the Future. This occurs 
after expressions of fearing in the following instances: Bacch. 38, 
metuo lusciniolae ne defuerit cantio ; Men. 861, metuo ne quid faxit; 
M. G. 526, metuo ne quid infuscaverit; Pers. 478, nee metuo nequis 
mihi in iure abiurassint; Pseud. 654, ni quid 'harpax' feceris; True. 
736, ni oblitus siem ; H. T. 198, nil magis vereor quam ne quid faxit. 

The Perfect also occurs with frequency used as a true present 
perfect, e.g. Most. 550, metuo ne techinae perierint; M. G. 428, 
metuo ne nosmet perdiderimus ; Merc. 380; Eud. 390; True. 774; 
H. T. 231, vereor ne corrupta sit ; 434. 


The clause of purpose is probably partly volitive, partly optative 
in origin. Thus an original tibi pecuniam do; ut 1 partem emas, 'I 
give you money; just buy bread!' could naturally, as a result of 
the context, develop into the meaning, ' I give you money, that you 
may buy bread.' 2 So an original eum custodite; ne pedem ecferat ! 
would naturally come to mean, ' watch him, lest he stir a foot!' In 
many passages in Early Latin it is difficult to determine whether a 
we-clause is a dependent clause of purpose or an independent 
prohibitive. The share of the optative in the development of the 
purpose clause is also probably quite as great as that of the volitive. 
Expressions like M. G. 597, sinite me prius perspectare, ne uspiam 
insidiae sient; 1137, circumspicite, ne quis adsit arbiter, show how 
easily an optative expression develops into one of purpose; and the 
meaning in practically all purpose clauses is entirely consistent with 
an optative origin. The we-clause in the two passages just cited I 
interpret as dependent upon an implied notion of fear, Hook around, 
for fear lest.' Yet others doubtless may see in these and in the 
similar expressions collected at p. 254 fully developed purpose clauses. 

1 Ut is here the indefinite adverb, * somehow,' ' just/ ' only ' ; see p. 164 f . 

2 Cf. the occasional use of the imperative in parataxis with identical force, e.g. 
Amph. 353, nunc abi sane! advenisse familiares dicito! = abi ut dicas! 

256 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

In a very few instances we find purpose clauses without any- 
introductory particle, e.g. Stich. 757, date bibat, originally ' give 
him ! let him drink ! ' hence ' give him to drink ! ' Cato, Agr. 73, 
dato bubus bibant omnibus ; 156, 6, dato vini bibat quam minimum ; 
157, 9, dato edit; dato panem purum madefaciat; dato bibat. All 
of these point to an original parataxis. The two following examples 
are ' extensions' based on the original type : Cure. 313, da obsorbeam ; 
True. 367, cedo bibam. 1 

The preservation of these interesting relics is doubtless due to the 
frequency of their employment in the daily routine of the family 
life. To the same cause is to be attributed the equally primitive 
and equally interesting da bibere. 

Relative clauses of purpose maybe conceived to have originated 
in sentences like tibi hunc librurn do quern legas, ' I give you this 
book; read which ! (read it !) ; i.e. ' I give you this book to read.' 

It is obvious that as a rule only those purpose clauses are of 
primitive origin in which the main clause and subordinate clause 
refer to different persons. Thus in a sentence like pecuniam mutua- 
tur ut panem emat, ut emat cannot be explained as an original para- 
tactic jussive. Such a use as that in the sentence just cited can be 
explained only as an extension of the original paratactic use 
(cf. p. 210 f.). Whenever a new syntactical category develops, it 
almost inevitably extends far beyond the boundaries of the territory 
in which it first came into being. 

Classification of Purpose Clauses. 

1. Purpose clauses introduced by ut (542), e.g. Amph. 195, me 
praemisit ut haec nuntiem ; and frequently in all authors of the 
early period. 

The main clause occasionally contains ita anticipating the ut 
clause, e.g. Pseud. 579, ita ('with this in view') paravi copias, ut 
facile vincam ; so Cato, Agr. 8, 2, ita paret itaque conserat, uti quam 
sollertissimum habeat ; cap. 133. 

Ut may even occur with comparatives. While quo is commoner 

1 Cf. Apuleius, Met. ii, 16, porrigit bibam, the only instance of this idiom that I 
have noted outside of Plautus and Cato. In Most. 373, we find cedo ut bibam, where, 
however, Bentley, followed by Leo and Lindsay, deletes ut. 

Subjunctive of Purpose. 257 

in purpose clauses containing a comparative (see p. 261), yet ut 
occurs 14 times in such clauses, viz. Amph. 110, ut rem teneatis 
rectius ; 142, internosse ut nos possitis facilius ; Aul. 596 ; Capt. 33 ; 
290; Cist. 636; Pers. 181; Ace. 281; 598; Cato, Agr. 103; 124; cap! 
133 ; H. T. 681, ut frugalior sim ; Phor. 533, ut potior sit. 

There are 2 instances of ut non, viz. Stich. 588, quid opust? : : hunc 
ut vocem, te non vocem ; And. 394, ut non queat. In both of these 
the negative is 'adhaerescent/ i.e. is closely associated with a single 
word, instead of modifying the clause as a whole. 

As a rule the t^-clause connects itself with the verb of the main 
clause and expresses the motive of an actor ; but in one instance it 
connects itself with a single word and denotes the adaptation of 
means to end, viz. Pacuv. 304, satis habeam virium ut te ara arceam. 

2. Purpose clauses introduced by ne (254), e.g. Amph. 527, ne legio 
persentiscat, clam redeundum est mihi, ne me uxorem praevortisse 
dicant prae re publica; Aul. 1, ne quis miretur, eloquar; 113, celo 
sedulo ne sciant; Capt. 291, Samiis vasis utitur ne Genius surripiat; 
456, servate ne pedem ecferat. In all of these, the theory of an 
optative origin (see above, p. 255) seems at least as simple and 
natural as that of a volitive origin. In the other examples of the 
construction, the theory of a volitive origin, though often possible, is 
never necessary. 

Occasionally the main clause contains ita anticipating the ne- 
clause, e.g. Capt. 737, hunc me velle dicite, ita curarier ne qui dete- 
rius huic sit; so also Most. 920 ; Trin. 343; Cato, Agr. 3, 1. 

In a few instances we find the perfect used with the force of the 
present, viz. Asin. 373, tu cavebis ne me attingas, ne malo cum au- 
spicio nomen commutaveris ; Cas. 627, abscede ab ista ne quid raali 
f axit ; M. G. 333, hie obsistam ne se subrepsit ; True. 523, magis tritici 
opust granariis ne nos extinxit fames. In Ad. 281, istum absolvi- 
tote ne hoc permanet atque ego perierim, perierim (like oderim and 
noverim) is probably to be regarded as denoting the state resulting 
from a completed act. 

To be distinguished from these aorist perfects, are the following 
true present perfects : Asin. 698, ne nequiquam dixeris, vehas ; the 
same expression also Bacch. 701; Most. 252; Cas. 569, ne me 
nequiquam advocaverit. 

258 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

As in the later Latinity, so also in Early Latin, the instances are 
frequent in which the ut- or we-clause gives the purpose, not of the 
fact stated, but of the speaker in making the statement, e.g. Epid. 
702, quis est ? : : arnica, ut scias ; 648 ; Cure. 715, ut scire possis 
libera haec est; Asin. 843, ut verum dicam, ea res me male habet ; 
235, ut scire possis ; Poen. 1038 ; Most. 839, ut te absolvam, nullam 
conspicio ; H. T. 457, ut alia omittam, absumpsit ; Eun. 92G ; Phor. 
654, ut aperte fabuler; Hec. 135, ut ad pauca redeam, uxorem de- 
ducit. With ne : Cas. 38, morbo cubat, nequid mentiar ; Cist. 558, 
nutrix est, ne matrem censeas ; Cure. 724, te perire cupio, ne nescias ; 
Men. 23 ; 47, ne erretis, praedico ; Most. 1005. 

3. Purpose clauses introduced by ut ne (24) : Amph. 489, uno labore 
absolvat ut ne in suspicione ponatur ; Aul. 648, vah scelestus, quam 
benigne, ut ne intellegam ; Merc. 960, expurigationem habebo ut ne 
suscenseat; And. 259, aliquid facerem utne hoc facerem ; Enn. Trag. 
351, quos ego dimitto ut ne res temere tractent; Cato, Agr. 33, 1, 
vitem deligato recte flexuosa uti ne sit ; Amph. 126 ; Capt. 267 ; 
Cas. 513; Cist. 41; Merc. 992; M. G. 164; Pers. 603; True. 62; 
H. T. 269; Eun. 439; 945; Phor. 168; 245; 314; Ad. 354. In the 
following we have the perfect tense, used as a true present perfect : 
M. G-. 199, quid again, id ut ne visum siet ? 227, cedo consilium ut 
visa ne sint ; Eun. 942 ulciscar ut ne inpune in nos inluseris. 

4. Relative clauses of purpose (435). 

These are classified according to the particles by which they are 
introduced : 

a) Introduced by relative pronouns (the commonest form), e.g. 
Amph. 183, aliquem hominem allegent qui rnihi os occillet; 377, 
ut esset quern tu caederes ; Asin. 188, si habeas quod des; Eun. 
1078, habet quod det ; Hec. 298, nova res ortast quae me abstrahat ; 
Enn. Trag. 169, date ferrum qui me anima privem ; Pacuv. 61, habeo 
ego qui distinguam; Eud. 767, ignem faciam : : quin inhumanum 
exuras tibi ? 

b) Introduced by ubi (42), Capt. 12, si non ubi sedeas locus est; 
837, nescioquem nactus es ubi cenes ; Cure. 311, datin sellam ubi 
assidat? 387, reliqui locum ubi reconderem; Phor. 596, tempus 
sibi dari ubi ostenderet ; Cato, Agr. 11, 1, dolia ubi vinaceos eondat ; 
14, 2 ; 129, aream ubi f rumentum teratur. 

Subjunctive of Purpose. 259 

c) Introduced by unde (29), M. G-. 687, erne lanam uncle pallium 
conficiatur ; Pers. 493, quaedam res unde lucrum facias ; Poen. 185 
neque id unde efficiat habet; Trin. 158, habeo doteni unde dem • Ad. 
122, est unde haec fiant. 

d) Introduced by quo (21), Capt. 103, nil est quo me recipiam ; 
Men. 669, quasi non habeam quo intromittar alium locum ; And. 
606, utinam mi esset aliquid quo me darem; Cato, Agr. 66, 1, eor- 
tinam quo olea fluat. 

e) Introduced by qua (6), M. G. 142, perfodi parietem qua com- 
meatus esset ; Cato, Agr. 112, 1, relinquito locum qua inter spiret ; 
so 112, 3; 113, 1. 

Besides the formal classification, we may also divide relative 
purpose clauses into : 

a) Those in which the clause as a whole is adverbial. 

b) Those in which the clause is adjectival. 

Examples of a) are Amph. 950, gubernatorem arcessat qui nobis- 
cum prandeat; Bacch. 1181, i intro ubi tibi sit lepide ; M. Gr. 142, 
cited above. 

Examples of b) are given in abundance above. 

Adverbial relative purpose clauses are relatively rare, though 
chronologically they probably antedate adjectival purpose clauses. 
An example illustrating the ease of transition from the adverbial to 
the adjective value is M. G. 687, erne lanam unde pallium conficia- 
tur, which may be taken either as i buy wool in order that a cloak 
may be made/ or 'wool to make a cloak from.' These adjective 
purpose clauses are all descriptive. See below, p. 287. 

Other views have been proposed in explanation of some, at least, 
of the above examples. Thus in sentences like Poen. 537, est domi 
quodedimus; Capt. 12, est ubi ambules; 121, non est quod dem; 
12, non ubi sedeas locus est ; Poen. 833, habet quod det ; Most. 344, 
da illi quod bibat, Hale (Hale-Buck, Lat. Gramm. 517, 2; cf. also 
Prank, Classical Philology, ii, p. 168) takes the dependent clause as 
potential. But Prank, ibid. 163 ff\, well shows the baselessness of 
this view. He himself follows the traditional interpretation, which 
regards these clauses as relative clauses of purpose, though admit- 
ting that secondarily they have acquired a 'can' potential connota- 
tion. I do not find myself able to go even that far. To my mind, 

260 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

homines misit qui nuntiarent; mihi aqncim dedit quam biberem; mild 
da quod bibam; non est quod dem; quod edit non habet; locus est ubi 
ambules, etc., are all varied types of one and the same kind of sub- 
ordinate clause, viz. the relative clause of purpose. To read the 
1 can ' notion into any of the expressions of this type occurring in 
Early Latin is in my judgment a gratuitous alteration of their 
obvious meaning. Certainly until it is shown that det and haecfiant 
can mean respectively, ' he can give/ and ' these things can be done/ 
I see no justification in claiming a 'can' potential origin and value 
for*the dependent clause in ut liabeat quod det and est unde jiant, etc. 

Equally gratuitous to me seems the theory of Elmer, who explains 
these clauses as volitive descriptive clauses (see p. 294). See his 
note on Capt. 12, si non ubi sedeas locus est. 

5. Relative purpose clauses with dignus, indignus, idoneus, etc. (25) : 
Asin. 80, me dignum habuit quoi concrederet ; 149 ; 314, dignissumi 
quo cruciatus confluant; Cist 248; M. G-. 1043, deus dignior fuit 
quisquam qui esset? Pseud. 611; Rud. 406; 522; And. 230; H. T. 
741; Eun. 312, est digna res ubi nervos intendas; 1052; Hec. 212; 
Pacuv. 25; Graceh. (Meyer), p. 231 ; Stich. 205, hand indignos iudico 
qui miseri sint; Eun. 866; Hec. 477; Bacch. 616a, indignior quoi di 
bene faciant; Aul. 252, hominem idoneum quern ludos facias ; And. 
493; 758; Afran. 198. Here belongs also Poen. 1335, bellum homi- 
nem quern noveris ; so 1384. 

With Madvig and Eoby I regard relative clauses like those just 
cited as a special development of purpose clauses. To my mind 
there is no logical difference between nemo est quern imiter, ' there is 
no one for me to imitate/ and nemo est dignus quern imiter. The 
frequency of expressions (see 4, a above) like Cure. 386, reliqui locum 
ubi reeonderem, where the relative clause of purpose has come to 
designate the end or adaptation of something, was calculated to bring 
about the use of relative clauses of purpose with adjectives of fitness, 
suitability, and adaptation. Cf. also the use of the gerund with ad 
after dignus, e.g. Cic. Rep. i, 18, 30, dignus ad imitandum. We also 
find the infinitive with dignus and idoneus. 

Some (e.g. Greenough, Gramm. 535 f.) have regarded the relative 
clause with these adjectives as a clause of characteristic (descriptive 
clause of fact; see p. 289), i.e. as the kind of clause seen in nemo est 

Subjunctive of Purpose. 261 

qui aucleat : but the logical difference between clauses of this last 
kind and those under discussion must at once be obvious. Professor 
Hale (Hale-Buck, Lat. Gramm. § 513, 3) designates the clauses under 
discussion as ' relative clauses of obligation or propriety ' and con- 
siders them a manifestation of a somewhat extensive class of related 
uses, which he designates as the subjunctive of obligation and pro- 
priety. But the recognition of any such category of general inde- 
pendent fundamental uses lacks justification. Within certain narrow 
limits we do find subjunctives of obligation and propriety. Thus 
one development of the deliberative has this force (see p. 179 ff.) in 
interrogative sentences ; and in non-interrogative sentences we find 
the imperfect and pluperfect so used, as the secondary development 
of the jussive and prohibitive (p. 176 f .). But outside of these limits 
I cannot see grounds for recognizing a subjunctive of obligation and 
propriety; and neither of these last two uses can have furnished 
a starting-point for the dignus gta-clauses. 

6. Purpose clauses introduced by quo = ut (23). Quo in these is 
simply the relative pronoun used as an ablative of degree of differ- 
ence. It is regularly, though not invariably, used with compara- 
tives (see p. 257). Examples : Aul. S3, quo facilius ducat ; Men. 9, 
quo graecum videatur magis ; Poen. 39 ; 669 ; 905 ; 1109 ; H. T. 542 ; 
914, quo facilius dentur; Eun. 150; Lucil. 894; Cato, Agr. 5, 6. 

Quo minus and quo setius denote negative purpose, viz. And. 197, 
si sensero hodie quicquam in his te nuptiis fallaciae conari quo fiant 
minus; Afran. 292, turbat me quo (tua equo, codd.) setius me 

In the following 5 instances quo occurs even without a compara- 
tive: Amph. 834, quo me impudicum faceret; Eud. 1329, quo nil 
in vitus addas, talentum magnum (postulo) ; And. 472 ; H. T. 127 ; XII 
Tables in Cic. de Leg. ii, 23, homini mortuo ne ossa legito quo post 
funus faciat. 

7. Purpose clauses introduced by qui = ut (7) : Cist. 714, qui faci- 
lius posset noscere ; Poen. 1264, magis qui credatis ; Hec. 869, qui 
facilius credas ; Aul. 596, qui laborent minus. In all these qui is 
combined with a comparative. In the following examples the com- 
parative is lacking : Amph. 339, hominem contra conloqui qui pos- 
sim videri fortis ; Cato, Agr. 39, 2, qui colorem eundem facias ; And. 5, 

262 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

in prologis scribundis operam abutitur, non qui ar gum en turn narret 

sed qui respondeat. 

8. Substantive clauses of purpose (57). These are employed: 
I. As appositives of various substantive ideas. Thus with 

a) Causa (9): Eun. 512, causam ut manerem repperit; 138, fingit 
causas ne det ; Ace. 292, eaque ivi causa ut ne quis nostra verba cle- 
peret; Men. 892; Cato, Agr. 21, 4; Gracchus (Meyer), p. 232; Hec. 
105 ; Stich. 312 ; Aul. 464. 

b) Gratia (5) : And. 588, ea gratia ut pertemptarem ; Trag. Incer. 
Eibb. p. 301 ; H. T. 769, ea gratia ne tu persentisceres ; Aul. 32 ; 
Merc. 223. 

c) Hanc ob rem ; ob earn rem ; etc. (8) : Trin. 652, ob earn rem, ut 
tibi sit ; Pseud. 795 ; Cas. 1005 (propter earn rem) ; Epid. 276 (quam 
ad rem) ; True. 395 (quoi rei) ; M. G. 1420; Eud. 717; Hec. 6. 

d) Eo, M. G-. 1080, eo minus dixi, ne censeret. 

e) Id, Mud, hoc (5) : Amph. 909, id hue revorti ut me purgarem ; 
Cas. 680 ; 532 ; Stich. 589 ; And. 162. 

f) Idcirco, propterea (4) : Pseud. 564, idcirco quo vos oblectem ; 
Bacch. 730 ; 812 ; Hec. 106. 

Hoc modo : Cato, Agr. 32, 1, arbores hoc modo putentur, rami uti 
divaricentur, et ne relinquantur. 

II. As object of verbs. Thus: 

a) With paro, apparo, adomo (14) : Aul. 827, ut eriperes apparabas ; 
Pseud. 486, paritas ut auferas ; Trin. 1188; Phor. 957; Eun. 240; 
H. T. 948 ; Trag. incert. Eibb. i, p. 301 ; 304 ; Enn. Trag. 321, para- 
tum pestem ut participet parem (paratum is Bentley's necessary con- 
jecture for paratam of the MSS) ; Hec. 68; Epid. 361, adornat ut 
maritus fias ; Eud. 129 ; Eun. 582. 

b) With exspecto, maneo (3) : Stich. 58, manet ut moneatur ; Hec. 
280, exspecto ut redeat ; Trin. 734. Durham, p. 107, takes these as 
substantive clauses developed from the optative, but it seems more 
natural to explain them as purpose clauses. 

III. Introduced by quo minus after expressions of hindering (6) : 
CIL, i, 199, 34, neive prohibeto quo minus sumant; 33, quo minus 
pascere liceat ni quis prohibeto ; 26, quod mora non fiat quo setius 
earn pequniam acipiant ; Cato, Agr. 148, 1 ; Amph. 84, quive alter 
quo placeret fecisset minus ; CIL, i, 198, 71, neive f acito quo quis 

Stipulative Subjunctive. 263 

eorum minus ad id iudicium adesse possit; And. 699, per me stetisse 
quo minus fierent nuptiae. In these last three the notion of hinder- 
ing is suggested by the context. 

That these quo mirms-clauses are substantive clauses of purpose 
seems sufficiently indicated by the fact that elsewhere quo, when 
joined with a comparative and followed by the subjunctive, is a pur- 
pose particle. See above, p. 261. We even find quo minus introduc- 
ing an adverbial purpose clause in And. 197, conari quo fiant minus. 

9. Connecting negatives in purpose clauses (22). 

a) Form ne . . . neve (neu) : Capt. 219, ne queant neu permanet ; 
Epid. 165; Merc. 230; M. G. 6; Poen. 30; 605; Eud. 700; Eun. 
278; Hec. 587; Pacuv. 228; Cato, Agr. 92; True. 59; 97. 

b) Form ut . . . neve (neu): Bacch. 648; Trin. 1143, ut filius 
crederet neu posset ; Hec. 545. 

c) Form ut . . . et ne, Cato, Agr. 32, 2, ut caedantur et ne relin- 
quantur ; 107, ut odorata sint et ne quid accedat. 

d) Form ut . . . atque ut ne, Amph. 126, ut possem atque ut ne 

e) Miscellaneous (4), Eun. 965, ne neque prosis et pereas ; Ad. 
624, ne dicerem ac fieret palam; Eun. 93, ut aut doleret aut istuc nil 
penderem ; Capt. 434, ne me ignores tuque te pro libero esse ducas, 
neque des operam. 

In no instance is neque used as a connecting negative. In Eun. 
965 and Capt. 437, neque goes closely with the verb, w r hich in each 
case is governed by a preceding ne. 


" Stipulative Subjunctive" is the name I have given to an idiom 
discussed at length in Transactions of the American Philological 
Association, xxxi, p. 223 ff. The Stipulative I defined as " a sub- 
ordinate subjunctive clause designating primarily some agreement, 
compact, or understanding under which the main act takes place." 
The idiom, as I undertook to show, is sharply differentiated both 
logically and formally from clauses of proviso and also from con- 
ditional clauses, with both of which at times it seems to have 

264 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

The origin of the stipulative, I found in par atactic uses of the 
jussive and prohibitive. Thus in Cure. 660, tu ut hodie cenam des 
sororiam, hie nuptialem eras clabit, the idea is ' do you give a dinner 
to-day; (then) he will give one to-morrow; i.e. ' he will give one 
to-morrow, on the understanding or condition, that you give one 
to-day.' So in Trin. 518, arcano tibi ego hoc dico, ne ille ex te sciat, 
the original notion was ' I tell you this in confidence ; let him not 
learn it from you ! ' i.e. ' on the understanding that he is not to learn 
it from you.' 

While more commonly the stipulative clause has the simple force 
of ' on the understanding that, that not ' ; ' with the agreement that, 
that not/ yet, as a perfectly natural outgrowth of this original value, 
we find it developing, under the influence of the context, a variety of 
other values. Thus it may mean ' under the restriction that, that 
not ' ; ' with the reservation that, that not ' ; 'on pain of ' ; 'on 
condition that, that not.' In the affirmative form it may also have 
the force of 'by 7 with a verbal noun; while with negatives (regularly 
ne or ut ne) it frequently has the force of ' without ' followed by a 
verbal noun (' without doing/ 'without saying/ etc.). 

The material is distributed according to the foregoing logical cate- 
gories, so far as they appear in Early Latin. 

1 . Stipulative clauses with the force of ' on the understanding that, 
that not ' ; ' under the agreement that, that not.' 

a) Affirmative (20), Asin. 752 ; 915, poste demum hue eras addu- 
cam ad lenam, ut xx minas ei det, in partem hac amanti ut liceat ei 
potirier ; Bacch. 875 ; 1184, quid tandem si dimidium auri redditur, 
in' mecum intro ? atque ut eis delicta ignoscas ; Capt. 948 ; Epid. 
470, atque ita profecto, ut earn ex hoc exoneres agro; Men. 53; 
M. G-. 979, vin tu illam actutum amovere, a te ut abeat per gratiam ; 
1148 ; Pers. 523, earn te volo curare ut istic veneat, ac suo periculo 
is emat qui mercabitur ; 662 ; Pseud. 57 ; Eud. 929 ; 1409 ; Stich. 
195, auctionem praedicem, ipse ut venditem ; And. 148, ita discedo 
ut qui neget ; Phor. 633, quid vis dari ut desistat, haec facessat ? 
Cato, Agr. 15, uti dominus omnia ad opus praebeat . . . et uti 
sublinat locari oportet ; C. Gracchus (Meyer), p. 233, ego ut tacerem, 
decern talenta a rege accepi ! 

b) Negative (16). 

Stipulative Subjunctive. 265 

1) With ne, ut ne (10) : Asin. 229, quid me aequom censes dare, 
annum hunc ne cum quiquam alio sit ; 635 ; Bacch. 224, veniat 
quando volt, atque ita ne mihi sit mora ; 873, vis tibi ducentos num- 
mos iam promittier, ut ne clamorem hie facias neu convicium ; Poen. 
888, nisi ero meo uni indicasso, atque ei quoque ut ne enuntiet; 
Trin. 141, quod meae concreditumst taciturnitati, ne enuntiarem neu 
facerem palam ; 518 ; H. T. 783, ita istaec misceto ne me admisceas ; 
Phor. 633, quid vis dari, tu molestus ne sies ? 

2) With ni (= ne) (5) ; see Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc, xxxi, p. 
239 ff. Epid. 699, da pignus ni ea sit filia. The MSS read sit, 
and so G-oetz in his first edition, Leo, and Lindsay. Poen. 1242, da 
pignus ni nunc perieres ; Bud. 1380, cedo quicum habeam iudicem, 
ni dolo malo instipulatus sis nive etiamdum siem xxv annos natus ; 
True. 275, pignus da, ni ligneae hae sint (sunt P) quas habes Victo- 
rias ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 62, 6, nunc si sponsionem fecissent cum 
Turio ni vir melior esset. On Pseud. 1070, roga me xx minas, 
si ilia sit potitus, where I have suggested ni for si, see op. cit. 
p. 243 f. 

3) With nee, Asin. 752, lenae dedit xx minas, ut secum esset . . . 
nee cum quiquam alio. The commoner connective with all clauses of 
volitive origin is neve (neu), nive, and these occur in Bacch. 873 ; 
Trin. 141; Bud. 1380 (see above). But exceptions to this principle 
have already been noted, not only in independent but also in depend- 
ent sentences of volitive origin; see p. 170; 243. 

2. Stipulative clauses with the force of ' on pain of/ ' under penalty of 
(4) : Men. 216, ego hercle vero te et servabo et te sequar, neque hodie 
ut te perdam meream deorum divitias mihi ; originally ( on the under- 
standing that I'm to lose you ' ; i.e. ' on pain of losing ? ; Stich. 24 
neque ille sibi mereat Persarum montis, qui esse aurei perhibentur. 
ut istuc faciat ; Bacch. 1183a, quern quidem ut non excruciem, alterum 
tantum auri non meream ; Pers. 786, quern pol ego ut non in cruci- 
atum atque in compedis cogam. ... In these last two, we have 
irregularly non for ne or ut ne (cf. nee for neu in Asin. 752). In the 
last example the apodosis is omitted. 

3. Stipulative clauses with the force of ' on condition that ' (5) : Aul. 
458, lege agito mecum, molestus ne sis, ' go to law (' on the under- 
standing that/ and so) on condition that you only let me alone 7 ; 

266 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Cure. 660, tu ut hodie cenam des sororiam, hie nuptialem eras dabit : 
promittimus ; Asin. 455, sic potius, ut Demaeneto tibi ero praesente 
reddam; Poen. 1364, eras auctionem faciam. : : tantisper quidein ut 
sis apud me lignea in custodia; Eud. 1127, coneredam tibi, ac si 
istorum nil sit, ut mini reddas. 

4. Stipulative clauses with the force of ' by ? with a verbal noun (8) : 
Capt. 423, nunc adest oecasio benefacta cumulare, ut erga hunc rem 
geras fideliter ; M. G. 186, quern ad modum ? : : ut eum qui se hie 
vidit verbis vincat ne viderit; Pers. 35; Stich. 121, qui potest mulier 
vitare vitiis ? : : ut pridie caveat ne faciat quod pigeat ; originally 
' on the understanding that she avoid/ and so ' by avoiding/ True. 
919 ; Eacch. 477 ; Pseud. 236, quonam paeto possim vincere ani- 
mum ? : : in rem quod sit praevortaris. In this last the usual ut is 
absent. Hence it is not impossible that we have an independent 
use of the jussive. 

5. Negative stipulative clauses with the force of ' without' with a 
verbal noun (18) : Am ph. 388, obsecro ut per pacem te alloqui, ut ne 
vapulem, i on the understanding that Pm not to be beaten/ and so, 
' without being beaten ' ; Asin. 319, habeo familiarem tergum, ne 
quaeram foris; so Aul. 358; M. G. 638; Asin. 718, licet laudem 
Portunam ut ne Salutem culpem ; Bacch. 343 ; Capt. 331, eum si 
reddis mihi, praeterea unum minimum ne duis (' without paying me 
a didrachm besides) ; cf. Vid. 83, argenti minam adferam ad te, 
faenus mihi nullum duis; Merc. 145, die mihi an boni quid us- 
quamst, quod quisqaam uti possiet, sine malo omni aut ne laborem 
capias ; M. G. 1207, nam si possem ullo modo impetrare ut abiret ne 
te abduceret. Ne is the reading of the MSS, retained by Leo and 
Lindsay ; nee, conjectured by Salmasius, is read by Gotz-Scholl and 
others. Poen. 177; 662, hie clam furtim esse volt, nequis sciat neue 
arbiter sit; Pseud. 322; Trin. 663; Eun. 217, censen posse me 
omrmare perpeti ne redeam. 

The following examples have ni for ne : Cist. 204, hanc ego de me 
coniecturam facio, ni foris quaeram ; Merc. 693, parumne est malai 
rei quod am at Demipho, ni sumptuosus siet; Most. 414, ut proveni- 
ant sine malo, ni quid potiatur quam ob rem pigeat vivere. Here, 
as in Mere. 145, it is noteworthy that we have a stipulative coordi- 
nate with a sme-phrase. 

Stipulative Subjunctive. 267 

6. Substantive stipulative clauses (28). l Nearly all of the classes 
of stipulative clauses above recognized pass readily into substantive 
clauses. Such substantive clauses occur with considerable frequency 
in connection with verbs of bargaining, contracting, and the like • 
also in apposition with nouns like conditio, leges, foedus, etc. 2 

Examples : 

a) After verbs : 

convenit : Capt. 378, nunc ita convenit inter me atque hunc, 
Tyndare, ut te in Alidem mittam ; si non rebitas, huic ut xx minas 
dem; 397; Amph. 226; Aul. 258; Naev. Bell. Pun. 47, convenit 
regnum ut haberent, True. Arg. 10. 

coniuro: Merc. 536, inter nos coniuravimus, neuter stupri 
caussa caput limaret. 

conduco: Epid. 314, conducere aliquam fidicinam cantaret 
sibi. The text is uncertain; Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc, xxxi, p. 235. 
Epid. 500, conducta veni ut cantarem ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 08, 6, 
conduci uti taceat. 

depeciscor : Phor. 165, ut mi liceat frui, depecisci morte cupio. 

pacisco: Naev. Bell. Pun. 48, id quoque paciscunt, moenia 
sint (tuta ?) ; paciscit obsides ut reddat. 

b) After nouns : 

condicio : Bacch. 1041, duae condiciones sunt, vel ut aurum 
perdas vel ut amator perierit ; Rud. 1030. 

lex: Asin. 234, in leges meas dabo . . . perpetuom annum 
hunc mihi uti serviat nee quemquam alium admittat; Most. 360; 
Pers. 69; Asin. 735; Aul. 155; And. 200; Phor. 533. 

rabo : True. 688, rabonem habeto ut mecum hanc noctem sies. 

signum : Bacch. 329, id signumst cum Theotimo, ei aurum ut 

pacto, modo ('terms'): Bacch. 1178, scin quo pacto me ab- 
ducas ? : : mecum ut sis ; Poen. 853, quo modo ? : : ut corium sufferas ; 
Amph. 1023; True. 918. 

The following also seem to belong here : Aul. 434, baud paenitet 
tua ne expetam; Cure. 663, quid dotis ? : : egone ? : : ut semper me 
alat ; Men. 966, spectamen bono servo id est, ut rem eri tutetur. 

1 See Durham, Substantive Clauses, p. 64 ff. 

2 These substantive stipulative clauses are of course very closely related to the 
substantive clauses considered above on p. 236 f . 

268 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 


Clauses of Proviso seem to be a development of the jussive and 
prohibitive subjunctive. Thus in manent ingenia senibus, modo per- 
maneat studium et industria, the original sense was : 'Let only inter- 
est and vigor remain ! (then) old men's faculties remain.' Cf. the 
paratactic use of the imperative, e.g. Asin. 240, modo argentum 
adferto; facile patiar cetera. Dum, the commonest particle in these 
clauses, was probably originally an oblique case of a noun meaning 
( while.' Hence in oderint, dum metuant, the original sense was: 
'Let them fear the while! (then) they may hate.' Some scholars, 
e.g. Methner, in Glotta, i, p. 251, regard the clause of proviso intro- 
duced by dum as of temporal origin (dum meaning, 'as long as'), but 
this view fails to account for the negative ne employed in these 
clauses. What Methner says on p. 252 in attempting to explain the 
negative can hardly be regarded as of weight. 

1. With dum (33): Bacch. 418, dum caveatur, sine; Capt. 607, 
volo, dum istic vinciatur; 694, dum pereas, nihil interdico aiant 
vivere ; Cas. 75, mecum pignus dato, Poenus dum iudex siet ; 331 ; 
Cure. 35, dum ted apstineas nupta, ama quidlubet; 180; 428; 460; 
704; Epid. 348, dum tibi placeam atque opsequar, meum tergum 
flocci facio; 679; Men. 90, dum tu quod edit praebeas, numquam 
fugiet; Merc. 906, dum istic siet; Most. 71, dum interea sic sit, istuc 
< actutum ' sino ; Pers. 145, me etiam vende, dum saturum vendas ; 
387; Eud. 746, quid mea refert, dum mihi recte serviant; 1100; 
Stich. 553, quattuor sane dato dum equidem quod edint addas ; 686, 
convenit, dum quidem veniat cum vino suo; Trin. 58, dum quidem 
hercle tecum nupta sit, sane velim ; 211 ; True. 736, discant, dum 
mihi commentari liceat; And. 677, capitis periclum adire, dum 
prosim tibi ; Eun. 741, ferre possum, verba dum sint ; Ad. 223, quasi 
iam usquam tibi sint xx minae, dum huic obsequare ; Pacuv. 288, 
illis opitularier quovis exitio cupio, dum prosim; Ace. 204, oderint 
dum metuant ; Trag. Incert. Eibb. 159, pereant amici, dum inimici 
una intercidant ; Lucil. 536, coquos non curat caudam insignem esse, 

1 Elste, De dum particulae usu Plautino, 1882 ; Boettger, De dum particulae usu 
apud Terentium et in reliquiis trag. et com., 1887; Richardson, De dum particulae 
apud priscos scriptores Latinos usu, 1886; Schmalz, Archiv f ur lateinische Lexiko- 
graphie und Grammatik, xi, p. 333 ff. 

Clauses of Proviso. 269 

illas dum pinguis siet. In Asin. 166, habeto hac lege, dum superes 
datis, the proviso clause is substantive, in apposition with lege. 

2. With dum ne, dum ni (21) : Aul. 211, dum quidem ne quid per- 
conteris ; 491, quo lubeant nubant, dum dos ne fiat comes ; Bacch. 
866, pacisce quid tibi lubet, dum ne hominem opprimat nive enicet ; 
Capt. 338, quidvis, dum ab re ne quid ores, faciam ; 682 ; Cure. 36, 
dum ne per f undum saeptum facias semitam, ama quidlubet ; Merc. 
423, me illam posse opinor vendere. : : dum quidem hercle ne minoris 
vendas quam ego emi; M. G. 893, dum ne scientes quod bonum 
f aciamus, ne formida ; Pers. 657, dum quidem ne nimis diu tua sim, 
volo ; Trin. 979, dum ille ne sis quern ego esse nolo, sis mea caussa 
qui lubet; And. 902, quidvis cupio, dum ne me falli comperiar; 
Hec. 634, dum ne reducam, turbent quam velint ; Cato, Agr. 5, 4, opus 
omne curet, dum ne lassus fiat ; 33, 1 ; 50, 2 ; CIL, i, 196, dum ne 
minus c senatoribus adesent (ter) ; 198, 16, dum nequem legat ; 198, 
30, quod recte factum esse volet, dum neiquid advorsus hanc legem 
fiat ; 198, 63 ; 199, 31, dum ne intromitat ; 41, id uti f acere liceat, 
dum ne ampliorem modum habeant; 202, II, 12, ea lege praecones 
legunto, dum niquem in eius locum praeconem legant ; i, 577, III, 10, 
dum ni minus xx adsient. 

3. With dum modo (11) : Amph. 644, absit, dum modo laude parta 
domum recipiat se ; 996 ; Aul. 239, dum modo morata recte veniat, 
dotatast satis ; Epid. 270, f acere cupio quidvis, dum id fiat modo ; 
M. G. 253, quantum vis prolationis, dum modo hunc inclucamus ; 784 ; 
H. T. 466, sumat, dum modo habeam ; 641 ; Eun. 320, nil refert, dum 
potiar modo ; Naev. Com. 130, dum (modo) videat ; Afran. 408, dum 
modo doleat aliquid, doleat quid lubet. 

4. With modo : Eun. 890, volet, civis modo haec sit. 

5. With ut modo, modo ut : Asin. 274, aetatem velim servire, Liba- 
num ut conveniam modo ; Phor. 58, scies, modo ut tacere possis. 

Methner, op. cit. p. 246, makes the assertion that the main clause 
on which provisos introduced by dum depend, contains "keine 
Behauptung, sondern eine Willenserklarung." But he overlooks 
important material for Early Latin. I have no^ed the following 
examples in which the main clause does not express a "Willens- 
erklarung." Barring Amph. 996, which, in mv opinion, Methner 
misinterprets, none of these passages are recognized in his paper : 

270 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Cure. 460, quid id refert, dum argentum accipias? Merc. 906, quid 
refert, dum siet ; Pers. 387, dum dos sit, nullum vitium vitio vorti- 
tur ; Rud. 746, quid mea refert, dum mihi recte serviant ? Stich. 687, 
convenit, dum veniat; Trin. 211, non flocci faeiunt, dum illud quod 
lubeant sciant; Eun. 742, ferre possum, verba dum sint; Ad. 223, 
quasi iam usquam tibi sint xx minae,' dum huic obsequare; Lucil. 
536; Aul. 239, dum modo morata recte veniat, dotatast satis; M. G. 
784 ; H. T. 641, quidvis satis est, dum vivat modo ; Eun. 320 ; Amph. 
996, quod omnis homines facere oportet, dum modo fiat bono, is cited 
by M., but I can see no " Willenserklarung " in facere oportet. 

Dum-Clauses Denoting a Wish. 

Different from the c^ra-clauses just discussed, are, in my judgment, 
the five following examples. These seem to go back rather to an 
optative origin, embodying, as they do, a wish existing in the mind of 
the subject of the leading verb. Asin. 428, operam dedo, dum reperiara, 
6 in my desire to find ' : Capt. 32, nil pretio parsit dum filio par- 
ceret, ' in his desire to save his son ' ; Merc. 84, dico amorem missum 
facere me, dum illi obsequar; Pseud. 1282, inde hue exii crapulam 
dum amoverem ; And. 825, dum id efficias quod cupis, neque modum 
benignitatis neque quid ores, cogitas. 


Material falling under this head is extremely rare in Early Latin. 
I have noted only the following examples : Bacch. 82, locus hie apud 
nos, quamvis subito venias, semper liber est; Trin. 554, quamvis 
malam rem quaeras, reperias ; Cato, Agr. 1, 6, quamvis quaestuosus 
siet; True. 571, des quantumvis, nusquam apparet; Hec. 296, ut 
taceam, quoivis facile scitu est. 

These apparently have developed from a jussive parataxis, — 
< come as suddenly as you will/ etc. Possibly they are still at the 
paratactic stage. 

Conditional Sentences. 271 


The subjunctive in the apodosis of conditional sentences is poten- 
tial in character and has already been considered in detail above, 
pp. 197 ; 201. The present chapter, therefore, will deal only with 
the employment of the subjunctive in protases. 

Origin. The origin of the subjunctive in the protasis of Latin 
conditional sentences is not altogether clear. Very likely, too, the 
different types of conditional sentences are not all of the same ori- 
gin, but are to be referred, some to one source, others to another. 
Thus, Delbrtick, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 401, refers sentences of the type si 
haberem, darem to an Indo-European optative 2 for their origin. He 
is led to this in view of the fact that Sanskrit employs the optative 
in unreal conditions, while the usage is likewise not unknown to 
Greek ; e.g. ^ 274, el fiev vvv eirl a'AAa) aeOXevotfxev 'A^ato/, rj r av iyco ra 
7r/oa)Ta Xafiiov KXtcrtrjv^e <j>epoLjm,r)v. In the case of conditions of the type 
si habeam, clem, we may very likely, according to Delbrtick, have a 
fusion of subjunctive and optative. Essentially the same are the 
views of Schmalz (Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 583) and of Hale (Origin 
of Subjunctive and Optative Conditions in Greek and Latin, Har- 
vard Studies, xii, p. 109 ff.), except that Hale in addition to the 
volitive, optative, and potential recognizes also an " anticipatory " 
subjunctive as participating in the origin of the Latin subjunctive in 
protases. Nutting, Amer. Jour. Phil, xxiv, p. 149 ff., dissents from 
the views of the scholars just cited, particularly so far as the par- 
ticipation of the volitive and true optative is involved in the origin 
of subjunctive protases in Latin. He would refer the use of the 
subjunctive in Latin protases (just as the use of optative and sub- 
junctive protases in Greek) to "the vague and shifting meaning 

1 Rothheimer, De enuntiatis eonditionalibus Plautinis, 1876 ; Liebig, Die hypothe- 
tischen Satze bei Terenz, 1803 ; Blase, De modorum temporumque in enuntiatis con- 
dicionalibus permutatione, Diss. Phil. Argent, x, p. 94 ff. ; Geschichte des Irrealis 
im Lateinischen, 1888 ; Lindskog, De enuntiatis apud Plautum et Terentium condi- 
cionalibus, 1895; Hale, Origin of Subjunctive and Optative Conditions in Greek and 
Latin, Harvard Studies, xii, p. 109 ff . ; Nutting, The Order of Conditional Thought, 
Amer. Jour. Phil, xxiv, p. 149 ff. ; O. Brugmann, Gebrauch des Kondicionalen NI in 
der alteren Latinitat, 1887; Delbrtick, Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 400 ff.; Schmalz, Syntax 
und Stilistik*, p. 580 ff. 

2 Delbrtick, apparently, does not refer such sentences either to the wish use or the 
potential use exclusively, but to both ; see p. 403. 

272 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

attached to early mood-forms/ ' a virtual renunciation of any expla- 
nation of origin. 

Semasiologically the difficulties in the way of a volitive and opta- 
tive origin for subjunctive protases will impress most as imaginary. 
At all periods of the language, though never frequently, we find 
paratactic subjunctives used with conditional force, e.g. Cic. Yerr. 2, 
10, 26, veniat nunc, experiatur : tecto recipiet nemo ; 1ST. D. i, 57, 
roges me: nihil respondeam. These two examples both illustrate 
how a volitive expression might easily develop into a protasis, and 
they lend plausibility to the theory that a conditional period like si 
videat, credat, for example, may go back to an original videat: credat, 
4 let him see ; he would then believe ' ; i.e. ' if he should see, he 
would believe.' In support of this explanation may be cited also the 
use of the imperative with the force of a protasis, e.g. eras petito, 

Si seems originally to have been an adverb meaning c so.' The 
most primitive form of conditional sentence with si would be seen in 
an expression like bene est si: valet, 'it is well so: (viz. that) he is 
well. 7 Here si limits bene est, and valet is really an appositive of 
the adverbial idea in si. Out of this use, quite probably, has de- 
veloped the conjunction si. Cf. English so in such expressions as 
6 so you pay me, I shall be satisfied ' ; originally, ' I shall be satisfied 
so, viz. you pay me.' Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 581, influ- 
enced by such expressions as Lucil. 501, si secubitet, sic quoque non 
impetret, explains the use of si as arising from an original correla- 
tion, si . . . sic. In support of this he cites the German i so du heute 
mit mir speisest, so darfst du glauben.' 

To an optative origin might well be referred a sentence of the 
type, si haberem, darem, originally, i would that I had ; I would give ' ; 
i.e. 'if I had, I would give.' 

On the whole I am in accord with the views of Delbruck and 
Schmalz, though it seems to me more likely that the potential uses 
have not contributed to the origin of the subjunctive protasis in 
Latin, but that the volitive and optative uses are solely responsible 
for the use. 

Conditional Sentences. 273 

Classification of Subjunctive Protases. 

The various formal types of conditional sentences in Early Latin 
are extremely numerous. They are made the basis of the following 
classification, while the various logical or functional types, which 
are few, are made subordinate to the formal categories. 

I. Protasis ix the Present Subjunctive. 

1. Apodosis in the present subjunctive (potential) (172). Type si 
sit . . . sit. 

a) The time of the protasis is future and it is implied that the 
content of the protasis is capable of realization (117). 

1) Introduced by si (104) : Amph. 871, mea sit culpa, si id Alcu- 
menae expetat; Asin. 458, si sciat, suscenseat; 895, nauteam bibere 
malim, si necessum sit; Cas. 573, si neget, amittat ; Cure. 211 ; Poen. 
322; Trin. 457; And. 376 ; H.T. 556; Eun. 355; Pacuv. 130; Stat. 
127; Lucil. 40. 

2) Introduced by nisi (4) : Ace. 102, nisi quid tulat, peream ; 
True. 564; Men. 454; Stich. 296. 

3) Introduced by wist si: Trin. 474, nisi si votet. Si is here 

4) Introduced by ni: Titin. 26 f ni nos texamus, nil siet. 

5) Introduced by si non (3) : Cist. 45, si non nubat, familia 
pereat. Here non negatives nubat; nisi would fail to convey the 
requisite meaning. In Afran. 31, and Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 58, 1, the 
context does not show whether nisi might have been employed in 
case of the si non actually used. 

6) Introduced by relatives (3) : Aul. 230, ubi onus nequeam 
f erre, iaceam in luto ; Pseud. 318 ; Hec. 742. 

b) The time of the protasis is the present, and it is implied that 
the content of the protasis is contrary to fact (51). It is not always 
easy to determine whether a given protasis belongs under a) or b). 
A number of passages bear either interpretation. I have endeavored 
to exercise conservatism in admitting examples to category b). 

1) Introduced by si (43) : Asin. 188, si nunc habeas quod des, 
alia verba praehibeas ; 393, si sit domi, dicam tibi ; Bacch. 46, si 
habeat aurum, f aciat ; 635, si mihi sit, non pollicear ? Cax>t. 238, 

274 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

si audeam, nominem; Cist. 116, si possim, velim; Epid. 331, si 
habeain, pollicear; Men. 504, non negem, si noverim ; 640, haud 
rogem, si sciam ; M. G. 1256, sentiat, si intus sit ; 1371 ; 1429 ; Most. 
895; Pers. 44; And. 276; 310; 652-, 914; Phor. 171; Enn. Trag. 
271; Pacuv. 407. 

2) Introduced by nisi (3) : Bacch. 636, nisi ames, non habeam ; 
Stich. 190 ; 508. 

3) Introduced by ni (5) : Men. 110, ni stulta sies, tibi odio 
habeas; M. G. 1284; Poen. 877; Rud. 1418; And. 551. 

An examination of the foregoing material cited under a) and 
b) shows tha.t in Early Latin a protasis in the present subjunctive 
may indicate either something whose future realization is suggested 
as possible or something which is clearly implied to be contrary to 
fact. 1 Only the context can determine what type we have in any 
special case, and, as already intimated, even the context is not always 
sufficient to settle the question, as several examples admit of either 
interpretation. See Bothheimer, De enuntiatis conditionalibus 
Plautinis, p. 36 ; Blase, Geschichte des Irrealis, p. 13 ££. 

c) The action of the protasis is achronistic and the subject is the 
indefinite 2d singular (see p. 319, below) (3) : Amph. 705, si obse- 
quare, una resolvas plaga ; Cist. 33, si adeas, abitum malis ; 96, si 
ames, consulas. 

2. Apodosis in the present indicative (103). Type, si sit . . . est. 2 
a) Introduced by si (75) : Asin. 164, si ductem, referre gratiam 
numquam potes; 318, si conferant, habeo; Aul. 558, interbibere, 
si vino scatat, Pirenam potest ; Asin. 933, si aliudnil sit, pudet; Aul. 
254, neque si cupiam, copiast ; Bacch. 128, si habeas, addecet ; 1003, 
non laturus sum, si iubeas ; Capt. 850, scis bene esse, si sit unde ; 
906, si memorem, morast; Cure. 299, recte monstrat, si imperare 
possit ; Merc. 298, si scias, plus video ; 430, si velim, dantur ; M. G. 

1 So also in Sanskrit and occasionally in Greek ; see below, p. 278. 

2 Langen, Beitrage zum Plautus, 1881, p. 43 if. ; Lilie, Conjunctivischer Beding- 
ungssatz bei indikativischem Hauptsatz im Lateinischen, 1884; Blase, Der Konjunk- 
tiv des Prasens im Bedingungssatz, Archiv fur Lateinische Lexikographie und 
Grammatik, ix, p. 17 ff. ; Studien u. Kritiken, 1904, p. 15 ff. ; De moclorum temporum- 
que in enuntiatis condicionalibus permutatione, p. 5 ff. ; Lodge, On the Theory of 
the Ideal Condition in Latin, Studies in Honor of Basil L. Gildersleeve, p. 253 ff. ; 
Nutting, Classical Review, xvii, p. 449 ff. ; University of California Publications, 
Classical Philology, i, p. 35 ff. 

Conditional Sentences, 275 

685, bona uxor suave est, si sit usquam gentium ubi inveniri possit ; 
1263; H. T. 632, si neges, scio; Phor. 738, si possim, nihil est; Hec. 
266-, Ad. 202. Of the 75 subjunctive protases falling under this 
head, 18 are of the indefinite 2d singular (see below, p. 320) : Bacch. 
440, si attingas, puer dirumpit caput ; Capt. 202, animo si bono 
utare, adiuvat; Cas. 721 ; Epid. 674 ; Men. 103, standum est in lecto, 
sipetas; M. G. 673; Pers. 449; Poen. 635; 636; 812; Trin. 349; 
1053; And. 637, si roges, nil pudent; Ad. 28; 29; 32; Trag. In- 
cert. Ribb. p. 280, aperte fatur, si intellegas ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.) p. 
83, 5 ; si exerceas conteritur. 

b) Introduced by nisi (8): Ad. 943, non (omitto), nisi exorem; 
True. 234; Cato, Agr. Prooem. 1. Three of these are in the indefi- 
nite 2d singular, Capt. 222, doli non doli sunt, nisi astu colas ; True. 
461 ; Ace. 215. 

c) Introduced by ni (5) : Hec. 473, possum, ni velim ; Phor. 544 ; 
547 ; And. 918, ni metuam patrem, habeo ilium quod moneam ; 
Pacuv. 277. 

d) Introduced by si non: Bud. 159, si non moneas, meminimus; 
Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 83, 6, si non exerceas (indef. 2d sing.), tamen 
rubigo interficit. 

e) Introduced by si nihil: Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 83, 7, si nihil 
exerceas, inertia plus detrimenti facit (indef. 2d sing.). 

f) Introduced by si modo : Pseud. 997, id ago, si modo taceas. 

g) Introduced by et si, tarn etsi: True. 815, etsi taceas, intel- 
lego; Eun. 216, memini, tarn etsi nullus moneas. 

h) Introduced by sin : And. 165, sin eveniat, restat. 

i) Introduced by relatives (5) : Bacch. 992, verum qui satis vi- 
deat, satis grandes sunt ; Cure. 590 ; Epid. 536 ; Pseud. 438 ; Cato, 
Agr. 16, 1. 

Substantive sz-clauses occur in Asin. 528, an te id exspectare 
oportet, si quis promittat; And. 568, incommoditas hue redit, si 
eveniat discessio. 

In several of the above passages, the present subjunctive has con- 
trary-to-fact force, e.g. M. G. 685; Hec. 471; And. 918. 

3. The apodosis is in the future indicative (21). Type, si sit . . . erit. 

a) Introduced by si (20) : Asin. 414, si dicas, numquam effugies ; 
699, vehes me, si speres ; Aul. 311, si roges, numquam dabit ; Cure. 

276 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

186; Merc. 650; Poen. 729 ; H.T.594; fiet :: si sapias; Phor. 229 ; 
Stat. 113, audibis, si redeat; Cato, Agr. 6, 3; Gracchus (Meyer), 
p. 232. There are two instances of the indefinite 2d singular : Amph. 
703, si velis adversaries insaniorem facies ; Cato, 95, 2, si in tecto 
coquas, excandescet. 

b) Introduced by ni : Bacch. 1171a, ni abeas, malum tibi dabo. 

4. The apodosis consists of quid (30). Type : quid, si sit f Capt. 
612, quid si adeam ; so also Cist. 321 ; Cure. 145 ; 303 ; Epid. 543 ; 
Poen. 330 ; Amph. 313, quid, si tangam ? Bacch. 732, quid, si 
scribat ? Cas. 357 ; IT. T. 719 ; Eun. 369. 

5. The apodosis is a deliberative subjunctive (3). Type : si sit, quid 
again f Asin. 506, ubi piem Pietatem, si postulem? Bacch. 79; Ad. 
784 (with nisi). 

6. The apodosis is a jussive or prohibitive subjunctive (9). Type : 
si sit, abeas. Asin. 120, si velis, mandes ; Aul. 100, si Bona Eortuna 
veniat, ne intromiseris ! Men. 502, si aequom facias, odiosus ne sies ! 
Rud. 680a, si modo id liceat, vis ne opprimat ! Ad. 372 ; Aul. 489, 
hoc qui dicat, . . . nubant, also belongs here, though it involves an 
anacoluthon. There is one instance of the indefinite 2d singular, 
Phor. 688, si quid velis, huic mandes ! 

7. The apodosis stands in the imperative (7). Type : si sit, fac, 
Asin. 445, si velis, commoda amico ! Men. 52, si quis curari sibi 
velit, imperato ! Hec. 493, si sanus sies, iube redire ! Lucil. 177 
Cato, Agr. 40, 4, obtegito, si pluat (' against the possibility of rain') 

8. The apodosis stands in the perfect (potential) subjunctive (11), 
Type : si sit, dixerim. Amph. 510, ilia si sciat, ego faxim ; Bacch 
1055, qui dicat, haud cum illo ausim ; Cas. 424, si me suspendam 
operam luserim et fecerim et creaverim ; Epid. 258, si aequom siet 
dederim ; M. G. 669 ; Poen. 886 ; Pud. 978 ; Hec. 424, auf ugerim, si 
eo mihi redeundum sciam ; Titin. 120 ; Pacuv. 12, 13. 

9. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative : Cure. 226, si non 
ferat, non potuit retineri; Pseud. 433, si sint vera, quid mirum fecit ? 

10. The apodosis stands in the imperfect subjunctive. The condition 
is contrary to fact: Aul. 523, compellarem, ni metuam; True. 830, 
vinum si fabulari possit, se defencleret; Poen. 1251, si possit, 
(posset? A) id ego evenisset vellem. 

11. There is no apodosis, but the present subjunctive with si or si 

Conditional Sentences. 211 

modo is equivalent to a wish (4) : Capt. 996, modo si possit ; Trin. 
1187, si facias (Cam.; fades, CD; faciaes, B) modo; Eun. 647; also 
Poen. 550, omnia istaec scimus; si hi spectatores sciant, which calls 
for a strong mark of punctuation after scimus, not a comma, the 
usual punctuation. 

12. A jussive subjunctive serves as protasis, e.g. H. T. 643, melius 
peius, prosit obsit, nil vident nisi quod lubet ; see also p. 178. 

13. Present and perfect are combined in the protasis in Trin. 83, 
si suspicer, si non feceris, atque mihi lubeat, qui potes ? 

14. The apodosis is involved in some word not a verb (4) : Pseud. 
87, vix, si me opponam ; Trin. 27, invitus, ni me invitet fides ; Phor. 
170, beatus, ni unum desit; Eun. 50. In the last three examples the 
protasis is contrary to fact. 

15. The apodosis is not expressed (17) : Bacch. 698, immo si audias ; 
Cas. 668, immo si scias ; so also Cure. 321 ; Pseud. 749 ; H. T. 
599; 764; 771; Cist. 734, sine dicat : : si dicat quidem ; Cas. 743, 
cena modo si sit cocta; Merc. 724. In H. T. 658, nescio, nisi quaeras, 
the protasis depends not upon nescio, but upon something to be 
supplied in thought. 

16. The protasis is modified by a second protasis (3) : Merc. 826, 
faxim, si plectantur, si scortum duxerit, plures sint vidui; Poen. 
864 ; Trin. 217. 

II. Protasis in the Perfect Subjunctive. 

1. The apodosis stands in the present (potential) subjunctive (26). 
Type: sifuerit, sit. 

Introduced by si : Asin. 878, possis, si conspexeris, cognoscere ? 
603 ; Aul. 344 ; 610 ; 749 ; Bacch. 311, sit carior, si circumduxerit ; 
1102, si plus perdiderim, minus aegre habeam; Men. 163; Merc. 518, 
possin tu, si usus venerit, subtemen nere ? Most. 5oo, dicam, si con- 
fessus sit; Pers. 283; Poen. 147 ; Pseud. 339; 981; Eud. 476; Trin. 
468; 538; 693; 950; True. 344; H. T. 1035; Eun. 387; 862; Hec. 
609 ; Enn. Trag. 261 ; Lucil. 342. 

2. Type : quid si fecerit ? Capt. 599, quid si fecerit ? Rud. 472. 

3. The apodosis is a deliberative subjunctive : only Amph. 155, quid 
faciam, si me in carcerem compegerint? 

4. The apodosis is in the present indicative: Amph. 741, tua istuc 

278 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses, 

refert, si curaveris. The two following have the indefinite 2d sin- 
gular : Poen. 213, nullae res si forte occeperis, plus negoti habent ; 
Trin. 1051, si quoi dederis, fit perditum. 

5. The apodosis is in the future indicative : only Hec. 330, si f actus 
siet, coraminiscentur. 

6. The apodosis is in the perfect subjunctive : H. T. 316, si quid te 
f ugerit, ego perierim ; True. 60. 

7. The apodosis is a jussive or prohibitive subjunctive (7) : Asin. 
794, si tussire occepsit, ne sic tussiat ; 806, si forte dixerit, reddat ; 
785 ; M. O. 1362 ; Trin. 347, bene si f eceris, ne pigeat ; 348, ut 
potius pudeat, si non feceris (the last two illustrate the indef. 2d 
sing.) ; Cato, Agr. 14, 3. 

8. The main protasis is modified by a second protasis : Aul. 380, 
festo die si quid prodegeris, profesto egere liceat, nisi peperceris 
(indef. 2d sing.); Stich. 191, lumbos diffractos velim, ni perierit, si 

In two of the foregoing examples the perfect protasis is contrary 
to fact, and refers to the past ; viz. Most. 555, dicam, si confessus 
sit ; H. T. 1035, non, si ex capite sis meo natus, patiar. Other in- 
stances where the perfect subjunctive protasis refers to the past 
(though not contrary to fact) are: Poen. 213; Trin. 347; 348; 1051. 

III. Protasis in the Imperfect Subjunctive. 

1. The apodosis is also in the imperfect subjunctive (63). Type : 
si esset, esset. 

Originally, apparently, the present subjunctive in both protasis 
and apodosis was employed in conditions contrary to fact. So in 
Sanskrit the present optative was used, and at least once in Homer 
(\I> 274) we find the present optative in such a conditional sentence. 
Cf. Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , 584, " Ursprunglich hatten die 
Konjunktive der einzelnen Zeiten die ihren Indikativen ent- 
sprechende temporale Geltung. Daher bezog sich si haberem, darem 
nur auf die Yergangenheit . . . und si clem, habeam wurde auch fur 
den Irrealis der Gegenwart gebraucht. Dies konnen wir fur Plautus 
noch konstatieren." Cf. also Lindskog, De enuntiatis condicio- 
nalibus Plautinis, p. 89. 

Conditional Sentences. 279 

It was owing to the ambiguity of si dem, habeam, therefore, that 
a new form for the present condition contrary-to-fact was called 
into existence, viz. the imperfect subjunctive, which previously had 
served to express past conditions contrary-to-fact. The place of the 
imperfect was now taken by the pluperfect. Examples of the im- 
perfect in conditional sentences referring to the past 1 are : Aul. 742 
deos credo voluisse : nam ni vellent, non fieret; A sin. 678, numquam 
f acerem, genua ni tarn nequiter f ricares ; Ad. 106, si esset unde fieret, 
f aceremus ; Ace. 614. Aul. 439, cited by Blase, De modorum tem- 
porumque . . . permutatione, p. 5, does not seem to me to refer to 
the past. In the five following examples the apodosis refers to the 
past, the protasis to the present : Amph. 525, nisi te amarem pluri- 
mum, non f acerem ; Bacch. 916 ; Cas. 556 ; Trin. 115, si mi inimicus 
esset, haud crederet ; 957. 

Other examples of the imperfect in both members of conditional 
sentences are : — 

a) Introduced by si (43) : Cas. 811, si equos esses, esses indoma- 
bilis ; M. G. 1262, videres, si am ares ; Aul. 440 ; Pers. 45, si 
id esset mihi, pollicerer ; Poen. 691 ; Pseud. 640, si intus esset, 
provocarem; 1236; Bud. 202; 553; Eun. 176, si crederem, 
possem ; 446 ; Phor. 9 ; 207 ; Hec. 249 ; Pacuv. 391, si adesset, 

b) Introduced by ni (13) : Asin. 860, ni vera ista essent, numquam 
f aceret ea ; Bacch. 554, ni esset, orarem ; Pseud. 1320, ni doleres, 
ego dolerem ; Phor. 269 ; 278 ; Hec. 7b. 

c) Introduced by nisi (3) : Amph. 525 , nisi amarem, non facerem ; 
Most. 844; And. 578. 

d) Introduced by qui : Eun. 487, nemo posset qui haberet. 

2. The apodosis is in the pluperfect subjunctive (15). Type : si esset, 
fuisset. Asin. 396, si adesset, recepisset ; Men. 241, invenissemus, si 
viveret ; 460 ; M. G. 1318 ; Pers. 173, ovis si in ludum iret, potuisset; 
H. T. 230; Ad. 525. 

In the following instances 2 the protasis refers to the past: Asin. 
396 ; Bacch. 486 ; Bud. 590, si invitare nos paulisper pergeret, ibidem 
obdormissemus ; Stich. 742 ; Pers. 173. 

1 See Blase, De modorum temporumque in enuntiatis condicionalibus Latinis per- 
mutatione, p. 5 ff. 

2 Cf. Blase, De modorum temporumque . . . permutatione, p. 8. 

280 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

3. The protasis consists of a jussive subjunctive (5). Type : absque 
hoc esset, haberem. Bacch. 412, absque te esset, ego ilium haberem ; 
Capt. 754, absque hoc esset, usque me ductarent j Men. 1022 ; Pers. 
836 ; Trin. 832, absque foret te, distraxissent me ; 1127 ; Phor. 188 ; 
Hec. 601, quam fortunatus sum absque una hac foret ! 

This usage seems to be modelled on the use of the present in 
protasis (p. 277). 

4. The apodosis is in the perfect indicative (9) : Bacch. 819, hunc si 
ullus deus amaret, mortuom esse oportuit ; M. G-. 803, non potuit 
reperire, si ipsi Soli quaerendas dares, lepidiores; Most. 443, 
potuit exspectatior venire qui te nuntiaret mortuom; 462, quo 
modo potui, si non tangerem ? Pseud. 792 ; Pers. 594, paene in 
foveam decidi, ni adesses ; Trin. 566, licitumst, si velles ; Pseud. 2S5, 
fuit occasio, si vellet, argentum ut daret; H. T. 916, quot res dedere 
ubi possem persentiscere, ni essem lapis ! In all these examples the 
imperfect is most naturally taken as referring to the past. 

5. The apodosis is in the imperfect indicative : Bacch. 563, non erat 
copia, nisi occiperes ? Lucil. 150, si id satis esse potisset, hoc sat 

6. The apodosis stands in the pluperfect indicative : Stich. 512, magis 
par f uerat, nisi nollem ; M. G. 53, ni hebes machaera foret, uno ictu 
occideras. In this last the imperfect refers to the past. 

7. The apodosis is an optative subjunctive : only Aul. 645, di me 
perdant, si abstuli nive adeo abstulisse vellem. 

8. The" apodosis is an historical infinitive : only Trin. 837, scindere 
vela, ni tua pax foret praesto ; where foret refers to the past. 

9. Type: quid si faceret ? only Phor. 645, quid, si filiam locaret? 

10. The apodosis consists of an imperfect subjunctive followed 
by the pluperfect: only Ad. 770, si meus esses : : dis esses, rem 

11. The main protasis is followed by a second: only Men. 239, si 
acum quaereres, invenisses, si appareret. 

12. The apodosis is implied in the context : Phor. 302, dixisti 
pulcre : si quidem quisquam crederet. 

IV. Protasis in the Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

1. The apodosis is in the imperfect subjunctive (41): Type: si 
fuisset, esset. 

Conditional Sentences. 281 

a) Introduced by si (28) : Asin. 502, si esses percontatus, crederes 
Aul. 828, quid faceres, si repperissem ; Cure. 700, si voluisset,mitteret 
Mere. 993, si scissem sive dixisset, numquam facerem; Capt. 871 
M. G. 29; Trin. 568; And. 479; Phor. 119; 393: Ad. 178. 

b) Introduced by ni (7) : Bacch. 217, ni nanctus essem, dicerem- 
1209, neque haec f aceremus, ni vidissemus ; Cist. 625 ; Phor. 155 • 
369 ; 826 ; Hec. 220. 

c) Introduced by nisi : only Bacch. 1207, nisi f uissent nihili, non 
fiagitium facerent. 

d) Introduced by si non (4) : M. G. 1320, si non egisset, egeret ; 
Pseud. 1324 ; Phor. 14. In the first and third of these examples we 
should normally have had nisi or ni. 

e) Introduced by relatives: Trin. 178, qui emisset, eius essetne 
pecunia ? Phor. 396, quom advenissem, dicerem. 

In eight of the foregoing examples the imperfect refers to the 
past, viz. in Capt. 871 ; Bacch. 1207 ; Cist. 625 ; Cure. 700 ; Merc. 
994; M. G. 29; Trin. 56S. See Blase, De modorum temporumque 
permutatione, p. 9 f . ; but Blase includes some other examples which 
are hardly cases in point. 

One passage occurs in which we have a ( should '-' would ? condi- 
tion from a past point of view, M. G. 720, si ei forte fuisset febris, 
censerem emori : cecidissetve ebrius aut de equo uspiam, metuerem 
ne ibi diffregisset crura. There is nothing contrary to fact in this 
expression (notwithstanding the fact that it is preceded by a con- 
trary-to-fact period in v. 719). We rather have an original si fuerit, 
metuam, etc., looked at from the past. 

2. The apodosis stands in the pluperfect subjunctive (21). Type: 
si fuisset, fuisset. 

a) Introduced by si (17) : M. G. 718, si habuissem, cepissem ; 
Trin. 927, si appellasses, respondisset ; And. 604, si quiessem, nil 
evenisset; 808, si scissem, numquam hue tetulissem pedem; H. T. 
157; Eun. 672; Phor. 20. 

b) Introduced by other particles (4) : Trin. 172, fecisset, ni prae- 
sensisset ; Aul. 669 ; Hec. 289, si non (= nisi) rediisses, factae essent 
ampliores ; Plaut. Frag. 117, nisi f ugissem, praemorsisset. 

3. The apodosis stands in the present subjunctive : only Stich. 510, 
vocem te, nisi dixisset. 

282 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

4. The apodosis stands in the imperfect indicative: only Cist. 152, 
si tacuisset, eram dicturus. 

5. The apodosis stands in the perfect indicative (4) : Merc. 694, 
decern si vocasset, nimium obsonavit ; True. 140; H. T. 164, si 
voluisses, oportnit ; Cure. 449, si forent conclusi, non potuere. 

6. The apodosis stands in the pluperfect indicative: Phor. 536, si 
pote fuisset, promissum fuerat; And. 691, potuerat, si quiesset. 

7. Type : quid si fecisset ? And. 102, quid si amasset ? Cato, Frag. 
(Jord.), p. 60, 3. 

8. The apodosis stands in the present indicative: only And. Alter 
Ex. 5, non nova istaec condiciost, si voluissem. 

Conditional Sentences in which the Protasis has 
Adversative ('Concessive') Force. 1 

In a considerable number of passages the protasis has the force 
of ' even if/ the relation usually designated as i concessive ' but 
which is more accurately designated as ' adversative. 7 The material 
(much of it already cited in our classification) is as follows : 

a) Introduced by si (17): Asin. 414, si quidem summum Iovem 
te dicas detinuisse atque is precator adsiet, malam rem effugies 
numquam ; Aul. 100, si Bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris ! 555, 
quos si Argus servet, is numquam servet ; Bacch. 128, qui si decern 
habeas linguas, mutum esse addecet; 697; Asin. 318; Bacch. 1045; 
Cist. 3; Cure. 211; Merc. 841; Pseud. 433; H. T. 452, satrapa 
si siet amator, numquam sufferre eius sumptus queat; 632, si tu 
neges, certo scio ; 1035 ; Eun. 49, non (redeam), si me obsecret ; Ad. 
761, ipsa si cupiat Salus, servare prorsus non potest hane familiam. 

b) Introduced by etsi (5) : Aul. 421, etsi taceas, palam id quidem 
est ; Trim 474, etsi votet, edim ; True. 815, etsi tu taceas, intellego. 
In Capt. S56 and Vid. Frag, xiii, the apodosis is a dependent clause 
of result, and the subjunctive protasis may be due to attraction. 

c) Introduced by tametsi : Trin. 679, datur ignis, tarn etsi ab inimico 
petas (indef. 2d sing.) ; Eun. 216, memini, tarn etsi nullus moneas. 

d) Introduced by etiamsi : only Ad. 851, etiam si nolit, cogam. 

1 Kriege, De enuntiatis concessivis apud Plautum et Terentium ; Nutting, Conces- 
sive si-clauses in Plautus, University of California Publications, Classical Philology, 
i, p. 35 ff. 

Conditional Sentences. 283 

Subjunctive Protasis with Indicative Apodosis. 1 

The material falling under this head has been cited with consid- 
erable fullness above, p. 274 ff. Concerning the significance of the 
phenomenon, there has been much discussion. Lilie (op. cit.) 
defended the theory that in periods of the type under consideration 
the apodosis is expressed absolutely, i.e. without reference to the 
content of the protasis, a view which subsequent scholars have justly 
rejected. Lodge (op. cit., p. 255 ft.) seems to explain the indicative 
partly as due to the future outlook of the verb, partly as involving 
an unexpressed apodosis. 

The most complete and satisfactory treatment of this question is 
by Nutting (University of California Publications, Classical Philol- 
ogy* h P- 50 if.). Nutting, p. 65, in summing up the reasons why 
certain conditional sentences in Plautus fail to conform to the logical 
norm, recognizes four grounds : 

1. "The fact that the state of affairs mentioned in the apodosis is 
often in no way dependent on the truth of the protasis; the indicative 
statement includes and implies what would be in the supposed case/' 
e.g. M. G-. 764, otium rei si sit, possum expromere, where, as Nutting 
observes, "the speaker's fund of information is a fact uninfluenced 
by the truth or falsity of the condition." 

2. "The modal meaning of certain verbs, notably posse." 

3. "The union of a complete sentence and a part of another by 
anacoluthon. The form of each member of the expression is deter- 
mined by the thought it is to convey, irrespective of the other 
member," e.g. Capt. 850, scis bene esse, si sit unde; M. G. 1263, non 
tu magis amas quam ego, si per te liceat; Stich. 171, nunc si 
ridiculum hominem quaerat quispiam, venalis ego sum. Cf. Blase, 
Studien u. Kritiken, p. 52, where Epid. 730, invitus do hanc veniam 
tibi, nisi cogar is explained as a contamination of invitus do, sed cogor 
and nisi cogar, non dem. 

4. " The somewhat undeveloped state of the language in Plautus's 

day, as shown (a) in irregular sentence structure and (b) in the not 

very precise use of mood forms. This method of explanation finds 

its most sweeping application in cases referring to the future ; for 

1 For the literature on this topic, see above, p. 274. Also especially Wimmerer, 
Wiener Studien, xxvii, p. 264; Sjogren, Gebrauch des Futurums, p. 119. 

284 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

there the fact that the realms of indicative and subjunctive were not 
carefully differentiated tended to make the lack of symmetry in sen- 
tence structure still less noticeable to Plautus than it would otherwise 
have been." 

Besides the foregoing four lines of explanation of the employment 
of the indicative in combination with a subjunctive protasis, Nutting 
also calls attention to the large number of protases with adversative 
('concessive') force. In these the absence of formal symmetry is 
less striking, since, as Nutting (op. cit. p. 67) remarks, "the con- 
clusion refers regularly to a state of affairs actually existing and 
which would continue to exist despite the coming to pass of what is 
supposed in the si-clause." 

Another important category comprises those conditional periods 
in which an indicative apodosis is combined with a subjunctive 
protasis in the indefinite 2d singular. See below, p. 319. 

Dependent Conditional Sentences. 

Conditional sentences often become dependent. As a rule their 
form under these circumstances offers nothing worthy of note. The 
following examples, however, deserve attention : 

1. The apodosis serves as an indirect question: Capt. 712, cogitato, 
si quia tuos servos faxit, qualem haberes gratiam ; Cist. 3, soror 
si mea esses, qui magis potueris mi honorem ire habitum, nescio; 
Pers. 296, scis quid dicturus f uerim, ni linguae moderarier queam ; 
And. 258, si rescissem, quid f acerem, si quis roget ; Gracchus (Meyer), 
p. 233, si vellem verba facere, haud scio an impetrassem. 

2. The apodosis is a result clause : Phor. 108, vestitus turpis (erat), 
ut, ni vis boni in ipsa inesset forma, haec formam exstinguerent ; 
Hec. 128, ita aegre tulit, ut, si adesset, commiseresceret ; Ad. 273, ut, 
si omnes cuperent, nil possent. 

3. And. 530, haud dubiumst quin, si nolit, possim ; Ad. 299, nunc 
est illud quom, si conferant, nil adferant; Trin. 1170, metuo, si 
denegem, ne putes ; Cas. 260, quid iara ? : : quia, si facias recte, me 
sinas curare ancillas ; Pers. 172, te iam sector quintum annum, quom 
interea, credo, ovis si in ludum iret, potuisset iam fieri ut litteras 
sciret ; M. G. 475, quid propius fuit quam ut perirem, si elocutus 
essem ? (=peribo si elocutus ero, dependent on a past tense). 

Clauses of Conditional Comparison. 285 


These seem to have originated by ellipsis from ordinary condi- 
tional clauses. Thus Aul. 369, verba facio quasi negoti nil siet, is 
equivalent to verba facio, ut faciam, si negoti nil siet. 2 

1. With quasi (i 1 2). 

a) quasi, 'as if/ (87). 

1) A main clause, often with tarn, ita, sic, proinde, sirempse, etc., 
corresponds to the (^em-clause. 

Present tense : Amph. 56, sed ego stultior, quasi nesciam vos 
velle ; Aul. 719, sedent quasi frugi sint ; Cure. 51, tarn a me pudicast 
quasi soror mea sit ; Merc. 314, plane decrepitus senex tantidemst, 
quasi sit signum pictum in pariete ; Poen. 845, proinde habet 
orationem quasi ipse sit frugi bonae ; And. 548, te oro in commune 
ut consulas, quasi ilia tua sit; H. T. 65, proinde, quasi nemo siet, ita 
attente tute illorum officia f ungere ; 527 ; Cato, Agr. 77, cetera omnia, 
quasi placentam facias, facito ; Enn. Trag. 367, quasi lumen de suo 
lumine accendat, facit. 

Perfect tense : Amph. 683, sic salutas quasi dudum non videris ; 
Men. 1101, tarn quasi me emeris argento, servibo tibi; Merc. 204; 
M. G. 934, hanc ad nos mittitote, quasi clanculum missa sit ; Poen. 
831, quodvis genus ibi hominum videas, quasi Acheruntem veneris ; 
Amph. 74, sirempse legem iussit esse Iuppiter, quasi ambiverit ; 
Ad. 290, iam nunc times quasi numquam adfueris ; Cato, Agr. 156, 
1, reddet te, quasi nihil ederis. 

Imperfect and pluperfect tenses (rare) : Amph. 1096, aedes 
totae confulgebant, quasi essent aureae ; Capt. 417, quasi servos esses, 
mihi opsequiosus f uisti ; Epid. 248, coepi ad eos accedere, quasi retru- 
deret med hominum vis; Men. 482, quasi res cum ea esset, coepi ad- 
sentari ; Epid. 389, coeperam med excruciare quasi quid films meus 
deliquisset. For instances of the imperfect and pluperfect following 
a principal tense, see below. 

2) Without governing clause ; used especially to characterize some 
statement or suggestion as absurd : Amph. 89, quasi vero novom 

1 Sven Tessing, Syntaxis Plautina, p. 66 f . Fuhrmann, De particularum compara- 
tivarum usu Plautino, 1869. 

2 For a different view, see Hale, Amer. Jour. Phil., xiii, p. 62 ff. 

286 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

proferatur; Cas. 333, quasi tu nescias; Epid. 226, quasi non fundis 
exornatae multae incedant ; Men. 669, quasi non liabeam alium locum • 
639 ; Most. 1178, quasi non eras commeream aliam noxiam ; Poen. 
272, quasi bella sit, quasi reges ductitent; Pseud. 632, quasi mi non 
sescenta tanta soli soleant eredier ; 609; 684 ; Eud. 99, quasi me tuom 
esse servom dicas; so Trin. 891; And. 372, quasi necessus sit; 502, 
quasi dicas; 544; H. T. 587, quasi desit locus; 720; Eun. 685, 
quasi vero paulum intersiet; Hec. 110, quasi tu non multo malis; 
Ad. 223, quasi iam usquam tibi sint xx minae ; 271 ; perfect : Merc. 
957, quasi tu numquam quicquam adsimile f eceris ; True. 292, quasi 
vero corpori reliqueris tuo potestatem colons ulli capiendi; And. 
499, quasi non renuntiata sint haec. 

b) quasi, 'than if ': Aul. 231, tu me magis baud respicias gnatus 
quasi numquam siem ; Trin. 266, peius perit quasi saxo saliat; 
True. 340, me nemo magis respiciet quasi abbinc ducentos annos 
fuerim mortuos. 

c) Introducing substantive clauses. See Bennett, Die mit tarn- 
quam und quasi eingeleiteten Substantivsatze, Wolfflin's Arcliiv, 
xi, p. 405 ff. 

With simulo : Pers. 84, simulabo quasi non videam ; Asin. 796 ; Pers. 
677 ; Cure. 391 ; M. G. 796 ; 909 ; Amph. 200, quasi adfuerim simulabo. 

With adsimulo: M. G. 1181, adsimulato quasi gubernator sies ; 
Amph. 115; M. G. 1170; Poen. 600; Epid. 195; M. G. 1163; 
Stich. 84, adsimulabo quasi quam culpam admiserint ; Eun. 461. 

With dissimulo: Cas. 771, dissimulat quasi nil sciat; M. G. 992, 
dissimulato quasi non videam. 

With consimile est: M. G. 820, consimilest quom stertas quasi 
sorbeas. The g?/,cm-clause here stands in the relation of a genitive 
dependent upon consimile. 

Less certain, but to my mind of like nature, are the following: 
Pseud. 1162, allegavit hunc quasi a milite esset; Trin. 1142, meo 
adlegatu venit quasi qui aurum mihi ferret; Epid. 370, caput im- 
prudens alligabit quasi argentum acceperit ; Poen. 1102, adseras 
quasi filiae tuae sint. 

d) quasi si: Amph. 1078, nee secus est quasi si ab Acherunte 
veniam ; Cas. 45, educavit quasi si esset ex se nata. The psycho- 
logical process which has produced the redundant si is not clear. 

Clauses of Conditional Comparison. 287 

2. With quam si (12). 

a) quam si, ' as if,' formula of adrogatio in Gell. v, 19, uti tarn 
filius sit quam si ex eo natus esset; Men. 969, uti tutetur quam si 
adsit; Scipio, Meyer, p. 212, filiuni adoptivom tarn procedere, quam 
si ex se natum habeat. 

b) quam si, 'than if: Bacch. 518, nihilo pluris referet quam 
si mortuo narret logos ; 410 ; Capt. 273, nee seeus erat quam si essem 
familiaris; Pers. 354; Pseud. 102; End. 218; 410; Trin. 410; 
Eun. 62, nihilo plus agas quam si des ; Cato, Agr. 69, 2, minus quam 
si picare velis. 

3. With ut si (6). Not found before Terence. Eun. 116, coepit 
studiose omnia docere ut si esset filia ; Phor. 409, itidem ut cognata 
si sit, abduc hanc; Lucil. 9, 7, insidias faeere ut si hostes sint; 274; 
458; 576 (uti, codd.). 

4. With tamquam : Pers. 638 y tarn quam quaeras ; Cato, Agr. 87, 
facito tamquam faex fiat. 

5. With tamquam si: Most. 402, tamquam si nemo in aedibus 
habitet; Asin. 427, tamquam si claudus sim, est ambulandum. 

6. With ac si: Hec. 279, numquam secus habui ac si ex me esset 

7. With ut quasi si: Asin. 838, quern videam aeque esse maestum, 
ut quasi dies si dicta sit. 

As regards the employment of tenses in these clauses of condi- 
tional comparison, there is little to note. In the main, usage con- 
forms to the regularly recognized classical standard, i.e. the present 
and perfect are used after principal tenses, where English usage 
would lead us to expect the imperfect and pluperfect. The only 
exceptions that I have noted are : Bud. 218, qui minus servio 
quam si serva for em nata ? old formula in Gellius, v, 19, uti tarn 
filius siet quam si ex eo natus esset ; Phor. 382, proinde expiscare 
quasi non nosses; 388, quasi non nosses, advenis; CIL, i, 202, I, 
39, sirempse iuus lexque esto, quasi si ei viatores in earn decuriam 
antea lectei sublectei essent. 

288 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 


The name " descriptive " is applied to those clauses which express 
a characteristic or quality of a person or thing. The designation 
is due to Professor Hale, who in his earlier syntactical work em- 
ployed also the names, " characterizing " and "qualitative." De- 
scriptive clauses are opposed to 'determinative/ clauses, which simply 
add another fact or item with regard to a person or thing. Professor 
Hale (Hale-Buck, Lat. Gramm., p. 260, footnote) defines the determi- 
native clause as one telling what person or thing is meant ; while 
the descriptive clause is defined as designating what kind of person 
or thing is meant. 

Descriptive clauses may be introduced not merely by the relative 
pronoun, but also by various relative adverbs, as ubi, wide, quo, etc. 
Theoretically any type of independent subjunctive may appear in a 
descriptive clause. But as a matter of fact the usage is confined 
mainly to developments of the ' should ' - ' would ' potential. 

Classification of Subjunctive Descriptive Clauses. 

1. Potential Descriptive Clauses (Hale, Cwm-Constructions, p. 88). 

a) Present Tense (49): Asin. 118, servos peior . . . nee quo 
ab caveas aegrius. Here the idea is : c nor against whom you would 
find it harder to be on your guard.' Other examples are : Aul. 320, 
sescenta sunt quae memorem, si sit otium ; 420 ; Capt. 346, neque 
quern quam fideliorem neque quoi plus credat ; 348; Cist. 110; 545; 
Epid. 258, consilium dederim quod laudetis ; Men. 220 ; M. G. 686 ; 
Pseud. 599; Kud. 211; 1073; 1322; Phor. 488, dicam quod 
libenter audias; 554; Ad. 299, nunc illud est quom nil adferant; 
Naev. Com. 98, illo te ducam ubi non despuas ; Cure. 481, ibi sunt 
quos credas male; Afran. 396. 

Especially common in this use are phrases like nihil est quod malim, 
e.g. Asin. 877 ; Bacch. 859 ; 875 ; Capt. 516, nunc illud est quom 
mavelim ; And. 963 ; H. T. 267 ; Hec. 794 ; Capt. 53, est quod vos 
monitos voluerim ; 700; Cas. 183a; 951. 

Further with expressions of being able, daring, e.g. Pers. 27, cum 
eis belligerem quibus sat esse non queam ? Most. 354, ecquis est 
qui possit ? H. T. 574, nemost apud quern audeam. 

In all these the idea is of future contingency, not of actuality. 

Descriptive Clauses. 289 

b) Imperfect Tense (6) : Eun. 333, nisi nunc quom minume vel- 
lem ; 561, nemost quern magis cuperem ; 686, adulescentulus quern 
tu videre velles ; 1002 ; Hec. 756, faciam quod alia non faceret ; 
Scipio (Meyer, p. 215), vidi saltare, quam saltationem impudicus 
servulus honeste saltare non posset. 

All of these are simply contrary-to-fact apodoses (with omitted 
protasis), introduced by a relative. 

2. Descriptive Clauses of Fact (Clauses of Characteristic). 1 

This is a very large category in Early Latin. It seems to have 
developed from the previous type (Potential Descriptive Clauses). 
Thus under the head of Potential Descriptive Clauses we noticed 
the frequency of the type in which the verb of the dependent clause 
was malim, velim, possim, audeam, etc. Now it is a peculiarity of 
these verbs that the force of potentiality is exceedingly slight, — so 
slight in fact that it easily passes into that of actuality. Thus Ace. 
538, quern neque tueri contra neque fari queas, almost inevitably 
passes from the meaning ' whom you would not be able to face ? into, 
'whom you are not able to (cannot) face/ Similarly Capt. 618, si 
quid est quod me velis, ' if there is anything which you would wush 
of me/ naturally becomes, 'if there is anything which you wish.' 2 
Cf. also Cure. 171, baud quicquamst magis quod cupiam; Pers. 489, 
numquam quod nolis volam ; Trin. 801, tacere numquam quicquamst 
quod queat; Lucil. 517, quod si observas hominem qui audeat. I 
have noted in all some 34 examples of this kind. See in addition to 
the examples cited : Capt. 154 ; Cas. 133 ; Cure. 171 ; 479 ; Men. 53 
Merc. 145 ; 453 ; M. G. 329 ; 685 ; Pseud. 827 ; End. 390 ; 1110 
Stich. 769; Trin. 155; And. 31; 45; Eun. 272; Phor. 279; 697 
Hec. 240 ; 573 ; 608 ; 750 ; Enn. Ann. 194, 10 ; Cato, Agr. 11, 1. 

After the descriptive clause of fact once became thoroughly estab- 
lished within the limits just indicated, it naturally extended its scope 
further, and came to be employed with great freedom in other verbs 
than those in connection with which it arose. 

1 See especially Hale, (7wm-Constructions, p. 90 f. 

2 The theory of Dittmar (Studien zur Lateinischen Moduslehre, p. 97 ff.)> that 
these clauses had a deliberative origin, seems to me lacking in probability. Equally 
so the theory of Bottek (Ursprungliche Bedeutung des Conjunctivs in lateinischen 
Nebensiitzen, 1899, p. 33), that the origin is to be sought in interrogative potentials, 
i.e. that in nemo exstat qui ibi vixerit, for example, the original meaning was, ' Who can 
have lived there ? No one.' Any such use of the potential is unknown in independent 
clauses in Latin, and therefore practically impossible in dependent clauses. 

290 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

In its developed form it occurs in the following categories : 

a) Nullus qui, non ullus qui, nemo qui, non quisquam qui, nihil quod, 
non quicquam quod. 

1) Introduced by qui (quae, quod) : Amph. 509, nullast quam 
aeque diligam ; Aul. 419, homo nullust qui vivat hodie ; Bacch. 543, 
nullus est quoi non invideant; Cas. 218, nee quicquam quod plus 
salis habeat ; Trin. 543, nemo exstat qui vixerit ; True. 717, nee 
quemquam qui sit odio intro mittam ; Phor. 738, nihil est quod 
verear ; Hec. 782, nil est quod sit dignum; Pseud. 774; Stich. 260 ; 
Trin. 357; 1126; H. T. 988; Eun. 41; 325; 757; Ad. 932; Naev. 
Trag. 58 ; Cato, Agr. 54, 5. 

2) Introduced by quin 1 = qui non, Amph. 1054, neque ullast 
confidentia quin (= quam non) amiserim; Bacch. 336, nullust quin 
sciat; 210, non intermittit tempus quin (= quo non) eurn nominet; 
1012, nil est quin dixerim ; Cas. 199, nihil quin subtrahat ; Cist. 
16, nee fuit quicquam quin placeret; Stich. 208, nemost quin sit male- 
volus; H.T. 1021, nil est relictum quin sit idemtibi; Hec. 67; Lucil. 
8, nemo sit quin sit pater. 

b) quis est qui? 

1) Introduced by qui, Amph. 856, ecquis alius Sosia intust 
qui mei similis siet ? Aul. 810, quis quoi di sint propitii ? Bacch. 
92, quid est quod metuas ? So Poen. 884; Bacch. 807; Cas. 750, 
numquid est ceterum quod morae siet ? Cure. 23 ; 86, quisnam istic 
fluvius quern non recipiat mare ? 301 ; Epid. 108 ; 168 ; Eud. 315 ; 
True. 295 ; H. T. 1008, quid est quod peccem ? Eun. 995, num quid 
est aliud quod non dixeris ? 

2) Introduced by quin : H. T. 193, quid relicuist quin habeat ? 
Eun. 179, quam rem voluisti quin perfeceris ? 

Earely the indicative occurs, e.g. Ace. 458, quis erit qui non 
differet ? 

c) Unus qui, solus qui: Cure. 248, solus hie homost qui sciat ; And. 
973, solus est quern di diligant ; Lucil. 330, unus modo qui ingenio 
sit. A single instance of quin occurs, Ad. 293, numquam unum 
intermittit diem quin (= quo non) semper veniat. 

d) Si est qui, Amph. 271, si quicquamst aliud quod credam; Cist. 
67, si quid est quod doleat; Epid. 526; And. 41; 981; H.T. 1024; 
Eun. 1 ; Phor. 12. 

1 See Brugmann, Indogerman. Forschungen, iv, p. 226 ff. 

Descriptive Clauses. 291 

e) Is qui, ille qui, iste qui : Capt. 271, proxumum quod sit bono, id 
volo; 473, eos requirunt qui reddant; H. T. 142; Phor. 917, quo 
redibo ore ad earn quam contempserim ? Stich. 261, reliqui ecillam 
quae dicat; Pseud. 1085. By an extension of usage we also find id 
quod in determinative clauses with the subjunctive, e.g. Ad. 236, 
enumerasti id quod ad te rediturum putes ? True. 296, quid id, 
obsecrost, quod scias ? 

f) Pauci qui: Pseud. 390, pauci sunt qui certi sient; Trin. 221, 
pauci sint qui sciant. This last may be due to attraction, though it 
seems probable that the subjunctive would be used apart from this. 
In Eun. 581, paucae, quae circum illam essent, manent, we have by 
analogy a determinative clause in the subjunctive. 

g) Alius qui: Cist. 231, aliorum adfatimst qui faciant; True. 81, 
alium repperit qui plus daret. 

h) Multi qui: H. T. 232, concurrunt multae opinionem res quae 
exaugeant ; Enn. Trag. 221, multi qui domi aetatem agerent, propter 
ea sunt improbati; Pers. 8. 

i) Aliquis qui: Hec. 550, ex aliquo qui diceret; 652, quom esset 
aliquis qui te appellaret patrem. This last example might be ex- 
plained by attraction. 

j) Clause following an indefinite antecedent denoting a person or 

1) Introduced by qui. Examples of this class are very numer- 
ous : Cas. 194, ancillula quae meast, quae meo sumptu educta siet ; 
Amph. 824, mihi adsunt testes qui adsentiant; 826, alius Amphitruo 
qui tuam rem curet teque absente munus fungatur tuom ; Asin. 85, 
servom quoi plus in manu sit quam tibi ; Aul. 522 ; Bacch. 991 ; 
Capt. 179, meliorem quae mi placeat condicio magis ; 466, neque 
ieiuniosiorem (diem) nee quoi minus procedat; 614, garriet quoi 
neque pes umquam compareat; Men. 456, adfatimst hominum qui 
singulas escas edint ; Poen. 1174 ; 1417, dabo quae placeat ; Pseud. 
392, exquire unum qui certus siet; 725; Bud. 128, qui mulierculas 
duas secum adduxit quique adornaret sibi ut rem divinam faciat; 
313, adulescentem f ortem qui tris semihomines duceret ; 319, probri 
plenum qui duceret mulierculas duas secum ; Trin. 1019, hominibus 
qui facile cohiberent manus ; H. T. 596, repperisti tibi quod placeat; 
Eun. 449, facile fit quod doleat; Phor. 170, beatus, ni unum desit, 

292 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

animus qui istaec ferat; 522; Afran. 62, non desunt mini qui dent; 
Cato, Agr. 35, 1, in loco qui herbosus non siet ; 76, 3, in tabula pura 
quae pateat pedem ; 157, 13, quos diffidas sanos facere, facies. 

By an extension of usage we find also determinative clauses in the 
subjunctive, e.g. Poen. 441, credin quod ego fabuler? Eun. 705, 
credis huic quod dicat ? So also 711 ; Ace. 215 ; Trin. 207, sciunt 
id quod rex reginae dixerit, where Brix, following Reiz, reads quid 
for the Mss. id quod. 

2) Introduced by ubi, Asin. 174, neque fictum neque scriptum 
ubi lena bene agat ; Capt. 327, est ubi praestet ; 1034 ; 1032 ; Pers. 
76; Pseud. 215; True. 72; Ad. 434; Cato, Agr. 35, 1, in loco celso 
ubi sol quam diutissime siet; 151, 2, in loco ubi terra tenerrima 
erit, ubi aqua propter siet. Note here the alternation between the 
future indicative and the subjunctive. 

3) Introduced by quom, Most. 158, nee quom me melius rear 
esse deficatam ; H. T. 559, neque commodius erum audivi loqui 
neque quom male facere crederem mi impunius licere ; Hec. 658, 
nunc quom sentiam ; Laelius (Meyer, p. 208), in eodem tempore 
periit quom vivo opus esset. Most. 691, melius anno hoc non fuit 
nee quom (Mss, quod) una esca me iuverit magis, may also be put 
here. Quod seems to me an impossible reading. 

4) Introduced by unde: Epid. 80, numquam hominem conveni 
unde abierim lubentius ; Cato, Agr. 42, eum locum unde exsicaveris. 

The indicative also occurs in descriptive clauses of the foregoing 
type, e.g. Cist. 74, si medicus veniat qui huic morbo facere medicinam 
potest; Trin. 547, istest ager in quern omnis mitti decet; Capt. 1000, 
ibi demumst locus ubi labore lassitudost exigunda ex corpore; 
Merc. 838, ubi mores deteriores increbrescunt, ubique id eripiatur 
quod placeat maxume ibi non cupitast civitas. 

k) Descriptive Clauses with an Accessory Notion of Cause 
(< since ') or Opposition (< though 7 ). 

1) Causal Clauses. Descriptive clauses with the accessory no- 
tion of cause are very common in Early Latin. The causal notion 
develops purely as a result of the context. Thus Aul. 769, 
sanus tu non es qui furem me voces; literally, 'you, the sort 
of person who calls me thief.' Cf. Bacch. 91, sumne nihili 
qui nequeam ? 584, te qui viris tuas extentes ; 845, non me militem 

Descriptive Clauses. 293 

sed mulierem qui non queam defendere; Afran. 45, di sunt tibi 
irati qui cogites. 

The reason or cause expressed by these clauses is regularly not 
the motive or impelling cause of action, but the ground for the 
assertion made by the speaker. It is striking too that the large 
majority of these clauses stand in either the first or second persons ; 
i.e. 'you, a person of the sort that/ or, < I, a person of the sort that ; ' 
secondarily, ' since you/ ' since 1/ The following citations are clas- 
sified according to persons. 1 

First Person, Bacch. 1132, merito hoc nobis fit qui quidem hue 
venerimus ; Cas. 619, ego, quoi sic eveniant morae ; Cist. 680 ; Epid. 
581 ; Men. 443, inscitus qui postulem ; Merc. 701, miserior me quae 
nupserim ; 920, ego stultior qui credam ; M. G. 32; 370; 443; Poen. 
986, qui scire potui qui sexennis perierim ? Pseud. 908 ; Trin. 929 ; 
937 ; 1057 ; And. 97, laudare fortunas meas, qui haberem ; 664, mi 
iratos qui auscultaverim ; 750; H. T. 684, quid ni ? : : qui adfuerim; 
710 ; Eun. 303 ; 1033, in me quoi tot congruerint commoda ; Ad. 268 ; 
368, mihi qui dedissem egit gratias ; Bacch. 511. 

Second person, Amph. 1021, tibi di irati sunt, qui sic frangas 
foris; Bacch. 1169, non homo tuquidem es qui appelles; Capt. 546, 
si te odit, qui istum appelles Tyndarum; 565-, Cure. 66-, iniuriu's 
qui petas ; 551 ; 654, sanan es quae isti committas ? Epid. 326, 
absurde facis qui angas te; Men. 312, non sanus satis qui male dicas 
tibi; 323; 806; 818; Merc. 292; 686; M. G. 58, amant ted omnes 
qui sis tarn pulcer; 435; 963; Most. 188, erras quae exspectes atque 
morem geras; 194, stulta's quae putes; 208; Pers. 667; Eud. 104, 
utrum tu masne an f emina, qui ilium patrem voces ? 1147 ; True. 
730; And. 749, sanu's qui me rogites? H. T. 519, te miror qui tantum 
biberis; 565] 897; 1011; Eun. 802, miseret tui me qui facias ; Phor. 
471, te incusamus qui abieris; Ad. 852, fortunatus qui isto animo 
sies ; Ace. 554. 

Third Person, Amph. 506, hie scitust sycophanta qui quidem 
meus sit pater; Epid. 574, quor non, quae quidem ex te nata sit; 
Men. 373, ebriast quae compellet me; M. G. 406; Pers. 699, persim- 

1 The theory of Guthmann (Eine Art missbilligender Fragen, p. 3), that in a 
sentence like stultus es qui putes there is an historical connection with the repudiating 
questions, lacks plausibility. 

294 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

ilem tui : : quippe qui f rater siet; Rud. 118, istic infortunium (volo), 
qui praefestinet praeloqui; 1113, istae mutae sunt quae pro se fabu- 
lari non quean t ? Stich. 555 ; Trin. 552 ; Ad. 65, errat qui credat. 

All of the foregoing examples are introduced by relative pronouns. 
A single instance of a relative adverb occurs in True. 353, num tibi 
ianuast mordax quo intro ire metuas. 

The indicative is also not infrequent in clauses of the same meaning, 
e.g. Fers. 75, sed sumne ego stultus qui rem euro publicam? Stich. 558 ; 
p. 137 f. Sometimes the two moods alternate, as Eun. 302, ut ilium di 
perdant, qui me remoratus est; et me qui restiterim; Men. 456. 

2) Adversative Clauses. These are much less frequent in Early 
Latin than causal descriptive clauses. So also in later Latin, ad- 
versative descriptive clauses are relatively less frequent than causal 
descriptive clauses. Examples: Amph. 178, hodie qui fuerim liber, 
eum nunc potivit pater servitutis ; 56, quasi nesciam vos velle qui 
divos siem ; 153, qui me alter est audacior homo, iuventutis mores 
qui sciam (< although I know'), qui hoc noctis solus ambulem ? 
Bacch. 331, divesne est ? : : qui auro habeat suppactum solum ? M. G-. 
530, ut pote quae non sit eadem ; so in Cist. 317, editors generally 
read suspiciost earn esse ut pote quam numquam viderim. Ut pote 
is Seyffert's conjecture; the Mss. have postquam. Further examples 
are : M. G-. 566, etiam quod sciam ; Foen. 234, te sic f abulari quae 
tarn callida sis ; Stich. 395, Hercules, qui deus sies, discessisti non 
bene ; True. 587, tu ais, quae sis stabulum flagiti ? Fhor. 60. 

The indicative is also found in relative clauses with adversative 
force; see p. 142. 

1) Sunt qui in Early Latin is regularly followed by the indicative. 

3. Jussive Descriptive Clauses. Material falling under this head is 
scanty. Examples: M. G. 140, conclave dedit quo nemo inferret 
pedem. This seems to go back to an original, conclave quo 7temo 
inferat pedem ('a room into which let no one set foot'). To the 
same category probably belong also the following examples from 
Cato : Agr. 21, 1, cupam f acito media inter orbis quae conveniat ; 2, 
tabulam ferream figito quae in columellam conveniat. Less cer- 
tain is the following: Bacch. 67, (palaestra) ubi pro disco damnum 
capiam . . . ubi pro insigni sit corolla plectilis, pro lorica capiam 
pallium, ubi lectus detur, scortum accubet. 

Restrictive Clauses. 295 

4. Deliberative Descriptive Clauses. Here I should put the follow- 
ing : Aul. 735, quid de te demerui, quam ob rem ita faeeres ? This, 
I should regard as a dependent past form of an original quam ob 
rem ita facias (' why should you do so ? ? ). Poen. 276, quid habetis 
qui mage immortalis vos credam esse ? Ad. 592, nil reperio quam 
ob rem lauder. In all these the original interrogative of the delib- 
erative has in the process of development come to be felt as relative. 

5. Optative Descriptive Clauses : Pers. 823, di faciant ut id bibatis 
quod numquam transeat ('what I hope will never go through 7 ). 

Other Eelative Clauses. 

1. Jussive: Cato, Agr. 20,2, cunicas soldas facito, quas figat clavis 
duplicibus ('which let him fasten'). 

2. Optative : Asin. 2, quae res bene vortat ; so also, Aul. 788 ; Capt. 
361; Cure. 729; Pers. 329; Trin. 500; 572; Aul. 218, quae res recte 
vortat ; Phor. 678, quae res vortat male ; Ad. 191 ; Cure. 273 ; Am ph. 
461, quod illi faxit Iuppiter; Aul. 147; Cas. 382; 402; Cato, Agr. 
141, 1, quod bene eveniat ; And. 568, quod di prohibeant ; Eun. 466. 

3. Potential : Hec. 330, si factus siet, quod nolim ; Lucil. 194, 
dies hie, quern hexametro non dicere possis ; Statius, 79 ; Cure. 291, 
incedunt cum suis sententiis, quos semper videas bibentes esse in 


Many descriptive clauses develop secondarily a restrictive notion, 
e.g. Men. 1106, nil reticebo quod sciam, ' nothing that I know/ and 
secondarily, 'nothing, so far as I know'; Pseud. 1076, nullumst 
periculum quod sciam, ' which I know/ and secondarily, ( so far as I 
know 5 ; Ace. Praetext. 1, nil pericli est quod sciam; Cato, Agr. 
148, 1, quod neque aceat neque muceat id dabitur ; Men. 297, tan- 
turn quod sciam; so Merc. 642; Capt. 265, non ero (falsiloquos), 
i.e. nihil falsum dicam, quod sciam. From expressions like these the 
step was easy and natural to others like : Amph. 749, numquam fac- 
tumst quod sciam ; so Capt. 173 ; Men. 500, non edepol ego te quod 
sciam vidi ; Men. 503, vigilo quod sciam ; Most. 1010, minas lx 
accepisti quod sciam ; True. 199, uterum, quod sciam, numquam 

1 Hale, The Mode in the Phrases quod sciam, etc., Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc, xxii, 
p. 105 ff. ; Cwm-Konstruktionen, p. 340. 

296 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

extumescere sensi ; Ad. 641, non istas (pepuli) quod sciam ; Men. 
925, intestinas tibi crepant quod sentias ? Hec. 863, numquam earn 
quod nossem, videram ; Epid. 638, non me novisti ? : : (non) quod 
quidem nunc veniat in mentem mihi; Merc. 1022, scortum ducat 
quod bono fiat modo ; Poen. 440, quod inter nos liceat ; And. 454, 
quod dicendum hie siet ; CIL, i, 198, 69, quod sine malo pequlatu 
fiat ; 199, 25, sei non dabunt neque satis facient arbitratu Genuatium, 
quod per Genuenses mora non fiat ; i, 200, 2, agrum, quod non modus 
maior siet ; old Fetial formula in Livy, i, 24, quod sine fraude mea 
fiat, facio ; Cato, Agr. 16, dominus lapidem, ligna, quod opus siet, 
praebet ; Poen. 1213, amicus vobis. : : quiquidem inimicus non siet. 


The clause of result is closely related to the predicative descrip- 
tive clause (clause of characteristic), and is probably a development of 
the potential subjunctive. Thus in a sentence like hoc flagitium tale 
est ut quivis oderit, the original meaning, I take it, was : < this out- 
rage is of such a nature as 1 any one you please would hate it/ i.e. if 
he should see it. From this, to the meaning ( of such a nature that 
anybody you please hates it,' is an easy transition. In our study of 
the descriptive clause of fact (p. 289), we saw that certain potentials, 
particularly velit, malit, nolit, audeat, possit, credat, putet, lent them- 
selves readily to this transition from the idea of contingency to 
that of actuality. It seems likely that the clause of result has 
developed by this same process of transition, and in the case of 
the same verbs. Thus in an original, nemo est tarn audax ut hoc 
facere audeat, the meaning ' as would dare ' naturally becomes ' that 
he dares. ' So in the case of nemo est tarn fortis ut hoc facere possit; 
nemo est tarn stultus ut velit; nemo est tarn stultus ut nolit; ut malit; 
ut putet; ut credat; etc. By this process of transition a new syn- 
tactical type arises, and ut relative becomes ut consecutive. After 
the construction once became established it naturally extended itself 
far beyond its original bounds, and was employed freely in any 
context. 2 In Early Latin, however, the type which I have assumed 

1 Ut in such sentences seems to have been originally relative. 

2 The foregoing view still seems to me the more probable despite Schlicher (Clas- 
sical Philology, ii, p. 79 ff.) and Dittmar (Studien zur lat. Moduslehre, p. 87 f.), both 
of whom refer the construction to the repudiating question for its origin. 

Result Clauses. 297 

as original is still strikingly prevalent. Out of some 106 instances 
of result clauses introduced by ut, no fewer than 30 contain the 
verbs to which I would refer the origin of the construction (possit, 
audeat, velit, etc.). Many of these are of the original type, and 
exhibit the ease with which the transition referred to could take 
place, e.g. Merc. 36, adeost facundus ut possit loqui (<so eloquent as 
would be able/ i.e. so eloquent that he can) ; M. G. 1174, ita expoli- 
tum ut non queas ; Phor. 240, ita sum irritatus ut nequeam ; 497, 
adeon ut neque queas ; and many others. 

Equally clear is the potential origin in relative clauses of result, 
e.g. Am ph. 985, nee quisquam tarn audax fuat homo qui obsistat 
inihi; Cure. 284; Trim 954, an ille tarn esset stultus qui crederet ? 
Phor. 821, eius modi cupiditates quas mederi possis ; Rud. 645, quis 
est tanta confidentia qui audeat ; H. T. 675, nil tarn difficilest quin 1 
investigari possiet. Out of 29 relative clauses of result in Early 
Latin, 14 point to the original type. In many cases some interpreters 
might prefer to recognize the potential character of the dependent 
clause as still persisting. 

Result Glauses Introduced by ut 2 

1. With a preceding intensive word. 

a) With ita (25). 

1) Affirmative, e.g. Aul. 591, ita dormitet ut cogitet; Bacch. 
477, ita gerere ut teneat ; Cas. 125 ; Poen. 1294 ; H. T. 503 ; Ad. 520. 

2) Negative, e.g. Men. 19, ita simili ut non posset ; M. G. 1174 ; 
Hud. 730, ita te ornatum amittam ut te non noveris ; Eun. 869 ; 
Gracchus (Meyer, p. 229), ita versatus sum ut nemo possit. In 
Phor. 974, we have illam ita incensam dabo ut ne restinguas. If 
ut ne is what Terence wrote, it is unaccountable and unexampled. 

b) With adeo (18). 

1) Affirmative, e.g. Asin. 284, adeo ut sint obnoxii ; Bacch. 283, 
adeon me f uisse fungum ut qui illi crederem ; Merc. 36 ; Phor. 497 ; 
Hec. 532. 

2) Negative, e.g. And. 278, adeo ingratum ut neque amor neque 
pudor commoveat ; Eun. 226. 

1 For quin as a relative (= qui non), see p. 290. 

2 Substantive Clauses of Result are treated below. 

298 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

C) With tantus (8). 

1) Affirmative, e.g. Asin. 313, tantum facinus inveni ut nos 
dicamur ; And. 626 ; H. T. 75. 

2) Negative, e.g. H. T. 710, tantam potestatem ut non credat; 
Ad. 610b, hocine tantum ut neque certum sit ; Stat. 249, tantam rem 
ut pro nilo habuerit. 

d) With is (8). 

1) Affirmative, e.g. Cas. 47, adolevit ad earn aetatem ut placere 
posset; Poen. 1201, non eo genere sumus ut deceat; H. T. 359; 
Phor. 979. 

2) Negative : Phor. 175, in eum incidi locum ut neque sit amit- 
tendi nee retinendi copia; Ad. 273, in eum locum redisse ut nil 
possent auxiliarier. 

e) With other words: Hec. 108, tarn commode ut committam; 
Asin. 794, ne sic tussiat ut linguam proserat; Pseud. 929, sic in 
timorem dabo ut neget neque autumet ; Cato, Agr. 158, 2, tot rebus ut 
bene deicias. 

2. Without correlative particle. 

a) Affirmative (29), e.g. Pseud. 464, te conficiet ut censeas ; 588, 
praeda onerabo ut sciant ; Trin. 76, morbum incuties ut aegroti sient ; 
Hec. 60, iurabat ut qui vis posset credere; Ad. 823; Cato, Agr. 151, 
4, si non pluet ut terra sitiat ; CIL, i, 38, optenui laudem ut laetentur. 

b) Negative (11), e.g. Men. 712, quid admisi ut non audeam ; M. G. 
71; H. T. 394, devincimini ut numquam possit; 881, ex tuo ingenio 
iudicas ut nil credas intellegere ; 899, ut ne . . . quidem subolat ; Eun. 
841, ut nullo modo possem ; Hec. 2, intervenit ut neque potuerit. 

Relative Clauses of Result. 

1. Introduced by qui (13), e.g. Am ph. 985, nee quisquam tarn audax 
fuat homo qui obsistat mihi ; Cure. 284 ; Trin. 954; H. T. 679; Phor. 
822 ; Pers. 583, numquam tarn benignus fuit qui fuerit propitius ; 
Cato, Agr. 156, 3. 

2. Introduced by qui non (2), True. 355, quid tarn inficetu's qui non 
des ; Ace. 683. 

3. Introduced by ubi: Stich. 62 y tantillum loci ubi catellus cubet. 

4. Introduced by quin (12), e.g. Asin. 944, nee quisquamst tarn 
ingenio duro quin faciat ; Aul. 790, nullus tarn parvi preti quin purget 

Result Clauses. 299 

sese; Capt. 408; Merc. 362; Ad. 221 ; Lucil. 140, nulla potest mulier 
tarn corpore duro esse, tamen tenero manet quin (= cui non) sucus 

In these clauses of relative result an intensifying word is invari- 
ably present in the antecedent clause. Tarn, which was rare in 
clauses introduced by ut, is especially common in these relative 
clauses, occurring some 18 times. 1 

Substantive Clauses of Result. 2 

Substantive clauses of result are a development of clauses of 
pure result. The origin of these is seen in a sentence like And. 
916, evenit ut veniret, ( it so happened that he came.' But the 
result notion in such clauses soon became weakened and the sub- 
stantive force became predominant, so that substantive clauses intro- 
duced by ut occur where not only no notion of result exists, but 
where it never could have existed, as e.g. Capt. 583, est miserorum ut 
malevolentes sint. 

Examples : 

a) evenit (13), e.g. Bacch. 1069, evenit ut praeda onustus cederem ; 
M. G. 889; And. 916, evenit ut veniret; Phor. 66. 

b) contigit : Amph. 187, id contigit ut salvi poteremur domi. 

c) fit (14), e.g. Asin. 478, id quidem fiet ut vapules ; Pers. 173, 
potuisset fieri ut litteras sciret ; And. 386, (fiet) ut excludar ; Lucil. 
781 ; Trin. 429, factum : : ut quidem illud perierit. 

d) facio, committo (13) : Amph. 185, facit ut quod se sit dignum 
sciat ; Cure. 258 ; And. 17, f aciuntne ut nil intellegant ; 55 ; 583 ; 
Trin. 704, id me commissurum ut patiar fieri. 

Concerning these clauses with facio, Durham, p. Ill, expresses the 
opinion that they are radically different from the clauses considered 
above, p. 224. In these examples, it will be noted that facto has the 
simple meaning 'to do/ and that the subjects of the main and de- 
pendent clauses are identical. The negative too in And. 17 (ut nil) 
seems to point to a non-volitive origin of the dependent clause in 
these sentences. 

1 Genuine potentials also sometimes occur in result clauses, e.g. Rud. 756, tarn sin- 
cerum ut quivis dicat ampullarius ; And. 135, ut cerneres; H. T. 307, ut scires. 
These last two are * could ' potentials in a result clause. See p. 206 f . 

2 See Durham, Substantive Clauses (Cornell Studies, xiii), p. 109. 

300 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

e) est (12), e.g. Poen. 1072, si itast ut sis Iahonis filius ; Pseud. 
1319; Phor. 270, si est culpam ut admiserit; 925, sin est ut velis; 
Hec. 99. 

f) satin est (= nonne est): Bacch. 491, satin ut nescias. 

g) convenit, ' it tallies ? : Capt. 649, eonvenit : : ut processerim ; cf. 
Trin. 429, factum : : ut quidem illud perierit. 

h) With nouns or pronouns, used as predicate or appositive (22), 
e.g. Merc. 513, nee mos meust ut praedicem ; Men. 723 ; Merc. 629, 
de istac re argutus es, ut par pari respondeas ; Trin. 637, an id est 
sapere ut qui beneficium repudies ; Most. 789, antiquom optines hoc 
tuom, tardus ut sis ; Pers. 46 ; Aul. 220 ; Hec. 243, ineum ius ut 
cogam ; 860. 

i) With adjectives, etc. (6): Asin. 190, nee meum(st) ut mittam ; 
Capt. 583, est miserorum ut invideant; Phor. 772, verissume. : : ut 
stultissime rem gesserimus ; ut gesserimus is most naturally taken as 
depending on verum est to be supplied in thought from verissume 
(cf . Capt. 649 ; Trin. 429). Ace. 107 ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 50, 7 ; 
Hec. 834. 

j) With adverbs. In the two following examples the clause is 
apparently substantive and in apposition with the substantive idea 
involved in eo ' to this ' : Eun. 690, eo rediges ut nesciam ; Phor. 201, 
eo meae fortunae redeunt ut distrahar. 

k) Elliptical : Pseud. 1109, nee boni ingeni in is est, nisi ut impro- 
bis se artibus teneant. 

1) In case of the following it is impossible to determine with any 
degree of certainty whether we have substantive clauses of result or 
substantive clauses developed from the volitive : Amph. 646, id modo 
si mercedis datur ut victor clueat ; Merc. 1005, non utibilest hie locus 
ut arbitri sint ; M. G. 475, quid propius f uit quam ut perirem ? 


We have already considered several types of clauses introduced 
by quin, viz. clauses developed from the deliberative ; descriptive 
gum-clauses ; relative clauses of result. Besides these, we have also 
certain purely adverbial gwm-clauses. Thus : 

1. We find a number of gwm-clauses equivalent to ' without ' and 

Adverbial Quin-Clawses. 301 

a verbal noun ; e.g. Asin. 675, numquam orares quin darem, < you 
would never ask without my giving/ Expressions of this kind are 
perhaps ultimately derived from descriptive ^win-clauses. Thus, 
M. G. 741, nullus tarn in amici hospitium devorti potest, quin, ubi 
triduom continuom fuerit, odiosus siet, is probably a descriptive 
clause; 'no one who doesn't become a bore.' But there has devel- 
oped also the force < without becoming a bore.' So in many other 
cases. When this force had become common in sentences of the type 
cited, it naturally was extended to a wider range, and we find quin 
freely used with the force of ' without/ < but that/ ' but what/ in 
combinations where quin could not have been originally a relative. 
In this way a new syntactical construction arose, and quin passed 
from a relative pronoun to a subordinate conjunction. 

Examples : Amph. 308, non feret quin vapulet ; 887, neque me 
perpetiar probri falso insimulatam quin ego ilium aut deseram aut 
satisfaciat ; Asin. 421, quoi numquam me licet praecipere quin cen- 
tiens eadem imperem atque ogganiam ; Asin. 675; Aul. 132; 474; 
Cure. 175; 209; Most. 147; 329; Pseud. 854; Eud. 228; Stich. 
187; 754; Trim 534; True. 142; 534; 907; H. T. 67, numquam 
egredior quin conspicer ; 1006 ; Eun. 791, numquam accedo quin abs 
te abeam doctior ; 841 ; 1092; Phor. 714; 825; Hec. 397, si id fieri 
non potest -quin sentiant; 768; Enn. Trag. 245; Ace. 330; Cato 
(Jord.), p. 10, 1 ; Afran. 170 ; Cornelia, Peter, p. 222, 26. 

2. By a further extension of the category just considered, we get 
a few instances of quin-cl&uses in which quin is logically a coordinate 
conjunction. I refer to sentences like ISFaev. Trag. 13, numquam 
hodie effugies quin mea moriaris manu. Originally this undoubt- 
edly was, 6 you shall never escape without dying by my hand.' But 
this is logically absurd. If the person threatened died, he obviously 
could not escape. The poet has simply used a conventional form 
of speech, but in a new meaning, the psychology of which is per- 
fectly natural and clear. In this way a new use of quin has arisen. 
Other examples of it are : Amph. 239, nee recedit loco quin statim 
rem gerat ; Asin. 305, nee dependes nee propendes — quin malus 
nequamque sis ; Hec. 64, hortor ne quoiusquam misereat quin spolies, 
'not to pity any one but to plunder' ; Hec. 150, earn ludibrio haberi 
neque honestum mihi neque utile virginist ; quin integram reddam ; 

302 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Men. 725. This usage, of course, is well known in the Silver 

3. The two following seem to be an extension of relative clauses 
of result; Ad. 855, numquam ita quisquam bene subducta ratione 
ad vitam fuit quin res aliquid . adportet novi ; 257, numquam ita 
magnifice quicquam dicam, id virtus quin superet tua. 


As a rule in Early Latin, quom in all its meanings, temporal, 
causal, and adversative, is construed with the indicative. Of the 
exceptions most are the result of attraction (some 50 instances), or 
are cases of the indefinite 2d singular (27 instances). Apart from 
these, there are the following examples : 

1. Quom temporal: Asin. 395, quom venisset, post non redit? 
(Ussing, convent, sed) ; Merc. 980, quern quidem, in exsilium quom 
iret, redduxi ; where iret is questioned by Lubbert, and others have 
suggested ibat ; True. 162, haud istoc modo solita es me ante appel- 
lare, sed blande, quom illuc, quod apud vos nunc est, apud med habe- 
rem; where Lubbert would read habebam; Liv. And. 36 (Baehr), 
quom socios nostros mandisset Ciclops ; Cato, Erag. (Jord.), p. 55, 
quom Hannibal Italiam lacesseret atque vexaret ; p. 64, 1, quom 
essem in provincia legatus; Pacuv. 166, quom me aspicere digna- 
rent (taken by Koterba, De sermone Pacuviano et Acciano, p. 184, 
as causal) ; Eun. 22, magistratus quom adesset, occeptast agi ; 
Afran. 105, intempesta noctu, silices quom findat gelus ; 151, quod 
praesidium mihi supponebas, quom me privares? 232, ita mater 
eius dixit, ambos quom emerem ; Enn. Ann. 18, quom superum lumen 
nox teneret ; 327, quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit ; 
Lucil. 52, quom vidissent ; 904, columnam quom peteret. 

2. Quom causal: Epid. Ill, istoc probior es, quom in amore 
temperes; where Brix suggests temperas; Men. 361, mihi mira 
videntur te hie stare foris, fores quoi pateant, magis quam domus 
tua, quom haec tua sit ; M. G. 1287, verum quom acceperim ; where 
Leo suggests accepimus; Eun. 861, debeam, praesertim quom fa- 

1 See especially Lubbert, Die Syntax von Quom, 1870 ; Hale, The Cum-Construc- 
tions, 1887, 1888, p. 45, ff. (Cum-Konstruktionen, p. 47 ft.), a trenchant and effective 
criticism of Liibbert's views ; Dittmar, Studien zur lat. Moduslehre, p. 1 ff. 

Quom-Clauses. 303 

teatur ; Hec. 529, demiror quid sit, praesertim quom recte pepererit ; 
704, iniussu non tollent meo, praesertim quom sit mi adiutrix socrus ; 
Ad. 166, indignis quom sim acceptus modis ; Gracchus (Meyer), p. 
229, quom a servis eorum tarn caste me habuerim, poteritis con- 
siderare ; p. 234, quom ignoraret, rogavit ; Paulus (Meyer), p. 201, 
quom timerem, Iovem precatus sum. 

3. Quom adversative : Pseud. 184, pantices madefactatis, quom ego 
sim siccus ; Enn. Trag. 368, nilo minus ipsi lucet, quom illi accen- 
derit ; Ann. 119, quom nil horridius umquam lex ulla iuberet; Lucil. 
651, hue, alio quom iter haberet, venit; ISTaev. Com. 55^ edepol, 
Cupido, quom tarn pusillus sis, nimis multum vales ; where Liibbert 
would read tu tarn pausillu's; Phor. 733, quod ut facerem egestas 
me impulit, quom scirem infirmas nuptias hasce esse ; Cato, Frag. 
(Jord.), p. 19, 9, quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen 
vulnus capiti nullum evenit. 

4. Quom = si adversative ; Capt. 892, dubium habebis etiam sancte 
quom iurem? 

For descriptive gwom-clauses, see p. 292. 

The foregoing material shows that even in Early Latin the use of 
quom temporal, causal, and adversative had already established it- 
self. As regards the origin of the usage, I accept the conclusions 
of Hale, Cum-Constructions. 1 Hale shows that the gwom-clause is 
simply a form of the clause of characteristic (descriptive clause of 
fact). Quom is a form of the relative stem quo-, and, as such, was 
quite as capable of introducing a descriptive clause as was any other 
relative word. Just as qui took a descriptive clause stating a quality 
of a person or thing, so quom took a clause stating a quality of a 
time, i.e. giving the situation existing at the time. It was in this 
way that the use of quom temporal developed. 

The causal and adversative uses grew out of the temporal use, 
purely as a result of the context. Cf. the similar use of English 
'when/ e.g. 'When ('since') he saw ruin threatening him, he took 
his own life ' ; ' When (< though ') he knew that this step meant ruin 
to all his hopes, he nevertheless decided to take it.' 

1 Dittmar's polemic against Hale (op, cit.) does not seem to me at all convincing. 

304 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 


1. Dum. The use of dum, ' until/ with the subjunctive goes back, 
I believe, to paratactic optatives in expressions like M. G-. 1249, 
opperiamur, dum exeat aliquis, 'let us wait; may some one come 
out the while ' (so Schmalz, Synt. 4 , p. 556 f.); Poen. 929, dum erus 
adveniat, opperiar, ' may my master arrive the while ; I'll wait ' ; 
Rud. 328, opperiar erum dum veniat ; True. 715, praesidebo dum 
faciat; Eun. 534, mane dum redeat. Dum in these sentences was 
the same particle which we recognized in connection with the 
clause of proviso, originally the oblique case of a substantive 
meaning 'the while/ The bulk of all the subjunctive clauses intro- 
duced by dum, ( until/ belonging to Early Latin occur after verbs of 
awaiting, expecting, watching, etc., thus lending support to the 
hypothesis of origin here advanced. Examples : 

a) With verbs of awaiting, expecting, etc. : Amph. 696, mane dum 
edormiscat ; Asin. 935, manere dum cenem ; Bacch. 48, dum veniat 
opperibere ; Men. 883, manendo dum se recipiat ; Poen. 785, operam 
date dum videatis ; Pseud. 1234, nunc ne exspectetis dum domum 
redeam; Eud. 922, non exspectare oportet dum erus se suscitet; 
Trin. 170, opservavit dum dormitarent canes ; True. 482, ne exspec- 
tetis meas pugnas dum praedicem ; 843, nam haud mansisti dum 
ego darem illam ; And. 977, longum est exspectare dum exeat ; 980 ; 
H. T. 543, quid exspectat ? an dum hie abeat ? Eun. 534, mane dum 
redeat ; Phor. 89, hie solebamus earn opperiri dum inde iret domum ; 
480 ; Ad. 672, an sedere oportuit dum cognatus veniret ? 

b) With other verbs : Bacch. 932, lubet lamentari dum exeat ; 
Cure. 525, minas x qui me procurem dum melius sit; M. G-. 868, 
hunc subcustodem f oras ablegavit, dum ab se hue transiret ; Pseud. 
563, haec facinora promittere, qui vos oblectem, hanc fabulam dum 
transigam; Eud. 1189, quid meliust quam ut abeam, saltern tantis- 
per dum apscedat haec a me aegrimonia ? Trin. 757, dum occasio ei 

1 Elste, De dum particulae usu Plautino, 1882; Boettger, De dum particulae usu 
apud Tereutium et in reliquiis trag. et com., 1887; Richardson, De dum particulae 
apud priscos scriptores Latinos usu, 1886 ; Lange, De sententiarum temporalium apud 
priscos scriptores Latinos syntaxi, 1878; Schmalz, Archiv fur lateinische Lexiko- 
graphie und Grammatik, xi, p. 333 ff.; Lat. Synt. 4 , p. 556; Hale, Anticipatory Sub- 
junctive, p. 68 ff. 

Subjunctive by Attraction. 305 

rei reperiatur, interim ab amico mutuom argentum roges ; True. 22, 
non omnis aetas ad perdiseendum sat est amanti, dum id perdiscat ; 
Lucil. 129, nee longius quicquam nobis quani gladium dum accomo- 
det alter; Cato, Agr. 16, 4, aperito dum inspicias; 95, 1, agitato 
crebro, usque adeo dum fiat tarn crassum quam mel ; 107, 2, usque 
coquito dum dimidium excoquas ; 156, 2, paulisper demittito ad 
modum dum quinque numeres ; 160, incipe cantare usque dum coearit 
(bis). Most of these seem clear cases, though some of them are 
possibly capable of explanation by attraction or assimilation. 

As a rule, only the present tense occurs in cfam-clauses of this 
type. Schmalz (Archiv, xi, p. 338) denies the use of dum, 'until/ 
with the imperfect for Early Latin. The above material, however, 
shows five instances of this idiom. 

2. With donee, donicum: Eud. 811, ni invitassitis donee nesciat; 
Cato, Agr. 54, 4, usque dato, donee arescat ; uncertain : Com. Incert. 
Eibb. 74, usque donicum emigatur. 

As in the case of the subjunctive introduced by ante quam and 
prius quam, so also in the case of subjunctive dwm-clauses Hale re- 
fers the employment of the mood to an 'anticipatory' subjunctive; 
Anticipatory Subjunctive in Greek and Latin, p. 68 ff. ; Hale-Buck, 
Latin Grammar, § 507, 5. But this theory seems quite unnecessary, 
and, in view of the great uncertainty of the presence of an antici- 
patory at all in Latin, extremely problematic. 


The subjunctive is often employed apparently as the result of 
attraction or assimilation to another subjunctive or equivalent im- 
perative. So too when a subordinate clause is so closely connected 
with an infinitive as to form an integral part of the same, the mood 
is frequently the subjunctive, and the name " subjunctive by attrac- 
tion " is given to this use of the subjunctive also. 

A. Subjunctive Assimilated or Attracted to Another Sub- 
junctive. 1 

In Amer. Jour. Phil, viii, p. 54, Hale says : " In complex sentences 

made up of a main sentence with subjunctive verb and one or more 

iTenney Frank, Attraction of Mood in Early Latin, Chicago, 1904; C. Thulin, De 
Conjunctivo Latino, Lund, 1899, pp. 79-200 ; F. Antoine, L' Attraction modale en Latin, 
Melanges Boissier, p. 25 ff. 

306 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

subordinate sentences, the modal feeling in the speaker's mind which 
expresses itself in the main sentence is, in the nature of things, very 
likely to continue in the speaker's mind in the subordinated sentence 
or sentences, either quite unchanged or but slightly shaded. If, for 
example, I say in Latin, ' Let him send whom he will/ mittat quern 
velit, the mood in velit is not a case of ' attraction ' or c assimilation ' 
at all. Velit is as much a jussive as mittat is. The meaning is, 
' Let him choose his man and send that man.' Again, " the frequent 
recurrence of such examples gives rise to the occasional use of a 
dependent subjunctive with only a formal likeness to the main sub- 
junctive, and no true modal feeling." 

I am unable to admit the soundness of this reasoning. To my 
mind Hale seems to do great violence to the interpretation of the 
passage above cited. 1 I do not believe it legitimate to read into 
velit the jussive force which Hale attributes to it. Much less can I 
admit the justice of Frank's statement (op. cit. p. 4) that Hale's 
interpretation of the mood of velit is beyond dispute, or that the 
modal feeling of the main verb is shared by the dependent subjunc- 
tive in sentences like the following (cited by Frank, p. 5) : Bacch. 
656, f uretur quod queat ; Hec. 196, di vortant bene quod agas ; 
Bacch. 673, occasio fuit ut quantum velles tantum sumeres. 

I am, therefore, inclined to believe that in the phenomenon under 
consideration we are to recognize a purely formal and mechanical 
attraction. At least I cannot recognize the validity of the evidence 
offered in support of the origin advocated by Hale and Frank. 

In a very large number of instances traditionally regarded as 
illustrations of attraction, Frank recognizes ( anticipatory ' subjunc- 
tives (p. 11 ff.). But the existence of an < anticipatory ' subjunctive 
in Latin rests on too slender a foundation, in my judgment, to war- 
rant its recognition in this type of clause. Especially must one ques- 
tion the legitimacy of recognizing an ' anticipatory ' subjunctive in 
clauses dependent upon another subjunctive until clear instances of 
an ' anticipatory ' are found following a main clause in the indica- 
tive. The passages cited by Frank, p. 13, are not of this kind. 
Every present subjunctive naturally contains a future force ; but so 

1 Cf . Dittmar's review of Frank, Berl. Phil. Wochenschrift, xxv, col. 919 ff. 
Dittmar, however, rejects emphatically the theory of a mechanical attraction. 

Subjunctive by Attraction. 307 

does every future indicative. The theories of Hale and Frank give 
no satisfactory explanation of the employment of the subjunctive 
rather than the future indicative in the subordinate subjunctive 
clauses in the examples cited in great number by Frank, p. 16 ff. 
So far as I can see, only the theory of a mechanical attraction will 
account for the presence of the subjunctive in these clauses. 

Classification of Subjunctives Attracted or Assimilated to 
Another Subjunctive. 

The main classification is determined by the nature of the govern- 
ing clause : 

1. Dependent on a jussive or prohibitive (53). 

a) With relatives (24), e.g. Bacch. 657, furetur quod queat; Capt. 
548, ne tu quod istic fabuletur inmittas; M. G. 190; 731 ; 1230, quod 
cupiam ne gravetur ; Most. 1100, quod agas id agas ; Pseud. 237 ; 
Stich. 149, neque me celassis quod scias ; Hec. 391 ; Cato, Agr. 2, 6, 
reliqua quae sint, uti conpareant ; quae opus sint locato, locentur ; 
quae supersint, uti veneant ; Plaut. Frag. 88, quique liceat veneat. 

b) With si, sin (16) : Am ph. 819, si pudoris egeas, sumas mutuom ; 
961, tristis sit, si sint tristes ; hilaris sit, si gaudeant ; Asin. 763, si 
pictura sit, vendat ; Aul. 591, sin dormitet, ita dormitet ; M. G. 188 ; 
293, si te di ament, tollas; Raid. 834, abeas, si velis; Trin. 370, ne 
prohibeas, si det ; True. 233 ; 839 ; 855 ; Cato, Agr. 2, 6, si quid desit, 
uti paretur ; 2, 7 ; 5, 1. 

c) With ubi (5) : Bacch. 653, ubiquomque usus siet, expromat ; 
Pers. 70; True. 230, ubi nil det, mittat domum; 232; Cato, Agr. 3, 
2, ubi lecta siet, oleum fiat. 

d) With other particles: dum (2): Poen. 20, neu ducat, dum in 
scaena siet; True. 232, dum habeat turn (Lamb. conj. dum) amet; 
quom: Pers. 152, ut adfleat, quom memoret; quando : Pseud. 307, 
quando nil sit, amare desinat ; quam : Hec. 634, dum ne redducam, 
turbent porro quam velint ; ut : Amph. 960, eri ut sint, ipse item sit ; 
Bacch. 662, utquomque res sit, ita animum habeat. 

2. Dependent on a deliberative (25). 

a) With relatives (14) : Amph. 434, quid ego ni negem, qui egornet 
siem ? 694, te ut deludam, qui nunc primum te advenisse dicas, modo 
qui hinc abieris ; Bacch. 197, egon ut, quod attigisset, non impetra- 

308 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

turn redderem? M. G. 426; 497; 556-, 1276; Poen. 860; Hec. 852; 
Enn. Trag. 148. 

b) With quom (7) : Bacch. 1192, egon quom haec accubet inspec- 
tem ? And. 943, egon patiar quom possim ? H. T. 413 ; Eun. 565 ; 
Hec. 341 ; Enn. Trag. 121 ; Titin. 81. 

c) With ubi (4) : Bacch, 1190, egon ubi films corrumpatur meus, 
ibi potem ? Epid. 588; Men. 559; Phor. 970. 

3. Dependent on an optative subjunctive (14) : Asin. 46, di tibi dent 
quaequomque optes ; similarly Epid. 6; M. G. 1038; Pers. 483; 
Poen. 1055; Stich. 469; Trin. 715, bene quod agas eveniat; Phor. 
552 ; Pseud. 936, tantum duint quantum exoptes ; Poen. 746, sus- 
pendant se quam quod loquantur creduam. 

4. Dependent on a potential (16). 

a) With relatives (10) : Amph. 905, quam tu impudicam esse arbi- 
trere et praedices, cum ea sermonem nee habeas ; Capt. 961, quod 
ego f atear, credin pudeat ? Cure. 700, quoquo posset, mitteret ; M. G. 
614 ; 735 ; Poen. 92. 

b) With ubi (4) : Men. 603, intro abeam, ubi bene sit ; Poen. 148 ; 
Eun. 1080, facile pellas, ubi velis. 

c) With other particles : quom : Capt. 961, credin pudeat, quom 
autumes ? Eud. 979 ; dum : Pud. 1261, dum censeret, praeda esset ; 
ad quo : Afran. 248, iratus essem ad quo (= in quantum, Nonius) 

5. Dependent on purpose clauses (84). 

a) With relatives (23) : Aul. 605, ut quae fierent fieret particeps ; 
Cas. 867, qui exeat, eum ut ludibrio habeas ; Cist. 85 ; Cure. 29, ne 
id quod ames sit probro ; Eun. 1026, ut faciam quod iubeat ; Hec. 

b) With quom (22) : Amph. 128, ut ne quaererent quom viclerent 
me ; 983, ut ministres mihi, mihi quom sacruficem ; Asin. 185, se ut 
quom videat, gaudeat ; Aul. 278 ; Bacch. 908 ; Most. 249 ; Pers. 190; 
191; And. 424; H. T. 854; Phor. 839; Cato, Agr. 73. 

c) With si (24) : Amph. 724, ut quod obrodat sit, si male esse 
occeperit ; Cist. 593, ne in quaestione sit, si quid velim ; Cure. 468 ; 
Merc. 231, neu discordarent, si essent ; 913; Most. 922; Poen. 27; 
Pseud. 93; 900; Trin. 691; 755; And. 316; 728; Phor. 314; Ad. 
171; 282; Enn. Ann. 194, 8. In all these cases, of course, it is 

Subjunctive by Attraction. 309 

entirely possible that there is no attraction, but that the si-clause 
represents an original ' should '-' would ' condition. 

d) With ubi (5) : M. G. 3, ut, ubi usus veniat, praestringat ; 1122; 
Pers. 230, ne, ubi vorsicapillus has, servias ; Pseud. 580, ut, ubi- 
quomque congrediar, vincam. 

e) With quando (5); Bacch. 730, ut cognoscat quando legat; 768; 
Men. 1045 ; Poen. 552 ; Trin. 1144. 

f ) With dum (5) : Cure. 664, ut dum vivat alat ; M. G. 950 ; Phor. 
770 ; 1030 ; Trag. Incert. 169. 

g) With other particles (5) : qaam primum : Trin. 42, ut, quam 
primum possim, videam ; etsi: Vid. xiii, ut piscetur, etsi sit tem- 
pestas; ut: Capt. 343, qui ita ut velis perferat; priusquam : True. 
524, ne, prius quam capiat, nos exstinxit fames, quia: M. G. 7, ne 
lamentur quia se iam pridem feriatam gestitem. 

6. Dependent on a substantive clause developed from the volitive or 
optative (93). 

a) With relatives (43) : Amph. 60, facere ut sit comoedia reges 
quo veniant ; 630, sum diligens ut quae imperes compareant ; Bacch. 
1173, non metuo ne quid doleat quod ferias ; Capt. 257, causa ut vos 
servem quos sim mercatus ; Cure. 550, mandasti qui attulissem ne 
spernerem; Poen. 6, iubet ut sedeant qui venerint; Phor. 125, 
lex est ut orbae qui sint proximi nubant ; Stat. 162 ; Cato, Agr. 
141, 1. 

b) With si, nisi, etc. (19) : Bacch. 778, adiuro ut, ni amem atque 
cupiam, tua latera lacerentur; 1037; M. G. 1187; Kud. 1295; And. 
687, orare, si ames, ut venias. 

c) With quom (9) : Amph. 542, volo, ut quom absim, me ames ; 
Aul. 273; Epid. 356; Capt. 495; Stich. 65; H. T. 1017, metuis ne 
non, quom velis, convincas ; Cato, Agr. 28, 1. 

d) With ubi (6) : Bacch. 43, ut, ubi emeritum sit, se revehat ; 45 ; 
M. G. 1234, ne mutent ubi viderit ; Eun. 394 ; CIL. i, 196, censuit 
utei figier ioubeatis ubi facilumed gnoscier potisit. 

e) W T ith dum (7) : Bacch. 1047, Ephesi multo mavellem foret, dum 
salvos esset; Pers. 494; Poen. 884; Kud. 499, quaeso, dum vivas, 
uti habeas ; Ad. 681. 

f) With quando : True. 432, ut, quando otium sit, ad me revisas 5 
Pseud. 663; M. G. Arg. I, 11. 

310 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

g) With quam (3) : Most. 966, vide ne amplius quam satis fuerit 
biberis; Eun.. 74; Hec. 729. 

h) With other particles (3) : etsi : Capt. 856 y f aciam ut cupias 
etsi votem ; utqaomque : And. 735, ut subservias utquomque opus sit, 
vide ; prius quam : Eun. 751, cave ne, prius quam accipias, amittas. 

7. Dependent on gum-clauses (mostly substantive) (n). 

a) With relatives (6) : M. G. 369, numquam deterrebor quin vide- 
rim quod viderim; Poen. 881; Trin. 588; Phor. 272. 

b) With ubi : M. G-. 742, quin, ubi triduom fuerit, odiosus siet, 
verum ubi dies x sit; Aul. 613. 

c) With si: Capt. 353, numquae causast quin, si non redeat, des ; 
Phor. 825, quin, si hoc celetur, in metu ; sin patent (note the indica- 
tive), in probro sim. 

d) With quom : M. G. 1342, nequeo quin fleam quom abeam. 

8. Dependent on a descriptive clause of fact Q clause of characteristic ? ) 

(I4) - 

a) With relatives (10) : Capt. 467, dies quoi minus procedat quic- 
quid facere occeperit ; Cas. 183, nee qua in plura sint quae velim ; 
565 ; Trin. 953. 

b) With ubi: Pud. 119, qui praefestinet, ubierus adsit, praeloqui ; 
Hec. 608, qui, ubiquomque opus sit, possit. 

c) With quom : Cas. 133, unde auscultare possis, quom ausculer. 

9. Dependent on result clauses (21). 

a) With relatives (7) : Merc. 513, mos est ut praedicem quod 
credam ; Most. 173. 

b) With quom (6) : Trin. 732, ut perpetiar quom habeam ; Eun. 
933, ut,.. quom cognorit, oderit ; Phor. 822. 

c) With si (4) : Cure. 379, hunc morem ut pugnis rem solvant si 
quis poscat ; M. G. 475, quid propius fuit quam ut perirem, si elocutus 
essem ? Hec. 548. 

d) With other particles: ubi: Phor. 154, ut extimescam, ubi 
in mentem veniat ; quam : Pud. 1242, ut cum maiore dote abeat 
quam advenerit ; dum : H. T. 951, ut, dum vivat, meminerit. 

10. Dependent on a subjunctive protasis (13). 

a) With relatives (9) : Amph. 871, mea sit culpa, quod egomet 
contraxerim, si id Alcumenae expetat; Capt. 205, si sinat solutos 
quos emerit ; Cure. 268 ; Pseud. 785. 

Subjunctive by Attraction. 311 

b) With other particles : quom (2) : Men. 454, nisi adsint quom 
citentur; True. 234; quando : Merc. 406, si sequatur, quando ince- 
dat ; dum : Bacch. 1194, si, dum vivas, tibi bene facias. 

11. Dependent on indirect questions (16). 

a) With relatives (12): Amph. 1016, quis fuerit quern propter 
corpus stupri compleverit ; Trin. 210, falson an vero laudent quern 
velint; Vid. 57; H. T. 1040. 

b) With quom : Merc. 344, neque, quom roget, quid loquar cogi- 

c) With si : Eud. 925, ut piger, si velim, siem ; Merc. 941. 

12. Dependent on a e stipulative ' subjunctive (see p. 263) (7) : Amph. 
225, convenit, victi utri sint, urbem uti dederent ; Capt. 380 ; Eud. 
1128, concredam ; ac si nil sit, ut reddas; Poen. 855; And. 200; 
Epid. 500. 

13. Dependent on a clause of proviso (4) : Trin. 211, dum quod 
lubeat sciant; CIL, i, 196 (ter). 

14. Dependent on a causal clause: Cist. 102, iratast quia non redi- 
erim postquam resciverim. 

15. Dependent on an imperative or future indicative: Amph. 439, 
ubi ego Sosia nolim esse, tu esto Sosia ; Asin. 29, die, obsecro hercle, 
serio quod te rogem; CIL, xi, 4766, neque efferto quod louci siet; 
Pers. 16, dabunt di quae exoptes ; Asin. 623, dabunt di quae velitis ; 
Cato, Agr. 29, in segetem, ubi pabulum seras, invehito. In all these 
the main verb is equivalent to a volitive or optative subjunctive. 
Attraction to the subjunctive after an imperative is found in Umbrian 
also, e.g. pone esonome ferar, ere fertu poe . . ., ' when it is carried, 
let him carry it, who/ etc. 

16. Miscellaneous : Asin. 122, moriri mavolet quam non reddat 
quod promiserit ; Men. 229, maior quasi terram videas (indefinite 2d 
singular), quae fuerit tua; Trin. 549, sicut fortunatorum niemorant 
insulas, quo cuncti qui aetatem egerint caste suam conveniant. Here 
the clause governing the attracted clause is a clause in implied indi- 
rect discourse. 

As regards the conditions under which attraction takes place, 
Frank's study shows : 

1. The attracted clause is preferably in the same time-sphere as 
the clause on which it depends. 

812 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

2. Its favorite position is between the introductory conjunction 
(when such exists) and the verb of the governing clause. 

3. Its verb rarely expresses precise modal and temporal force. 

4. The clause as a whole is rather of the generalizing than of the 
determinative type. 

o. It is more frequently a temporal than a relative clause. 

6. It is connected with the predicate more frequently than with 
the subject or object of the sentence. 

7. As a rule, it is an essential clause, and grammatically depends 
very closely upon the main body of the clause to which it is attracted. 

These favoring conditions are met in only about 37 % of all the 
clauses dependent upon subjunctives. When these favoring condi- 
tions do not exist, the dependent clause stands in the indicative, 
unless the clause would regularly stand in the subjunctive for some 
other reason (purpose, result, etc.). 

B. Subjunctive by Attraction in Clauses Dependent on an 

Infinitive. 1 

That the infinitive, even outside of the limits of indirect discourse, 
has the power of causing the employment of the subjunctive in 
dependent clauses which would otherwise take the indicative, is 
sufficiently familiar. The name ' subjunctive by attraction' is given 
to this usage precisely as when a subjunctive is attracted to another 

The origin of the usage is not easy to account for satisfactorily. 
However, I am strongly persuaded that Frank has discovered the 
truth, when (Amer. Jour. Phil, xxv, p. 428 ff.) he holds that the 
1 attraction ' of the mood after the infinitive began with those infini- 
tives which were logically equivalent to subjunctives. Thus when 
Plautus, Amph. 705, says, certa res hanc est obiurigare quae me 
noluerit salutare, this is felt as equivalent to certa res est ut hanc 
obiurigem, etc., and the subjunctive noluerit is in consequence used 
after obiurigare, just as it would have been after obiurigem. So Bacch. 
58, apud me te esse, quom veniat, volo, where te esse is felt as the 
equivalent of sis or ut sis. A very large number (70 %) of all the 

1 Frank, The Influence of the Infinitive upon Verbs Subordinated to it, Amer. 
Jour. Phil, xxv, p. 428 ff. ; Thulin, De Conjunetivo Latino, Lund. 1899, pp. 1-76. 

Subjunctive by Attraction. 313 

instances of 'subjunctive by attraction ' after infinitives in Early 
Latin occur after infinitives of this type, viz. infinitives equivalent 
to subjunctives. I give the material in full (61 instances). 

1. With relatives (34): Asin. 24, video necesse esse eloqui quid- 
quid roges; Aiil. 129; 751, si facere quod lubeat licet; Capt. 363, 
volt te operam dare quod is velit ; Cas. 570, qui advocatos advocet, 
rogitare oportet ; 872 ; M. G. 182, iube transire hue quantum possit ; 
982; Pers. 273; 601; Poen. 966, pati servire domi quae fuerint 
liberae ; Pseud. 460, decet innocentem qui sit superbum esse ; 1150 ; 
Pvud. 112; 272; 321; 117; 394; Stich. 69; 686; Trim 1105, iubeto 
quae imperaverim curare; True. 225; 228; Plaut. Frag. 80, agere 
oportet quod agas ; And. 219, quicquid peperisset decreverunt tollere ; 
464, quod peperisset iussit tolli; H. T. 165, non convenit qui ad 
laborem pepulerim nunc me ipsum fugere; Phor. 537; Hec. 244, ut 
te cogam quae imperem facere; 840; Cato, Agr. 135, 3; CIL, i, 
196, 1, de Bacanalibus quei foideratei esent ita exdeicendum esse 
censuere ; i, 5041, oppidum quod posedisent possidere iousit dum 
poplus Romanus vellet; Stat. 183. 

2. With quom (6) : Bacch. 58, apud me te esse, quom veniat, volo ; 
76, quom adveniat, te volo me amplexari; Capt. 146, alienus quom 
tarn aegre feras, quid me patrem par facere est ? Phor. 202, istaec 
quom ita sint, tanto magis te advigilare aequomst ; 928 ; Scaurus 
(Meyer), p. 242, est iniquom, quom inter alios vixerim, apud alios 
me rationem vitae reddere. 

3. With si, ni, etc. (15) : Amph. 69, sive qui ambissent palmam, 
sive quoi duint, sirempse legem iussit esse; 880; 986, qui minus 
liceat minitari populo ni decedat mihi? Bacch. 1045; Cas. 440; 
Men. 848, votas parcere ni abscedat; M. G-. 1356; Stich. 563; H. T. 
626, mihi te edicere, si parerem, nolle tolli; Cato, Agr. 3, 5, esse 
oportet si contriti sint ; 151, 4 ; Frag. (Jorcl.) p. 64, 4 ; CIL, i, 197, 
10, iubeto eum, si pariat (=pareat) condemnari; 196, 24, si ques 
essent qui fecisent, eis rem caputalem faciendam censuere; 6, (exdei- 
cendum censuere) si ques esent qui deicerent. 

4. With other particles (6) : quam : Pseud. 439, qui gnatum suom 
esse probiorem quam ipsus fuerit postulet; Trim 175; ubi: Cato, 
Agr. 2, 5, (oportet) ubi ea cognita sint, curare ut perficiantur ; 155, 
2; ut: Trin. 306, utrum esse mavelit ut animus censeat an ita ut 

314 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

cognati velint; CIL, i, 199, 4, ubi ea facta essent, Eomam venire 

We have seen that the main source of the construction is quite 
probably to be sought in the use of the infinitive as the equivalent 
of the subjunctive. A contributory cause, recognized by Frank, is to 
be found in those cases where the attracting infinitive itself depends 
upon a subjunctive (9 instances). Thus in Cist. 497, quodcumque 
optes tibi velim contingere, it is entirely natural that optes should 
be attracted by velim. Other similar passages are : Pers. 290, liceat 
quom servos sis, dicere ; Poen. 681, videre vos vellem quom aurum 
darem ; Hec. 532, ut puerum praeoptares perire ex quo fore amicitiam 
scires ; Com. Incert. (Eibb. p. 137), artem ne pudeat proloqui quam 
factites ; Cato, Agr. 1, 4, qui vendiderint eos pigeat vendidisse ; 2, 1, 
possitne, quae reliqua sint, conficere; Lucil. 145, 4, ut perisse velis 
quern visere nolueris. Under the same head I should bring CIL, 
xi, 4766, eod die quod reidinae causa fiat sine dolo cedere licetod, 
where the imperative is equivalent to a jussive subjunctive. 

It will be noted that in most of the foregoing passages the attract- 
ing subjunctive is in close proximity — much closer than the infinitive 
— to the attracted subjunctive. 

The preceding 70 examples include all but 16 of the cases of 
' attraction ' after the infinitive. The remainder, I believe, are to 
be accounted for as influenced by the two preceding types. Exam- 
ples : Amph. 39, debetis velle quae velimus ; Capt. 986, mos est 
oblivisci neque novisse quoius nihili sit faciunda gratia ; Cas. 564, 
stultitia est ad forum procedere in eum diem quoi quod amet in 
mundo siet; Men. 1004, f acinus indignum, erum deripier qui liber 
venerit; Trin. 357; Phor. 79; 960, quod auditura sit indicare pla- 
cabilius est; Hec. 73; 149, quam decrerim me non posse diutius 
habere earn ludibrio haberi neque honestum est ; Ace. 193 ; 215 ; 
Ad. 341, quom amet aliam, non est utile hanc dari; H. T. 578, 
nostrumst intellegere utquomque opus sit; Phor. 502, quom occu- 
patus esset, hoc esse obiectum malum ! Ad. 39, instituere parare 
quod sit carius. In the last two examples the infinitive is exclama- 
tory, the only instances in Early Latin of the exclamatory infinitive 
with attracted subjunctive. 

Frank in his discussion does not mention Ad. 39 ; while in the 

Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua. 815 

Phormio passage he suggests that the ^wora-clause may be an early 
instance of quom causal. 

Of the historical infinitive with attracted subjunctive, no instance 
appears in Early Latin. 

On the whole the subjunctive is less frequent than the indicative 
in dependence upon those infinitives with which the subjunctive is 
possible. For the instances in Early Latin, see Erank, p. 443 f. 
The subjunctive was never obligatory, and was used only where the 
subordinate clause was an integral part of the idea conveyed by the 
infinitive. Furthermore it is usually generalizing and unemphatic, 
rather than determinative and emphatic. If relative, it is usually 
attached to the object of the infinitive ; see Erank, p. 444 f . 

Some of the examples cited as illustrating our construction, Erank 
(1. c. p. 430) regards as specimens of the subjunctive in subordinate 
clauses of indirect discourse, e.g. passages like M. G. 182, iube trans- 
ire hue quantum possit. While there seems to be no doubt of the 
close relationship of such a sentence as this to indirect discourse, 
yet it seems to me safer to regard this and similar examples as fur- 
nishing the starting-point of indirect discourse, rather than as in- 
fluenced by it. See below under "Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua." 


In my discussion of the subjunctive by attraction (see above, 
p. 312), I explained the " subjunctive by attraction " after the infin- 
itive as resulting from the equivalence of the infinitive to certain 
common types of dependent subjunctives. The subjunctive in oratio 
obliqua seems to be an extension of the "subjunctive by attraction." 1 
Expressions like Capt. 362, volt te operam dare quod velit; M. G. 
182, iube transire hue quantum possit ; Bacch. 58, apud me te esse, 
quom veniat, volo ; Men. 848, votas parcere ni abscedat ; CIL, i, 197, 
10, iubeto eum, sei pariat (pareat), condemnari, are frequent in Early 
Latin, and, I believe, are correctly explained as the result of assimila- 
tion. On the basis of such expressions as those just cited, it was an 
easy step to such as the following : Asin. 363, interminatust nos 

1 The suggestion of Schlicher (Amer. Jour. Phil, xxvi, p. 71 ff.) that the usage 
under discussion is an extension of the repudiating subjunctive as expressing the 
status of an idea foreign to the speaker, is vague and far from convincing. 

316 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

futuros ulmeos ni hodie essent xx miiiae; Pseud. 777, interminatus 
est, si non mimus misisset, eum perbitere ; And. 694, adiuro num- 
quani me deserturum, non si sciam ; Cas. 670, deieravit occisurum eum 
quicum cubaret; Rud. 1336, deiera te daturum eodem die ubi sis 
potitus ; M. G-. 1414, iuro me nociturum nemini quod vapularim ; Bud. 
1378, si redegissem, iuratust dare ; Bacch. 1028, ius iurandum cledi 
daturum id priusquam abiret; Aul. 470, credo mercedem pollicitos 
si fecisset; Most. 1084, pollicitus dare si vellem; Asin. 529, pro- 
mittat te facturum divitem si moriatur mater ; Cure. 490, promisisse, 
si quisquam adsereret, redditum iri ; 667, promisit, si asseruisset, 
reddere ; 709, promistin, si assereret, te redditurum ; Cas. 53, sperat, 
si sit data, fore ; Turpil. 58, sperabam, quom aetas aceesset, non 

Expressions like the foregoing seem to me to have furnished the 
beginnings of the use of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses of 
indirect discourse. They stand on the border-line between the sub- 
junctive by attraction after the infinitive, on the one hand, and the 
regular subjunctive in subordinate clauses after verba sentiendi et de- 
clara?idi, on the other. They are related to the subjunctive by 
attraction after the infinitive in that the governing verb is related 
in meaning to those verbs which are followed by an infinitive and 
an attracted subjunctive. Thus we have verbs of threatening, 
vowing, promising, hoping, after the analogy of verbs of ordering, 
forbidding, wishing, and the like. Another point of likeness is that 
these verbs look forward to the future, like those after which we 
have the infinitive and the attracted subjunctive. At the same time 
we have in the expressions last cited genuine examples of oratio 

In thorough conformity with the theory that the beginning of the 
usage under discussion is to be sought in such expressions as I have 
cited, is the fact that in Early Latin a very large proportion (40 out 
of 100) of all occurrences of subordinate clauses in indirect discourse 
is found in sentences in which the reference of the dependent infini- 
tive is to the future. Thus : Pseud. 1118, leno ubi esset domi me 
aiebat arcessere ; Lucil. 639, habeas in animo causam gravem fore 
quae me abducat; Trin. 695, te dictatorem censes fore, si acceperim; 
True. 90, censuit celare se posse, gravida si foret ; Trin. 1086, credidi 

Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua. 317 

aegre tibi, ubi audisses fore ; Amph. 207 ; 209 ; Bacch. 700 ; Merc. 
419 ; 83 ; Eud. 405 ; Cas. 323 ; etc. 

Examples (classified according to the introductory word) : 

a) Introduced by a relative pronoun (31) : Cist. 585 se aibat 
mulierem con venire quacum esset negotium ; Cure. 488; Trin. 212- 
Bacch. 953 ; M. G. 1391 ; Phor. 246, quicquid eveniat id deputare in 
lucro ; Bacch. 344, haud utrum velim licere intellego. 

b) Introduced by a conditional particle (38) : Amph. 675, me 
meum officium facere, si earn, arbitror ; Merc. 83, dico iturum me, 
si velit; Eud. 405, si peterem daturos dixit; Trin. 891, dicas, si quid 
crediderim, perisse; Stich. 80; H. T. 608; Cas. 323; 698, negat 
ponere nisi sciat ; Merc. 243, respondet, ni properem, ducturum ; 
And. 647, nonne sat esse visum est, ni lactasses et produceres; Phor. 
643, quantum ? : : si quis daret (sc. contentum fore). 

c) Introduced by quom (8) : Asin. 442, aibat reddere quom reddi- 
tum esset ; Merc. 70, sese laboravisse quom pater diceret ; M. G. 389, 
arguere me visus est quom mea soror osculata esset; Eud. 1124; And. 
330; Ad. 34; Lucil. 546; Cato, Jord., p. 46, 1. 

d) Introduced by ubi (3): Pseud. 597, (dixit) septumas esse 
aedis ubi ille habitet; Pseud. 1118; Trin. 1086. 

e) Introduced by postquam (5) : Merc. 61, se postquam excesserit 
non dedisse ; 73 ; Most. 975. 

f) Introduced by ante quam and prius quam (5) : M. G. ^o, 
multos vidi fugere prius quam haberent ; Bacch. 1030 ; H. T. 479 ; 
816; Hec. 146. 

g) Introduced by dam (4) : True. 440, ostendit se infidelem num- 
quam dum vivat fore ; Merc. 77 ; H. T. 148. 

h) Other particles: Poen. 276, qui mage inmortalis vos credam 
esse quam ego siem ? Trin. 742, neque ut sit data te sistere autu- 
ment ; Asin. 913 ; Merc. 67, ut spectavisset, solitum (esse) ; Cas. 420, 
scin rus hinc esse longe quo ducat? Phor. 722, quantum voluerit 
datum esse ; Epid. 415, facturum dixit rem esse divinam domi, quia 
salvos redierit; M. G. 1031, lamentari ait illam quia tis egeat; 1414, 
iuro me nociturum nemini quod vapularim; Most. 520, ilium credidi 
expostulare quia percussisses fores; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 24, 5, ecquis 
est qui aequom censeat poenas dare ob earn rem quod arguatur male 
facere voluisse ? 

318 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

For the list of verbs followed by oratio obliqua, see under the 

Implied Indirect Discourse. 

Under this head belong the following: Hec. 651, hunc videre 
optabamus diem quom ex te esset aliquis ; Capt. 998, vidi saepe 
picta quae Acherunti fierent ; Men. 144, tabulam pictam ubi aquila 
Catameitum raperet; Pseud. 624, argento haec dies praestitutast 
quoad referret ; Trin. 549, sieut fortunatorum memorant insulas quo 
cuneti conveniant; Eun. 1013, paenitebat ni indicares ; Pseud. 1242, 
quas promisi si eifecisset; Ace. 325, primores provocavit si esset quis 
qui secum vellet cernere. 

Subjunctive in Principal Clauses in Oratio Obliqua. 1 

Of this usage, which becomes common in late Latin, we have, I 
believe, an instance in Asin. 52, scio quod amet. The attempt of 
Blass (Rhein. Mus. 1882, p. 151 f.) to explain quod amet as depend- 
ing on the previous suscenseam cannot be regarded as successful. 
Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 77, 1, dicam de istis Graecis suo loco quid 
Athenis exquisitum habeam et quod bonum sit illorum litteras 
inspicere non perdiscere, is taken by May en, op. cit., p. 10, as another 
instance of the same construction, dependent upon the following 
vincam. But it is impossible to dissociate vincam from the succeed- 
ing esse. It seems simplest to adopt Jordan's conjecture quor. 


QUO, ETC. 2 

The traditional explanation of the mood in these clauses repre- 
sents them as a kind of indirect discourse. This view seems reason- 
ably borne out by the following material in Early Latin. 

1. With quod. Examples are scanty. I have noted only Asin. 
47, cur miniter tibi propterea quod me non scientem feceris ? 582, 
hospitem inclamavit quod noluisset ; Merc. 573, pervorse facis. : : 
quodne amem ? (Scaliger's conjecture for ames of the MSS) ; Trag. 
Incert. (Ribb.) 123, rite Thesprotum pudet Atrei quod ipse aTantalo 
ducat genus (Bothe ductat; Keil ducit) ; Afran. 165, retinebitur vir 

1 See Mayen, De particulis quod, quia, etc. pro ace. cum infin., 1889, p. 7ff. 

2 Zimmermann, Gebrauch der Konjunktionem quod und quia im alteren Latein. 

Clauses Introduced by Quod, Quia, etc. 319 

praegnatem quod non exigat ; Stich. Arg. 1, senex castigat filias 
quod eae viros tain perse verent sustinere. 

2. With quia : Cas. 677, tibi infesta est. : : quarn ob rem ? : : quia 
se des Olympioni ; M. G. 387, laeta visa (sum) quia venisset ; Rud. 
537, iure optimo me | lavisse f arbitror. : : qui ? : : quia (qui A) 
auderem tecum in navem ascendere ; Pacuv. 369, insanam esse aiunt 
quia incerta sit ; caecam esse iterant, quia nil cernat : brutam quia 
nequeat internoscere ; Baceh. 735, me loquitur nee recte quia reddidi 
et quia non fraudaverim; M. G. 1035, me inclamato quia te volgem ; 
860, excruciabit me quia non dixerim; Cist. 101, iratast quia non 
redierim; Merc. 924, iratast quia scortum adduxerit ; M. G. 696, 
quia nil abstulerit suscenset; And. 376, si suscenseat quia non det; 
Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 13, 6, quia is locus montibus praestet, Prae- 
neste oppido nomen dedit; Calp. Piso (Peter), 82, 9, Tarquinium, 
quia Tarquinio nomine esset, metuere (hist, infin.). 

The gma-clause is at times the apodosis (in the potential subjunc- 
tive) of a conditional sentence with suppressed protasis, e.g. Capt. 
705, cur es ausus mentiri ? : : quia vera obessent illi ; Most. 1107, 
quia nil illi quaesti siet ; Pseud. 318, cur non ? : : quia pol qua 
opera credam tibi, una opera alligem canem agninis lactibus ; 338. 

3. With non quo, quam quo, non quod, non quia, quin : H. T. 554, 
neque eo dico quo quicquam senserim ; Eun. 96, non quo quemquam 
plus amem aut plus diligam, eo feci ; Amph. 913, non quo crederem ; 
Ad. 825, non quo dissimilis res sit; 270, adsentandi magis quam 
quo habeam ; And. Alter Ex. 7, non idcirco quod nollem ; Asin. 844, 
non eo quia cupiam ; Trin. 341, non eo haec dico quin velim. 

Non quo is usually explained as for non eo quod by attraction ; cf . 
neque eo quo in H. T. 554. 


As a rule all subordinate clauses in the indefinite 2d singular 
stand in the subjunctive. Exceptions occur, e.g. Capt. 89, nisi qui 
colaphos perpeti potes (Cam. potis) ; Men. 87, quern adservare recte 
voles, esca vinciri decet ; 93, facile adservabis dum eo vinclo vin- 
cies; 1 Merc. 146, quoin uti voles (following a subjunctive); True. 
1 But in 95 we have the subjunctive. 

320 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

768, si stimulos pugnis caedis, manibus plus dolet ; Cato, Agr. 3, 3, 
si sustuleris et parata erunt ; 157, 16, auribus si parum audies ; 158, 
1, si yis ; l Asin. 242, si adfers, turn patent ; Appius Claudius 
(Baehrens, Frag. 2), amicum quom vides, obliviscere miserias. 

In Wolfflin's Archiv fur Lateinische Lexikographie und Gramma- 
tik, ix, p. 19 f., Blase lias denied that the subjunctive is regularly 
employed in subordinate clauses in the indefinite 2d singular. 2 But 
barring Cato and a mere handful of examples, of which those above 
cited are the chief, if not all, the subjunctive is always used in clauses 
of this type in Early Latin. Probably the same is true also for the 
classical language, though I have not accurate data for this period. 

The origin of the usage under discussion is obscure. Possibly it 
is to be sought in expressions like the following : Am ph. 705, si 
obsequare, una resolvas plaga ; Cas. 562, quom aspicias tristem, frugi 
censeas ; Pseud. 137, quos quom ferias, tibi plus noceas ; Trin. 496, 
ubi mortuos sis, ita sis ut nomen cluet ; 1052, quom repetas, inimi- 
cum amicum invenias beneficio tuo ; Phor. 265, unum quom noris, 
omnis noris ; Lucil. 783, quantum habeas tantum ipse sies tantique 
habearis ; etc. In these the subjunctive in the main clause is the 
weakened potential discussed at p. 200 f. In the dependent clause 
the subjunctive is naturally explained as due to attraction. Expres- 
sions of the type cited are proverbial in character, and must have been 
very frequent in daily use. It is possible that the regular use of the 
subjunctive in subordinate clauses in the indefinite 2d singular may 
be an extension of its employment in these proverbial expressions. 

Examples : 

a) In conditional sentences (35) : Amph. 703, si velis advorsarier . 
705 ; Aul. 380, si quid prodegeris, egere liceat nisi peperceris ; Capt. 
202, animo si bono utare, adiuvat ; 222 ; Men. 103 ; Poen. 213, si forte 
occeperis; Trin. 347; And. 637; Phor. 688; Ad. 28; Cato, Agr. 37, 1, 
si cariosam terrain tractes ; 95, 2 ; Frag. ( Jord.), p. 83, 5 ; si exer- 
ceas ; si non exerceas ; si nihil exerceas. 

b) With relative pronouns (24) : M. G-. 675, quod sumas ; 947 ; 
Most. 73, quod cupide petas ; 782, quicquid imponas vehunt ; Pers. 

1 In Cato the indicative is the regular mood in these clauses ; the subjunctive is 
rare. Frank (Attraction of Mood in Early Latin, p. 16, footnote) regards the de Agr. 
as addressed to a definite person, but that is inconsistent with the occasional occur- 
rence of expressions like 95, 2, si in tecto coquas, excandescet. 

2 Similarly Hoffmann, Modus in Lateinischen Zeitsatze, p. 27 ff. 

Indefinite Second Singular. 321 

114, mane quod occeperis ; H. T. 570, animum advortunt quae non 
censeas; Eun. 761; Phor. 758; Lucil. 783, quantum habeas tantum 
ipse sies tantique habearis ; Cato, Agr. 37, 3, palos quos in tecto 
posueris; 157, 13, quos diffidas sanos facere, facies. 

c) With qnom (27) : Bacch. 540, quom censeas esse amicos, reperiun- 
tur falsi; Cas. 562, quom adspicias ; Epid. 624, quom adspexeris ; 718, 
quom mali messim metas ; M. G. 820, quom stertas ; 1150, quom es- 
cenderis ; And. 856, quom videas ; H. T. 806 ; Eun. 659 ; Phor. 26o y 
unum quom noris, omnis noris ; quom noris is the reading of A. 
Donat. read cognoris; Cato, Agr. 61, 1, quom ares, bene ares; Erag. 
(Jord.), 28, 8, ventus quom loquare buccam implet. 

d) With ubi (21): Bacch. 63, ubi periclum facias, aculeata sunt.; 
Cas. 370, ita fit, ubi quid tanto opere expetas ; Cist. 25 ; Merc. 839 ; 
Pers. 435, ubi quid credideris ; H. T. 1059, ubi cognoris ; Eun. 813. 

e) With quando (3) : Aul. 506, quando veneris ; Merc. 118, tres 
res agendae sunt, quando unani acceperis ; Ad. 206. 

f) With quam (4) : Men. 95, quam magis extendas, tanto astrin- 
gunt artius ; Pseud. 1175, quam velis, pernix homost (P quamvis) ; 
Trin. 530 ; Aul. 236, quam ad probos propinquitate proxume te ad- 
iunxeris, tam optumumst. 

g) With prius quam and ante quam (3): True. 51, prius quam 
dederis; Ad. 583, prius quam ad portam venias, apud lacum est 
pistrilla ; Cato, capit. 143. 

h) With ut and quasi (= sicut) (3): And. 65, ita ut facillume 
laudem in venias et amicos pares; Pseud. 578, omnes res perinde 
sunt ut agas ; H. T. 1058. 

i) With dum (3) : Men. 90, dum praebeas ; Pseud. 629, dum ster- 
nuas, res erit soluta; Ace. 395. 

j) With other particles (4): Trin. 679, datur tametsi petas; Aul. 
505, quoquo venias, plus plaustrorum videas ; And. Alt. Ex. 16, quo- 
curnque adplicaveris ; Men. 228, maior (voluptas) quasi (' than if) 
adveniens terram videas quae fuerit tua. 

322 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses, 


Quam, Potius Quam. 

Quam is a coordinate conjunction and as such is properly followed 
by the same construction after it as before it. Hence where a sub- 
junctive precedes, it is only natural that one should follow. Thus : 

1. Independent subjunctives. 

a) Jussives : A sin. 797, tu labellurn abstergeas potius quam 
savium faciat ; Pseud. 237, praevortaris quam animo auscultes ; 
Rud. 1042, fiat potius quam pugnem ; Ad. 248, potius quam litis 
sequar meum mihi reddatur. 

b) Optatives : Aul. 50, me adaxint ad suspendium potius quam 
serviam ; Poen. 746, suspendant se quam creduam. 

c) Potentials : Bacch. 488, plus viderem quam deceret ; 1040, 
dem potius aurum quam ilium corrumpi sinam ; Hec. 424, aufugerim 
potius quam redeam ; Ad. 108, sineres potius quam faceret. 

2. Dependent subjunctives. 

a) Purpose clauses : Cas. 254, ut detur potius quam des ; Men. 
332, ut te abducat potius quam adstes foris; And. 162, magis id 
adeo mihi ut incommodet quam ut obsequatur gnato. 

b) Substantive clauses : Bacch. 103, operam dabo ut accipias 
potius quam eas ; Bacch. 1047, Ephesi mavellem f oret quam reve- 
nisset ; Cas. 252, iam domuisti animum potius ut quod vir velit facias 
quam advorsere ? Men. 725, non patiar quin vidua vivam quam 
perferam ; Merc. 486, visne earn ? : : qui (sc. volo eas) potius quam 
voles ? Most. 706, exsequi certa rest ut abeam potius quam domi 
cubem ; Poen. 1150, facias quam memores mavelim; Pseud. 209, 
taceas malo quam tacere dicas; H. T. 928, abeat potius malo quam 
ad inopiam redigat patrem. 

c) Descriptive clauses : Trin. 1057, ego sum insipientior qui curem 
potius quam tutelam geram. 

d) Eesult clauses : Hec. 532, adeon pervicaci esse animo ut puerum 
praeoptares perire potius quam esset nupta ! 

e) After infinitives. After the analogy of expressions like taceas 

Potius Quam-Clauses. 323 

malo quam tacere dicas (Pseud. 209), it was natural to employ the 
subjunctive following quam after infinitives dependent on malo, as 
Asin. 121, moriri sese mavolet quam non reddat; 811, emori me 
malim quam non indicem; Aul. 12, inopem optavit potius eum 
relinquere quam. commonstraret ; 661, emortuom me malim quam 
non dem ; Bacch. 512, quam fiat propensior mendicnm malim vin- 
cere; Cas. 112, me suspendio quam tu potior fias satiust mortuom; 
And. 798, optavit parere ditias potius quam honeste viveret ; Capt. 
687, potius me caput periculo, praeoptavisse quam is periret, 
ponere ; M. G. 1115, te verba facere volo. : : qui (vis) potius quam 
tute adeas, tuam rem tute agas ; similarly Men. 1058, certissimumst 
mepte potius fieri servom quam te emittam ; 831, quid mihi meliust 
quam med adsimulem insanire ; Eud. 328, quid mihi meliust quam 
opperiar erum. 

The foregoing 36 examples represent the bulk of the subjunctive 
<^am-clauses (barring those with ante quam and prius quam) in 
Early Latin. In all of them the conditions were such as to call 
for a perfectly natural and legitimate use of the subjunctive. The 
frequency of quam, potius quam, in sentences of the types above 
enumerated naturally tended to bring about the employment of the 
subjunctive after potius quam and quam (in the sense of ( rather 
than ? ) even in cases where its presence is not otherwise easily 
explicable. In other words, we have a purely formal extension. 
This explanation, I believe, applies to the following passages : 
Asin. 816, suspendam potius me quam haec auferas; M. G. 311, 
mussitabo potius quam inteream ; Most. 816b ; 846 ; 884 ; Poen. 
922 ; Pseud. 554, potius quam id non fiat, dabo ; Phor. 408, potius 
quam litis secter, accipe; True. 442; And. 396, inveniet inopem 
potius quam sinat ; Eun. 174 ; 176 ; Ad. 498, animam relinquam 
potius quam illas deseram ; Lucil. 208, uxorem caedam potius quam 
castrem me; Pseud. 367, occidi potius quam cibum praehiberem; 
H. T. 443; Stick 449; H. T. 1010; Ad. 240; Cornelia, Peter, p. 
222, 14, uti nunc sunt, erunt potius quam res publica profligetur 
atque pereat ; Aul. 436, quid diximus secus quam velles. This last, 
of course, may be the apodosis of a contrary-to-fact condition (' than 
you would wish, if it were possible'); cf. Kaev. Com. 33, votis me 
multat meis, quod praeter quam mihi vellem audibam hoc eminus. 

324 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

"With Antequam and Priusquam. 1 

In the case of the ante quam and prius gwam-clauses, we see the 
same forces at work as in case of the potius gwara-clauses. Quam 
was originally just as much a coordinate conjunction in ante quam 
and prius quam as in potius quam, satius quam, etc. Hence it was 
naturally followed by the same mood after it as before it. Thus it 
occurs with: 

a) Jussives: Cato, Agr. 117, antequam nigrae fiant contundantur ; 
143, 2, focum purum, prius quam cubitum eat, habeat, i.e. < she's to 
clean her hearth before she's to go to bed ' ; Cap. 143. 

b) Optatives : Rud. 494, utinam te prius quam vidissem, perbiteres; 
Enn. Trag. 170, utinam mortem oppetam prius quam evenat, i.e. <I 
prefer death rather than the occurrence.' 

c) Potentials : M. G. 690, prius quam galli cantent (audias) ; Trin. 
886, concubium sit prius quam perveneris; Ad. 397, non prius 
olfecissem quam coeperet ? Ad. 525, prius nox oppressisset quam 
revorti posset. 

d) Purpose clauses : Epid. 277, ut praestines prius quam veniat ; 
Men. 845, adducam qui tollant prius quam f aciat ; Rud. 455 ; True. 
523 ; Cato, Agr. 113, 1. 

e) Substantive clauses : Aul. 154, in rem hoc tuam est. : : ut 
quidem emoriar prius quam ducam ; Merc. 1015, dicamus censeo 
prius quam abeamus, i.e. <I urge speaking before leaving;' Enn. 
751, cave ne, prius quam hanc a me accipias, amittas. 

f) Protasis : And. 376, si suscenseat prius quam perspexerit. 

g) Indefinite 2d singular, or by attraction after imperatives. 

1) ante quam, Cato, Agr. 50, 2, haec facito ante quam incipias ; 
53, seorsum condito ante quam ocinum des ; 113, 1, sinito dies xv 
ante quam oblinas. 

2) prius quam, Cato. Agr. 47, prius resicato quam ad arborem 

ponas ; 134, 1, (Cereri sacrum face) prius quam hasce fruges condas ; 

157, 3, prius quam id imponas, lavato ; Merc. 601, prius quam recipias 

anhelitum, eloquere ; Pseud. 241a, at (revoca) prius quam abeat; Rud. 

626, praetorquete prius collum quam pervenat ; True. 51, prius quam 

unum dederis, centum quae poscat parat; Ad. 583, prius quam ad 

i See Hullihen, Antequam and Priusquam, 1903; Hale, Anticipatory Subjunctive 
in Greek and Latin, 1894. 

Antequam and Prius quam Clauses. 325 

portam venias apud lacum est pistrilla ; Enn. Trag. 239, inspice hoc 
facinus prius quam fiat ; Cato, Agr. 53, prius quam semen maturum 
siet seeato. 

The first seven examples from Cato may be explained either as 
the result of attraction or as illustrations of the indefinite 2d singular, 
though Cato does not systematically use the subjunctive either after 
the imperative or in the case of the indefinite 2d singular ; see 
p. 320, and cf. Agr. 134, 1, prius quam messim facies, oportet ; 113, 1, 
hoc facito pridie quam vinum infundere voles. 

For attraction after the imperative, see p. 311. 

h) After the infinitive, as the result of attraction, or as a subordi- 
nate clause in oratio obliqua, Amph. 533, exire prius quam lucescat 
volo ; Bacch. 174, ne me sinas senem prius convenire quam sodalem 
viderim ; 1030 ; Merc. 167 ; M. G. 886 ; 1095 ; Poen. 321 ; 1267, nolo 
ego istunc enicari prius quam te mi desponderit ; True. 901, manus 
votat prius quam habeat quicquam credere ; H. T. 478, si intellexerit 
prius proditurum te tuam vitam quam amittas filium ; 816, me istuc 
ex te prius audisse gaudeo quam argentum haberes ; Hec. 145, narrat 
se ante quam earn uxorem duxisset domum sperasse eas tolerare posse 

In all of the above passages the subjunctive is to be explained as 
in case of the gwam-clauses with potius above considered, i.e. we have 
a regular and normal use of the mood. If it were necessary, one 
might easily go further and explain the subjunctive with, prius quam 
as after the analogy of the subjunctive with potius quam, for prius 
quam is very frequently used in the sense of < rather than ? instead 
of in the strictly temporal sense. 

The following three examples are the only ones remaining of prius 
quam with the subjunctive in Early Latin. They are all easily 
explained as following the analogy of the uses above enumerated: 
Amph. 240, animam omittunt prius quam loco demigrent; Aul. 336, 
ad ravim poscam prius quam quicquam detur ; Merc. 559, prius con- 
veniam quam redeam. 

Hale (Anticipatory Subjunctive in Greek and Latin, p. 84 ff. ; Hale- 
Buck, Latin Grammar, § 507, 4) refers the subjunctive with ante 
quam, potius quam, prius quam to an l anticipatory ? origin ; but the 
considerations I have set forth above make his explanation seem to 

326 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

me less probable. An idea of expectation is, of course, often present 
in these clauses, but that is a necessary result of the meanings of the 
particles introducing them. The positive evidence in favor of the 
existence of an anticipatory subjunctive in Latin is too slight to 
warrant its recognition here. 


The origin of the employment of the subjunctive in indirect ques- 
tions in Latin is not easy to determine. Originally these questions 
stood in the indicative, and that mood is still common in Early 
Latin ; see p. 120 ff . 

Two factors may have contributed to the establishment of the 
subjunctive. The first of these is the deliberative subjunctive. No 
less than 200 out of the 1150 indirect questions in Early Latin are 
merely dependent deliberatives, e.g. Am ph. 1056, quid agam neseio; 
Bacch. 745, loquere quid scribam ; Merc. 247, quid facerem cura 
cruciabar; M. G-. 1034, scin quid facias; Pers. 148, praecipe quid 
fabuletur, ubi se natam praedicet. The great frequency of this type 
may have ultimately led to the employment of the subjunctive also 
in indirect questions of fact, like Cure. 279, auscultemus quid agat ; 
Bud. 628, quid sit expedi. 

The second factor which may have contributed to the use of the 
subjunctive is the potential use. In the case of several verbs the 
transition from the notion of future contingency denoted by the po- 
tential subjunctive to the notion of actuality is simple and natural. 
This is particularly true of malle, velle, decere, opus est, usus est, 
posse, and occasionally of others. Thus in Capt. 270, servosne esse 
mavelis, memora mihi, ' would you prefer ? passes almost inevitably 
into 'do you prefer,' i.e. 'whether you (actually) prefer.' So in the 
following: Cas. 280, eloquere quid velis ; Amph. 201, quo modo et 
verbis quibus deceat fabularier, volo meditarier; Men. 384, miror 
quid hoc sit negoti (cf. Asin. 407, quid hoc sit negoti, practically in 
the sense of the indicative, along with the other similar examples 
of the same use cited in the same connection, p. 200 f.) ; M. G. 1097, 
dixi quo pacto id fieri possit ; Stich. 57, quaeramus quid usus sit; 

1 Becker, De syntaxi interrogationum obliquarum apud priscos scriptores Latinos, 
in Studemund's Studien, i, 165 ff. ; Delbriick, Vergl. Synt. iii, p. 277 ff. 

Indirect Questions. 327 

61, meministis quod opus siet ; 573 ; And. 287, nee clam te est quam 
inutiles sient; 811, quam sit facile, commonent; Eud. 1329, elo- 
quere quantum postules. In all these the potential notion is so 
slight that the idea of actuality easily develops. Precisely the same 
is true in English. When I say, ' Tell me what you would prefer/ 
I virtually mean, < Tell me what you (do) prefer.' So very likely in 
Latin. Without any effort to gather complete material under this 
head, I have noted 75 instances of indirect questions of fact which 
may have developed from potentials. In addition to the instances 
above cited cf. : Am ph. 172; Asin. 88; Bacch. 1133; Capt. 376 
Cas. 287; 353; Cist. 57 ; Cure. 456 ; Merc. 7 ; Poen. 92; 574; 856 
1008; Pseud. 278; Eud. 991; And. 50; 234; 536; 537; Eun. 662 
Hec. 465. Certain types are particularly common, e.g. expressions 
like eloquere quid veils ; stio quid velis; nescio quid velis. The great 
frequency of these makes it an easy step to expressions like scio quid 
sit; nescio quid sit, from which the idiom would easily extend itself. 
Analogy, it should be noted, works quite as much under the influence 
of a single speech- form in very frequent use, as under the influence 
of a number of similar forms. This is just as true of syntax as of 
inflections. Hence it is not methodically extreme to suggest that 
the nescio quid velis type may have been largely responsible for the 
development of the potential question into the question of fact. 

Delbruck, Vergl. Synt. iii, p. 278, recognizes the share of the de- 
liberative in the origin of the indirect question, but sees no possi- 
bility of a potential origin for any of these questions. 

Classification of Indirect Questions. 

Indirect Questions are introduced by over twenty-five different 
particles. The broadest division is into word questions or pronomi- 
nal questions on the one hand, and sentence questions on the 

Both classes again fall into questions of fact (Delbrlick's 1 1st '- 
Fragen) and dependent deliberatives (Delbriick's ( Soil , -Fragen,= our 
' Subjunctive of Duty or Fitness'). The word questions (1025) are 
much commoner than the sentence questions (125) ; while the ques- 
tions of fact (950) are much commoner than dependent deliberatives 

328 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

I shall classify the material accordingly under two general classes : 
Word (or Pronominal) Questions, and Sentence Questions. Under 
each I shall give illustrations of questions of fact and of dependent 

I. Word (or Pronominal) Questions. 

These are introduced by various pronouns and particles : 

1 . Most frequently (over 600 instances) by quis, quid, ecquis, 1 numquis. 2 

a) Questions of fact (500) : e.g. Amph. 270, observabo quam 
rem agat; Capt. 509, rogo Philocratem ecquis noverit; Poen. 97, 
neque scit quid siet; 558, meminisse quo modo dederis. 

b) Dependent deliberatives (130) : Amph. 1056, quid agam nes- 
cio ; Bacch. 745, loquere quid scribam ; Epid. 317, ei praemonstra- 
bitur quo pacto flat; Pers. 148, praecipe quid fabuletur; Pseud. 675, 
quo modo agerem, instituta habebam ; Ace. 628, quid capias vide. 

In a number of cases quod is used for quid in indirect questions, 
viz. Cist. 707, scit quod velit; Merc. 628, tibi in manu est quod 
credas ; ego quod dicam mihi in manu est ; M. G. 624, si quidem te 
quod faxis pudet; Poen. 547, narravi vobis quod opus sit; Kud. 
1355, meus arbitratus est lingua quod iuret mea ; Stich. 61, meminis- 
tis quod opus sit; H. T. 108; 210; 221; Ace. 432; Cato, Agr. 89, 
consideres quod satis sit. 

This employment of quod for quid is usually explained as a relic 
of the period when quid and quod were both used indiscriminately 
as relative and interrogative. Cf. Frank, Semantics of Modal Con- 
struction, Classical Philology, ii, p. 174, footnote, who cites Cato, 
Agr. 148, quid volet, faciet. Cf. also Aul. 348, quippe qui ubi quid 
surripias nil est. 

2. Introduced by ut (82). 

a) Questions of fact (60) : Amph. 136, memorat legiones ut 
fugaverit; Trin. 657, scibam ut deceret; Eun. 438, scin ut urat; 
Hec. 784, audisti ut sit. 

b) Dependent deliberatives (22) : Aul. 550, ut te accusem medi- 
tabar ; Phor. 181, neque uti devitem scio ; Cato, Agr. Cap. 168, luxum 
ut excantes. 

1 Bacch. 1084a; Most. 907; Rud. 125; Stich. 366; Eun. 519; Ad. 877. 

2 Poen. 1008. 

Indirect Questions. 329 

3. Introduced by quam (49). These are all questions of fact. 
Examples: Amph. 354, nescio quam tu familiaris sis; And. 812, 
quam sit facile commonent; Phor. 161, exspecto quam mox veniat; 
Cato, Agr. 30, cogitato quam longa siet. 

4. Introduced by ubi (42) . 

a) Questions of fact (40) : Amph. 336, non ubi sim scio; Cist. 
502, quaere ubi sit; H. T. 820, scin ubi sit? Ad. 527, rogitabit ubi 
fuer im. 

b) Dependent deliberatives : Cas. 875, neque ubi lateam scio. 

5. Introduced by quantus (31). These are all questions of fact, 
Amph. 508, experior quanti facias uxorem; Pseud. 305, paenitet 
quanto f uerit usui ; H. T. 747, haud scit quantum damnum adportet. 

6. Introduced by quo (31). 

a) Questions of fact (25) : Bacch. 144, quo e veniat dis in manu 
est; Cist. 169, observavit quo deferat; And. 399, vide quo me 

b) Dependent deliberatives (6) : Cas. 875, neque quo fugiam 
scio ; H. T. 946, ut quo se vortat nesciat. 

7. Introduced by qui ('how/ 'why') (29). 

a) Questions of fact (14) : Men. 337, miror qui noverit ; H. T. 362, 
demiror qui potueris. 

b) Dependent deliberatives : Most. 715, repperi qui ducerem ; 
Poen. 1208, qui sperem hauscio ; Hec. 103, qui credam, die. 

8. Introduced by quin (' why not 7 ) (16). These are all questions 
of fact, Amph. 750, mirum quin te advorsus dicat ; Pers. 433, mirum 
quin tibi ego crederem ; Merc. 204 ; Most. 493 ; Trin. 495 ; 967. 

9. Introduced by unde (22). 

a) Questions of fact (15) : Cure. 596, rogat unde habeam ; 608, 
dixi unde pervenerit ; Merc. 221 ; And. 750. 

b) Dependent deliberatives (7) : Cist. 671, neque unde auxilium 
expetam habeo ; Most. 430, speculabor unde sarcinam imponam ; 
Pseud. 106. 

10. Introduced by uter (12). 

a) Questions of fact (10) : Rud. 752, contende uter sit verior ; H. 
T. 326, utram malis vide ; Hec. 465. 

b) Dependent deliberatives (2) : Trin. 227, neque cogitatumst 
utrum expetessam ; Poen. 1242. 

330 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

11. Introduced by qualis (12). These are all questions of fact, 
Bacch. 786, nosces ilium qualis sit ; Pseud. 275, scimus te qualis sis ; 
And. 503 ; Eun. 758. 

12. Introduced by quot (9). These are all questions of fact, Pers. 
187, si scis quot habeas digitos ; Ad. 555, scire quot mihi sint 
dornini; Lucil. 688, quot fuerint. 

13. Introduced by cur (quor) (4). These are all questions of fact, 
Capt. 1007, scio cur adsimules ; Cas. 517, cur amem me castigare, id 
ponito ad conpenclium ; Merc. 504; H. T. 1. 

14. Introduced by quam ob rem (12). These are all questions of 
fact, Amph. 17, quam ob rem venerim dicam; H. T. 943, rogitato 
quam ob rem f aciam ; 944 ; Hec. 205. 

15. Introduced by quapropter: Amph. 86, mirari quapropter curet; 
Pseud. 498. 

16. Introduced by quare; Eun. 11, causam dicere quare sit. 

17. Introduced by quoia (4) : Merc. 200, rogitare quoia esset; 721; 
Rud. 478 ; Hec. 7b. 

18. Introduced by quoiatis (3): Men. 341, rogitant quoiatis sit; 
Poen. 993 ; Ace. 625. 

19. Introduced by qua (3). 

a) Question of fact, Ad. 689, num prospexti qua fieret. 

b) Dependent deliberatives, Rud. 812, donee qua abeat nesciat; 

20. Introduced by quotumus: Pseud. 962, quotumas aedis dixerit 
id incerto scio. 

21. Introduced by ad quo: Afran. 278, scire ad quo (= in quantum, 
Nonius, 76, 8) te expediat loqui. 

22. Indirect questions depending on rogasne or some similar word 
understood (15) : Men. 299, ubi me novisti ? : : ubi ego te noverim ? 
Epid. 215, id qui animum advorterim ? Trin. 1050 ; And. 191, hoc 
quod sit? Eun. 74; 523; 651; Phor. 122; 685; Hec. 716; Ad. 84; 

In the two following we have -ne as well as quid, Eun. 191, egone 
quid velim ? Cas. 117, egone quid f aciam ? 

These questions are usually questions of fact. Exceptions are 
Ad. 733, quid facias ? Eun. 74 ; Hec. 716, which are dependent 
deliberatives. Cf. Eun. 837, where rogas is expressed. 

Indirect Questions. 331 

23. Introduced by quoad Q how soon') : Phor. 462, percontatum ibo 
quoad se recipiat. 

24. Introduced by quorsum (6) : And. 176, verebar quorsum eva- 
deret ; 126 ; 264 ; Eun. 155 ; 305 ; Hec. 193. 

25. Introduced by si (28). Si has secondarily developed an inter- 
rogative force in certain connections. The way in which this arose, 
may be seen in a sentence like Trin. 148, ausculto si quid dicas ; 
originally : * I am listening, in case you should say 1 anything ; y 
hence, ' whether you say.' Examples : 

exspecto (7): Trin. 98, exspecto si quid dicas; Asin. 528; Cas. 
540 ; Poen. 12 ; 1392, exspectabam si qui eas adsereret ; Eun. 594 ; 
Enn. Ann. 234. 

opperior : True. 692, opperiar si veniat. 

maneo : Cas. 542, si se arcessas manet. 

miror : And. 175, mirabar si sic abiret ; Phor. 490 ; cf. Amph. 621. 

Other verbs : perscrutor, Aul. 620 ; persequor, Cist. 183 ; operam 
do, Cist. 185 ; Trin. 119 ; quaero, Vid. 56 ; observo, Vid. 68 ; per- 
contor, Merc. 623 ; venio, M. G. 1158; initio, Stich. 151 ; adeo, Hec. 
429 ; viso, Ad. 549 ; obtueor, Most. 838 ; manum porrigo, Pseud. 
1148 ; commercor, Capt. 27 ; 100. 

In a dissertation, Ecqui fuerit si particulae in interrogando Latino 
usus, and in Eevue de Philologie, xxxii, p. 47 ff., Felix Gaffiot 
denies this interrogative use of si for Plautus, as he does in fact for 
all authors prior to Livy. The examples above cited, he interprets 
as purely conditional in character. But his attitude toward these 
clauses seems quite unnecessary, and even to involve unnatural in- 

II. Sentence Questions. 

These may be either single or double. Delbrtick (Yergl. Synt. iii, 
p. 279) expresses the conviction that in sentence questions we have 
only questions of fact. But such is not the case. One of his own 
examples, Pseud. 709, die utrum Spemne an Salutem te salutem, is 
a dependent deliberative. There are many others, especially in 
double questions. Examples will be given below. 

1 For the origin of si with the present subjunctive in conditional sentences, see 
p. 272. 

332 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 


1. Introduced by -ne (19) : Amph. 715, valuissesne exquisivi; Capt. 
917, percontabatur possentne; Most. 166, contempla satin me de- 
ceat; Trin. 70, rogitas tene obiurigem; Ad. 12, pernoscite furtumne 
existimetis ; Cato, Agr. 1, 4; 2, 1. 

2. Introduced by utrum (4) : Hec. 618, tua refert nil, utrum illaec 
f ecerit ; 326 ; Liv. And. 19, utrum virginem oraret ; M. G. 515, where 
some read the indicative. 

3. Introduced by an (20): M. G. 448, qui scio an 1 ista non sit; 
Poen. 557, itane temptas an sciamus ; Pseud. 432, fors fuat an istaec 
dicta sint ; Phor. 774, haud scio an mutet ; 717, forsitan nos reiciat, 
originally, ' it may be a chance whether ; ' so also Eun. 197. In 
the last two passages Eleckeisen reads fors fuat an. Ace. 121, for- 
tasse an sit quod vos hie non mertet metus ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 23, 
8, haut scio an partim eorum fuerint. 

4. Introduced by num. (3) : C. Gracchus (Meyer), p. 234, rogavit 
num ferrent ; Eun. 663, vise num sit ; Pers. 77, visam num afuerit 

5. Without introductory particle : Stich. 33, vivant, valeant neque 
participant nos; True. 779, volo scire fateamini ; H. T. 454, sit 
rogas ? Ad. 619, rogito quid agat, iam partus adsiet. 

Most of the foregoing examples are questions of fact. Liv. And. 19, 
utrum virginem oraret, is a dependent deliberative. The only other 
examples of the same kind among these single indirect questions 
are : Epid. 543, hauscio an congrediar ; Most. 783, hauscio an 


These assume a great variety of forms. While questions of fact 
are much commoner than dependent deliberatives, yet the latter 
occur with some frequency. They are indicated in the following 
lists by (del.). Examples: 

1. Type . . . an (16): Men. 722, quid id ad me tu possis an sis 
abitura ? Eud. 580, eluas tu an exungare ciccum non interduim ; 

1 For a discussion of the question whether an in this and similar questions arises 
by ellipsis, see Morris, The Sentence Question in Plautus and Terence (Amer. Jour. 
Phil, ix, x); also below, p. 485 f. 

Indirect Questions. 333 

Aiil. 730, incertumst abeam an maneam, an adeam, an fugiam 
(del.) ; Cure. 463 (del.) ; Bud. 213 (del.) ; 1106 ; Stich. 311 ; Enn. 
Trag. 387. 

2. Type . . . anne : Amph. 173, nee aequom anne iniquom imperet 
cogitabit ; Eun. 554, rogitando sanus sim anne insaniam. 

3. Type -ne . . . an (13) : Pers. 33, haec dies summa est sitne 
libera an serviat (del.) ; Capt. 270 ; And. 209, nee certumst Pamphi- 
lumne adiutem an auscultem seni ; 535 ; Ad. 4 ; 241 ; Men. 574 ; 
Trin. 102; 210; Enn. Ann. 143, 4. 

4. Type -ne . . . anne (4) : Lucil. 472, suspendatne se anne (an in, 
codd.) gladium ineumbat ; Cas. 515 ; Hec. 122. 

5. Type utrum . . . an (6) : M. G. 345, scire ntrum viderim an 
illic faciat ; Stich. 76, ratiocinor utrum lacessam an temptem (del.) ; 
Cist. 679 ; Men. 386 ; 887 (del.). 

6. Type utrum . . . anne: Bacch. 576, percontarier utrum aurum 
reddat anne eat. 

7. Type . . . -an . . . -ne: Stich. 203, perquirunt alienum aes 
cogat an pararit praedium uxorin sit reddenda dos. 

8. Type . . . -ne. Enn. Ann. 55^ 8, certabant urbem Eomam 
Eemoramne vocarent (del.). 

9. Type utrum -ne . . . an (5) : Capt. 268, utrum strictimne ad- 
tonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem (del.) ; Trin. 306 ; Pseud. 709 
(del.) ; Eun. 721 ; Bacch. 500. 

10. Type . . . an non (5) : Merc. 592, redeat an non nescio ; M. 
G. 1265; 1336; Lucil. 885; Aul. 431. 

11. Type utrum . . . -ne . . . an non: Most. 681, videndumst 
utrum eae velintne an non velint. 

12. Type ne . . necne (8) : Cas. 572, percontarier adsitne ei 
animus necne adsit; Epid. 322, sitne quid necne sit scire cupio; 
Bacch. 400; Capt. 283; 711, cogitato emitteresne necne; Pseud. 451. 

13. Type . . . necne (10) : Epid. 461, non scio molestum necne 
sit; Merc. 457; M. G. 1051; Trin. 850; Cato, Agr. 108, 1. 

14. Type -ne . . . an non (5) : Capt. 455, dubitavi emeremne an 
non emerem (del.) ; Merc. 452, qui scio venirene earn velit an non 
velit; Phor. 445, vise redieritne an non ; Hec. 508; 558. 

15. Type ne . . . ne: Hec. 664, videte remissan opus sit, redductan 

334 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Other Logical Types of Indirect Questions. 
Most of the indirect questions embraced in the foregoing classifi- 
cation have been either questions of fact or dependent deliberatives. 
Only rarely do we find anything else. I have noted only Capt. 711, 
cogitato qualem gratiam haberes, emitteresne necne ; And. 258, quid 
facerem, si quis roget ; Bud. 379, rogas quid faceret. The first two 
of these are apodoses of contrary-to-fact conditions; the last is a 
subjunctive of unfulfilled past obligation ('what he ought to have 

Future Time in Indirect Questions. 

In some 68 instances of indirect questions of fact we find that 
the indirect question refers to time relatively future to that of the 
governing verb. 1 Examples : Epid. 320, exspectando quo modo dicta 
evenant ; Merc. 110, timeo quid sit ; M. G. 299, quid me f uat nescio ; 
Trin. 594 ; Poen. 1249 ; H. T. 188 ; Men. 704, provisam quam mox 
redeat ; M. G. 304, insidias dabo quam mox recipiat ; 793 ; Phor. 
161, exspecto quam mox veniat ; 606 ; Asin. 51, quo evadat sum in 
metu; Bacch. 144; Most. 132; 395; Poen. 172; Pseud. 1102; True. 
549; Phor. Ill; 608; Hec. 279, nee qui eveniat scio; Trin. 98, 
exspecto si quid dicas, along with the 28 other indirect questions 
introduced by si; Pers. 716, qui scio an adseratur ; H. T. 999, haud 
scio an ducat ; Phor. 774, haud scio an mutet animum ; Enn. Trag. 
387 ; Bacch. 575, percontaris utrum aurum reddat anne eat ; Merc. 
592, redeat an non nescio; Lucil. 885. 

Sometimes we have a future from a past standpoint, e.g. Poen. 
1392, exspectabam si qui adsereret; Enn. Ann. 234, exspectans si 
mussaret; And. 175, mirabar si sic abiret; Phor. 490, mirabar si 

It will be noted that the future force of the dependent verb is 
assisted by the context in most of the examples cited. Thus the 
governing verb often necessarily involves the idea of futurity, e.g. 
timeo, exspecto, proviso, metuo. So also the employment of mox, and 
even the dependent verb itself, e.g. evado, evenio, moriar, abeo, redeo, 
etc. The future force of indirect questions with si is, of course, 
perfectly natural, as these by origin are simply l should '-' would ' 
conditions that have become indirect questions. 

1 Naturally all dependent deliberatives refer to the future. 

Indirect Questions. 335 

Hale sees in some of the foregoing examples a survival of the 
Indo-European pure future use of the subjunctive; see his Anticipa- 
tory Subjunctive in Greek and Latin, p. 34. 

Futurity is also occasionally denoted by the periphrastic conju- 
gation, e.g. Bacch, 722, nescio quid acturus sim ; True. 338, praedi- 
vinant quo die essuri sint ; H. T. 569, metui quid futurum esset ; 
Hec. 614, incertus sum quid facturus sim; M. G. 1183; Pers. 296; 
Poen. 817 ; Pseud. 567 ; Merc. 572 ; Epid. 377, scitis ut f utura sint ; 
Hec. 567, ut laturus sit non clam me est; Men. 722, quid id ad me 
tu possis an sis abitura. 

Prolepsis in Indirect Questions. 

Prolepsis occurs repeatedly in indirect questions, e.g. Amph. 485, 
hoc scitis quid siet; 524, ut scires rem ut gessissem ; 662; Men. 
519, rem ut sit gesta eloquar ; Trin. 698, scio te ut animata sis ; Hec. 
567 ; Capt. 376, qui me quid agitem, omnem rem perferat ; Cas. 637, 
time hoc quid sit ; Epid. 575, hanc quae sit nescio ; Men. 881, ne me 
indicetis qua platea aufugerim; M. G. 925 ; Poen. 1121; Pseud. 1212; 
Pud. 1068; Trin. 960; H. T. 662; Eun. 374; 1035; Hec. 350; Eun. 
566', Cure. 590; Trin. 873; Ace. 19; Cato, Agr. 116. The phenom- 
enon is commonest in the case of word (or pronominal) questions, 
especially questions of fact introduced by quis. I have noted only 
one instance of prolepsis in dependent deliberatives, viz. Stat. 80, 
quos neque ut adprendas neque uti dimittas scias. Among sen- 
tence questions prolepsis is rare. I have noted only Cato, Agr. 
108, 1, vinum experiri duraturum sit necne. 

"Words and Phrases Followed by the Subjunctive of Indirect 


The subjunctive of indirect question is used with the following 
verbs and phrases. Where no numeral follows, but a single instance 
has been noted. 

accipio (2), Trin. 10; admiror, H. T. 827; agitur, H. T. 476: 
ambiguom, Trin. 594 ; animadvorto, Cato, Agr. 1, 2 ; appello, Poen 
992; arbitror, Aul. 607; arbitratus, Eud. 1355; arbiter (2), M. G, 
158; attendo (2), Phor. 24; audio (7), Poen. 1404; aucupo, M. G 
995 ; ausculto (3), Bacch. 404 ; calleo, H. T. 548 ; canto, Eud. 478 ; 

336 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

castigo, Cas. 517; cf. Pliny, Epp. iii, 5, 16, repeto me correptum cur 
ambularein; caveo, Cato, Agr. 5, 6; cedo (5), H. T. 662 ; celebrescit, 
Ace. 274 ; celo, Pers. 221 ; certo (2), Enn. Ann. 55, 8 ; certus, And 
209 ; circumspecto, Eun. 602 ; cogito (19), Amph. 173 ; cognosco (6) 
Cato, Agr. 157, 1 ; commemoro (3), Phor. 715 ; commoneo, And. 812 
comparo (3), Pers. 325 ; Ace. 309 (here compare* = aestimo) ; com- 
monstro (2), Cure. 590; confero, Pseud. 278; conicio (2), Cas. 95 
confingo, Phor. 130; coniectura (2), Poen. 91; considero (3), Cato, 
Agr. 89; conspicio, Trin. 636; consulo (8), Men. 700; consulto 
M. G. 1097: contemplor, Most. 172; contendo, Bud. 752; euro (3), 
Pud. 1068 ; cura (4), Men. 761 ; decerno, Pacuv. 35 ; declaro, H. T. 
284; delico (= indico), Ace. 1; demiror (5), H. T. 362; depugno 
Trin. 305; demonstro (2), Aul. 716; dico (55), Pseud. 709; disco. 
H. T. 971; disputo, Most. 88; do, Lucil. 581; dubito (2), Capt. 455 
ecfor, Pacuv. 292; eloquor (8), Merc. 504; em, And. 619; enarro, Ad, 
365; enodo (2), Pacuv. 283 ; erogito, Capt. 952 ; erro, M. G. 793; evado, 
Eun. 517 ; existimo, Cato, Agr. Prooem. 1 ; expedio (3), Pud. 628 
experior (18), Stich. 311 ; explano, Phor. 380 ; explico, Ace. 342 ; ex- 
quiro (5), Trin. 217 ; exspecto (7, apart from exspecto si; see above 
p. 331), Phor. 606; fallo, Epid. 239; falsus, Men. 755; fateor (2), Plaut. 
Frag. 41 ; habeo, 'know' (4), Cist. 671 ; haereo, Eun. 848 ; ignarus, Hec. 
676; impero, And. 490; incertus (13), H. T. 188; indico (3), Pers. 590; 
inspicio, Cure. 427; instituo, Pseud. 675; intellego (7), M. G. 867; 
interest (2), And. 794; interpretor, Pacuv. 151; interrogo (3), Poen. 
731 ; interviso, Stich. 456 ; invenio (10), Merc. 254 ; investigo (2), 
Aul. 714; iudex, Ad. 4; lego, Cato, Frag. (Jord.), p. 37, 4; liquet, 
Trin. 227; loquor (7), Merc. 892; meditor (5), Amph. 201; memini (5), 
Phor. 224 ; memoro (2), Capt, 270 ; metuo (4), True. 809 ; metus (4), 
Trin. 1003 ; miror (17), And. 750 ; mirus (5), Stich. 674 ; moneo, Ad. 
429 ; monstro (2), Epid. 536 ; narro (10), Hec. 145 ; nescio (86), Merc. 
457; nosco (19), Trin. 92; nuntio, Amph. 195; obliviscor, H. T. 849; 
obnitor (obnoxius, al), Poen. 518 ; observo (14), Men. 789 ; occulto, 
Pers. 222 ; ostendo (6), H. T. 155 ; paenitet (7), True. 533 ; participo, 
Stich. 33; percontor (8), Bacch. 575; perdoceo, Poen. 195; perdisco, 
True. 23 ; perfero, Capt. 376 ; periclitor, Amph. 689 ; periclum (4), 
Hec. 766 ; ratio (4), Capt. 23 ; pernosco (4), Ad. 13 ; perquiro (2), 
Stich. 202; perscrutor, Aul. 620; perspicio (3), Stich. 604; pertineo, 

Indirect Questions. 337 

Rud. 1106 ; pervestigo, Merc. 935 ; potestas, Trin. 822 ; praecipio, 
Pers. 148 ; praedico, Poen. 1245 ; praedivino, True. 338 ; praemon- 
stro (2), Trin. 854 ; profero, Lucil. 511 ; proloquor (2), Capt. 5 ; pro- 
spicio (2), Ad. 690 ; proviso (3), Ad. 890 ; pudet, M. G. 624 ; puto, 
H. T. 485 ; quaero (20), H. T. 60S ; quaerito (3), Men. 575 ; ratiocinor 
(2), Stich. 76; ratus, Ace. 432; recordor, Men. 972; refert (7), Cure. 
396 ; reperio, Hec. 288 ; renuntio, Hec. 508 ; reputo (3), Trin. 256 ; 
requiro, Most. Arg. 9; rescisco (4), And. 967; reviso (2), Eun. 
923 ; rogito (22), Men. 115 ; rogo (25), Hec. 558 ; scio (220), Capt. 
283 ; scisco (3), Pacuv. 214 ; sciscitor, Eun. 548 ; scribo, Enn. 
Trag. 173 ; sentio (5), Trin. 639 ; servo, Lucil. 715 ; specto (?), Cas. 
871 ; speculor (2), Most. 430 ; spes, Merc. 363 ; summa, Pers. 33 ; 
suspicio, Merc. 213 ; tempto (4), M. G. 1336 ; teneo (4), Pseud. 217 ; 
timeo (12), And. 264; turbo, Epid. 312; vereor (3), And. 176; video 
(51), Most. 681 ; viso (12), Pers. 77. 

We find indirect questions also with the following phrases : quid 
ad me (attinet), (3), Epid. 76 ; Men. 722 ; animum advorto (3), Trin. 
842; animum attendo, And. 8; certiorem (certius) facio (4), Cas. 
353 ; Men. 763a ; certamen cernitur, Bacch. 399 ; specimen cernitur, 
Most. 132 ; clam (me) est (4), Hec. 261 ; facio indicium (3), Hec. 
546; in manu est (3), Bacch. 144; insidias do (2), M. G. 304; sub- 
duco ratiunculam (2), Capt. 193 ; in mentem venit (3), Merc. 294 ; 
tanti facio, Merc. 7 ; nili facere, M. G. 168 ; parvi pendo (3), H. T. 
715 ; flocci facio (2), Trin. 992 ; flocci aestimo, Plaut. Erag. Fab. Inc. 
132 ; floccum interdo, Trin. 994 ; ciccum interdo, Pud. 580 ; dolum 
confingo, Capt. 36; consilium capio, Eun. 613; quid est, Lucil. 729; 
in memoria habeo, Poen. 1279 ; in pectore foveo, Bacch. 1076 ; pectus 
pungit aculeus, Trin. 1000 ; da pignus, Poen. 1242 ; fors fuat Pseud. 
432 ; f ortasse, Ace. 122 ; in te est, M. G. 1051 ; operam do, And. 307 ; 
causam dico, Eun. 11 ; quid adfers, Phor. 1025 ; in pauca verba 
confero, Asin. 88 ; praeceptis onero, Pseud. 764 ; viam do, Epid. 

Besides this the indirect question may depend upon the general 
force of the context, particularly in chapter headings, etc. e.g. Cato, 
Agr. caps. 31 ; 34 ; 47 ; 50, and often. 

338 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 


In a number of passages in Plautus and Terence we find the sub- 
junctive with quod, 'although.' The origin of this use is obscure. 
The instances are the following: Asin. 757, quod amicum nominet; 
758, quod ilia arnica amatorem praedicet; 761, quod dicat allatam 
epistulam ; 796, quod simulet ; Aul. 91, quod quispiam ignem quae- 
rat, exstingui volo; Cas. 127, quod postules ; so Rud. 1150; M. G. 
162, quod dicat ; And. 395, quod speres ; H. T. 671, quod sperem ; 
Eun. 785, sane quod tibi nunc vir videatur, nebulo est ; Eun. 1064, 
quod dicas ; Ad. 162, quod purges. 


This use is not ordinarily recognized as occurring before Caesar, 
and it did not become prevalent till the period of Silver Latin ; yet 
the following examples seem to belong under this head : 1 Bacch. 431, 
ubi revenisses domum; Scipio, p. 210 (Meyer), ubi agros optime 
cultos atque villas expolitissimas vidisset, in his regionibus murum 
statuere avebat; Bacch. 433, quom librum legeres; 433, si imam 
peccavisses syllabam; Enn. Ann. 189, hostem qui feriet mihi erit 
Karthaginiensis, quisquis siet, cuiatis siet, 194, 1, quocum libenter 
mensam partit, magnam quom partem diei trivisset. 

As regards the origin of the usage, I follow Hale, who (Cum-Con- 
structions, p. 237 if. ; Cum-Konstruktionen, p. 293 ff.) explains it as 
an extension of the narrative c?m-clause. 

Several French scholars, notably Bonnet (Revue de Phil, viii, 
p. 75 ff.), Lejay (Revue Critique, 1899, p. 272 f.), Gaffiot (Revue de 
Phil, xxvii, p. 164 ff . ; xxxii, p. 59 ff.), deny the usage here recog- 
nized, and explain the subjunctive as causal. 


A. After the Indicative. 

I. After Principal Tenses. 

1. After the present indicative. 3 Examples of the regular sequence 

1 Cf. Lindskog, De enuntiatis condicionalibus, p. 115; Dittmar, Studien z. Lat. 
Moduslehre, p. 147 ff. 

2 Wirtzfeld, De consecutione temporum Plautina et Terentiana, 1888. 

3 The historical present is treated later. 

Sequence of Tenses. 339 

Present subjunctive : Men. 840, imperat ut ego illic oculos exuram ; 
Eun. 969, necesse est huic ut subveniam ; Most. 203, vix comprimor 
quin involem illi ; Pseud. 276, (voltis) ut male sit mihi ; And. 269, 
hoe timet ne deseras se; Amph. 527, ne legio persentiscat, clam 
redeundum est mihi. After novi : M. G. 452, neque vos qui sitis 
homines, novi neque scio j And. 503. 

Perfect subjunctive: Trin. 543, nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses 
vixerit; Merc. 380, non vereor ne illam me amare hie potuerit 
resciscere ; Trin. 207, sciunt id quod in aurem rex reginae dixerit ; 
And. 35, ut semper apud me iusta et clemens fuerit servitus scis ; 
Eun. 81, vereor ne illud gravius tulerit ; H. T. 554, neque eo nunc 
dico quo quicquam ilium senserim. With novi and memini : Aul. 
777, si me novisti minus genere quo sim natus ; Phor. 224, memini- 
stin olim ut fuerit vostra oratio ? * 

A few exceptions to the prevailing usage are found: Merc. 633, 
quid f aceres, men rogas ? Rud. 379, rogas quid f aceres ? And. 963, 
nemost quern mallem omnium ; Eun. 561, nemost quern ego nunciam 
magis cuperem videre quam te. Here the dependent subjunctive 
naturally takes the same tense as in the independent usage from 
which the dependent use is derived. Less clear are Trin. 992, di 
me perdant si te flocci facio an periisses prius ; Phor. 382, proinde 
expiscare quasi non nosses ; 388, quasi non nosses, temptatum ad- 
venis; Eud. 218, quam minus servio quam si serva forem nata. 
With mirum quin: Most. 493, mirum quin vigilant! diceret; Pers. 
433, mirum quin tibi ego crederem ; Trin. 967, mirum quin ab avo 
eius acciperem. With mirum quin, it has been suggested that pos- 
sibly erat is to be supplied. 

2. After the future and future perfect indicative. 

Present: Aul. 802, ibo intro ut quid huius verum sit sciam ; Cure. 
45, minus formidabo ne excidat ; And. 313, impetrabo ut aliquot 
nuptiis proclat dies ; Men. 270, cavero ne tu delinquas neve ego irascar 
tibi ; H. T. 108, ego quod me in te sit facere dignum invenero. 

Perfect: Epid. 371, parabo aliquam dolosam fidicinam, nummo 
conducta quae sit. 

3. After the present perfect indicative. 

Present: e.g. Amph. 177, qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit 
pater servitutis ; 869 ; Asin. 36, modo pol percepi quid istuc sit loci ; 

340 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

Bacch. 370; Capt. 493, qui concilium iniere quo nos victu et vita 
prohibeant ; Cure. 371 ; Epid. 285, repperi haec te qui abscedat 
suspicio; 354; 442; Men. 788; Merc. 344; 669; M. G. 1269, in- 
duxi in animum ne oderim ; 1056 ; 1097 ; Pers. 81 ; 325 ; 621 ; 
Poen. 547; 774; Rud. 611; True. 776; And. 892, adducti qui illam 
hinc civem dicant ; Eun. 286 ; 544 ; Phor. 522, repperi qui det neque 
lacrumet; 602; 647; 889; Ad. 54, ea ne me celet, consuefeei filium; 
477; 653 

Perfect: Cure. 608, dixi tibi unde ad me pervenerit; M. G. 867, 
modo intellexi quam rem mulier gesserit ; H. T. 848, iamne oblitus 
es inter nos quid sit dictum ? 1007 ; Eun. 420, quo pacto Khodium 
tetigerim in convivio numquam tibi dixi ? Phor. 577 ; Hec. 582 ; 607. 

Exceptions. We have the following instances of the present per- 
fect followed by secondary tenses : Cas. 680, hue missa sum tibi ut 
dicerem ; Aul. 133, eo foras ted hue seduxi ut tuam rem tecum hie 
loquerer; Men. 784, quotieus edixi tibi ut caveres; Most. 715, hoc 
habet : repperi qui senem ducerem, quo dolo a me dolorem procul 
pellerem ; where Wirtzf eld, op. cit. p. 23, takes repperi as an histor- 
ical perfect. In Asin. 7, we have an ellipsis: quid processerim 
dicam ; (processi) ut sciretis nomen huius f abulae. 

II. After Historical Tenses. 

1. After the imperfect indicative. Examples: 

Imperfect : Amph. 1096, aedes totae conf ulgebant tuae quasi essent 
aureae ; Trin. 657, scibam ut esse me deceret ; Bacch. 676, an nescibas 
quam eius modi homini raro tempus se daret? Eun. 155, at ego 
nescibam quorsum tu ires. 

Pluperfect : Pseud. 912, nimis metuebam ne abisses. 

By a kind of repraesentatio we find the present subjunctive after 
the imperfect indicative in Aul. 550, ut te accusem meditabar. The 
perfect : Enn. Ann. 55 , 12, exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat, 
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni. 

2. After the historical perfect. Examples : 

Imperfect : Amph. 914, periclitatus sum animum tuom quid f aceres 
et quo pacto id ferre induceres ; Cure. 684, metui ne mi hodie apud 
praetor em solveret ; Trin. 1142 ; And. 582, non nihil veritus sum ne 

Sequence of Tenses. 341 

Pluperfect: Eun. 517, ubi friget, hue evasit quam pridem pater 
mibi et mater niortui essent; Ad. 368, mihi, qui id dedissem con- 
silium, egit gratias. 

Perfect. Occasionally we find the perfect subjunctive used as an 
historical tense after the historical perfect indicative: Amph. 431, 
factumst ut ebiberim; M. G. 262, non potuit quin partieipaverit ; 
Pers. 583; H. T. 279, hie sciri potuit quo studio vitam exegerit; 
Hec. 2, intervenit calamitas ut neque spectari potuerit. Combined 
with the pluperfect : Amph. 745, audivi ut urbem expugnavisses 
regemque occideris. 

By repraesentatio we often find the present subjunctive after the 
historical perfect, e.g. Amph. 115, adsimulavit se quasi Amphitruo 
siet; 195, me a portu pater praemisit ut haec nuntiem; Bacch. 533, 
postremo impetravi ut ne quid ei suscenseat; 589, me misit miles 
ad earn Cleomachus vel ut Philippos reddat aureos vel ut hinc eat ; 
Cas. 55, armigerum adlegavit qui poscat ; Cist. 168, opservavit quo 
deferat ; 567, amplexa est genua plorans, opsecrans ne deserat se ; 
636 ; Men. 1057, praecucurristi ut quae fecisti infitias eas ; M. Gr. 
1238, istuc curavi ut opinione illius pulcrior sis ; Poen. 554, didicimus 
tecum una ut respondere possimus tibi; Trin. 15, dedi ei meam 
gnatam quicum una aetatem exigat; H. T. 527, quasi non ditiis 
abundet gnatus eius profugit inopia ; Eun. 96 ; Hec. 683, hue ani- 
mum ut adiungas tuom quam longum spatium dedi ! Afran. 316, se 
obsequentem dixi praebeat ; Capt. Arg. 7, ut amittatur fecit. Pres- 
ent and imperfect combined: Bacch. 352, feci ut auri quantum vellet 
sumeret, quantum lubeat ut reddat patri; 689, patrem exoravi : : 
nempe ergo hoc ut faceret ? : : immo tibi ne noceat neu quid suscen- 
seat ; Paulus (Meyer), p. 201, id egerunt ut vos potius meum casum 
doleatis quam ego vostro ingemiscerem. 

3. After the pluperfect indicative : Men. 592, plus minus quam opus 
fuerat dicto dixeram ut earn sponsio controversiam finiret ; Pseud. 
549, rus ut irem iam heri constitueram ; Stich. 652, Sticho mandave- 
ram salutem ei ut nuntiaret. 

4. After the historical present. — Here the present is somewhat 
more frequent than the imperfect, notably so in Plautus. 

Present, e.g. Amph. 205, Telobois iubet sententiam ut dicant suam ; 
240, animum omittunt priusquam loco demigrent ; 1069, accurro, ut 

342 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

sciscam quid velit ; 1093, invocat deos ut sibi auxilium ferant; Capt. 
509, rogo Philocratem ecquis hominuin noverit ; 511, orat obsecratque 
eum sibi videre ut liceat ; Cure. 330, argenti rogo uti f aciat copiam • 
355, provocat me in aleam ut ludam; 361; 339; 340; M. G. 116 
inscendo ut rem N aupactum ad erum nuntiem ; Most. 1049, capio 
consilium ut senatum congerronum convocem; End. 605, ago cum 
ilia ne quid noceat meis popularibus ; And. 355, percurro ad forum 
ut dicam haec tibi ; Eun. 578, edicit ne vir quisquam ad earn acleat ; 
519 ; Phor. 93, rogamus quid sit. 

Imperfect, e.g. Amph. 214, respondent se et suos tutari posse, pro- 
inde uti exercitus deducerent ; 225 ; Bacch. 290, quoniam sentio quae 
res gereretur ; 301 ; Merc. 90, servom una mittit, quasi uti milii f oret 
custos ; Phor. 592, venio ad hominem ut dicerem ; H. T. 651, detralio 
et eum dico ut una cum puella exponeret ; 492 ; Eun. 581, paucae 
quae circum illam essent manent; Ad. 868, dum studeo illis ut quam 
plurimum facerem ; 365 ; Enn. Trag. 101, corpus contemplatur unde 
corporaret volnus ; Ann. 194, 9, quocum multa volutat grandia clam- 
que palamque, pudenter qui dicta loqui tacereve posset ; Euhem. 515, 
postulat ut ipse regnaret ; Pacuv. 331, imperat ut deducerem ; Ace. 
229, hortatur me ut meos manderem natos ; Turp. 81, hortatur quam 
primum proficisceret ; Pers. Arg. 3, emeret suadet. 

Pluperfect : Cato, Erag. (Jord.), 37, 3, deinde quae ego pro re pub- 
lica fecissem leguntur. 

The perfect is found in Stich. 366, dum percontor portitores ecquae 
navis venerit. 

B. After the Subjunctive. 

1. Present subjunctive. — The present subjunctive is regularly fol- 
lowed by the present and perfect, e.g. And. 687, orare iussit, si se 
ames, iam ut ad sese venias. This is true even when the present is 
used in the sense of the imperfect to denote a condition contrary to 
fact, as Aul. 523, compellarem ilium ni metuam ne desinat. Exam- 
ples of the perfect following the present subjunctive are : Bacch. 
1012, nihil est illorum quin ego illi dixerim ; Cato, Agr. 5, 2, consi- 
deret quae dominus imperaverit ; 5, 3, quod dominus crediderit, exigat. 

Exceptions: In And. 258 y quid facerem, si quis me roget, the im- 
perfect of a contrary-to-fact apodosis is naturally unchanged after 
the present. Old law in Gellius v, 19, ut tarn films siet quam si ex 

Sequence of Tenses. 343 

eo natus esset; in Poen. 1251, si id fieri possit, ne indigna indignis 
darent, possit should perhaps be posset, which very likely was the 
reading of A. Recent editors read possit. 

2. Imperfect subjunctive. — This is regularly followed by either the 
imperfect or pluperfect. Examples : 

Imperfect: Asin 674, si hoc meum esset, hodie numquam me orares 
quin darem ; Bacch. 554, ni ita esset, tecum orarem ut ei quod posses 
mali facere faceres ; Poen. 1066, viverent vellem ; 681, videre vos 
vellem quom huic aurum darem ; M. G. 731, qui lepide ingeniatus 
esset, vitam ei longinquam clarent ; qui improbi essent, is adimerent 
animam cito ; And. 606, utinam mihi esset aliquid hie quo nunc me 
praecipitem darem; Eun. 91, utinam esset mihi pars aequa amoris 
tecum ac pariter fieret, ut hoc tibi doleret ; Hec. 756. 

Pluperfect: Amph. 524, ex me primo ut prima scires rem ut ges- 
sissem ; Ad. 217, metuisti, si nunc de tuo iure concessisses paululum, 
adulescenti esses morigeratus, ne non tibi istuc f aeneraret ? Phor. 
901, verebamini ne non id facerem quod recepissem semel ? 

Exceptions : By repraesentatio we sometimes find the present used 
after the imperfect subjunctive, e.g. Cas. 681, missa sum tibi ut 
dicerem ab ea uti caveas ; Poen. 602, liberum ut commostraremus 
locum, ubi ames, potes, pergraecere ; Pseud. 3, si fieri possem certior, 
ere, quae miseriae te macerent (macerant P) ; 796 ; Rud. 129, qui 
adornaret ut rem divinam f aciat ; Eun. 933 ; Hec. 547, adeon me esse 
pervicacem, quoi mater siem, ut eo essem animo; Ad. 316, capite 
pronum in terra statuerem, ut cerebro dispergat viam. Different is 
M. G. 963, egone ut ad te ab libertina esse auderem internuntius, 
qui ingenuis satis responsare nequeas! 

The perfect is found after the imperfect subjunctive in Amph. 22o y 
convgnit, victi utri sint, urbem uti dederent ; And. 967, more homi- 
num evenit ut quod sim nanctus mali prius rescisceres. Here the 
use of the perfect is doubtless influenced by the present convenit and 
the present perfect evenit. Other examples are : Asin. 443, nam re- 
tineri ut quod sit locatum ecficeret ; 589, quoi rei ? : : qui verberarem 
asinos si forte occeperint clamare ; H. T. 7, nunc qui scripserit 
et quoia Graeca sit, id dicerem. 

3. After the perfect subjunctive. Examples of regular sequence are 
Cas. 304, metuo ne Olympionem mea uxor exoraverit ne Casinam 

344 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

ducat ; Capt. 395, dicito quo pacto convenerit . . . ut eum redimat 
et remittat. 

4. After the pluperfect subjunctive, e.g. Ad. 396, non sex totis mensi- 
bus prius olfecissem quam ille quiequam coeperet ? 

C. After the Imperative. 

Examples of regular sequence are : Asm. 740, patrem hue orato 

ut veniat; Capt. 395, dicito quo pacto convenerit; of irregular 

sequence: Phor. 380, explana mihi qui cognatum me sibi esse 

D. After the Infinitive. 

1. After the present infinitive. 

a) The governing verb is in the present (not the historical present) ; 
the dependent tenses are the present and perfect, e.g. Asin. 149, ne 
id quidem me dignum esse existumat quern adeat ; Eun. 1010, non 
possum satis narrare quos ludos praebueris intus. In Hec. 547, 
adeon me esse pervicacem censes, ut eo essem animo, si ex usu 
esset nostro hoc matrimonium, we naturally have the imperfect in 
the dependent condition contrary-to-fact. Stich. 253, quid igitur 
me volt ? : : tritici modios decern rogare opinor te volt. : : 
mene ut ab se petam ? : : immo ut tu aps te mutuom nobis dares, 
sometimes cited as an exception to the general principle, is hardly 
such. Ut dares depends logically upon voluit rogare to be supplied 
in thought. Similarly in Persa, 118, memini et scio et te me orare 
et mihi non esse quod darem, esse (dependent upon memini under- 
stood) really refers to the past and so takes secondary sequence ; so 
H. T. 626. 

b) The governing verb is in the future or perfect ; the dependent 
subjunctive stands in the present or perfect, e.g. Amph. 1015, pergam 
exquirere quis fuerit ; And. 196, si sensero hodie quiequam in his 
nuptiis fallaciae conari, quo riant minus. 

c) The governing verb is in the present perfect, followed by pri- 
mary tenses, e.g. Amph. 64, me orare a vobis iussit ut conquistores 
eant per totam caveam; Bacch. 575, nunc me ire iussit ad earn et 
percontarier utrum aurum reddat anne eat secum ; 1082 ; Capt. 267, 
ne id quidem, involucre inicere, voluit, vestem ut ne inquinet; 

Sequence of Tenses. 345 

M. G. 971; H. T. 147. A secondary tense follows in Amph. 41, 
quid ego memorem ut alios vidi com mem or are quae bona vobis 
fecissent ? 

d) The governing verb is in the imperfect ; the dependent subjunc- 
tive is in the imperfect or pluperfect, e.g. Pseud. 492, nolebam ex me 
raorem progigni malum, erum ut suom servos criminaret aput erum ; 
Phor. 89, hie solebamus fere plerumque earn opperiri, dum inde iret 
domum; Trin. 212, hunc aiebant Calliclem indignum civitate ac sese 
vivere, bonis qui hunc adulescentem evortisset suis. 

e) The governing verb is in the historical perfect, regularly fol- 
lowed by the imperfect or pluperfect, e.g. Amph. 880, Mercurium 
iussi me continuo sequi, siquid vellem imperare; Eun. 870. But 
several instances occur in which by repraesentatio we find the pres- 
ent or perfect : Bacch. 287, occepi opservare eos quamnam rem gerant ; 
Men. 453 ; Merc. 419, dixit se redhibere, si non placeat ; Pseud. 597, 
miles dixit septumas esse a porta aedis, ubi illic habitet ; And. 687, 
orare iussit ut venias ; Phor. 6, qui nusquam scripsit cervam orare 
ut subveniat sibi ; Hec. 345, intro iit videre quid agat. Perfect : 
Amph. 1122, dixit eum filium suom esse, qui illos angues vieerit; 
Poen. 1056, qui potuit fieri ut Carthagini gnatus sis ? 

f) The governing verb is in the pluperfect : Cure. 425, id te orare 
iusserat profecto ut faceres; Eun. 699, nee quis esset umquam 
audieram dicier. 

g) The governing verb is the historical present. Here, just as 
when the clause depends directly upon the historical present itself, 
we have sometimes the present, sometimes the imperfect, e.g. Cist. 
183, iubet ilium persequi si qua queat reperire ; Asin. 343, me infit 
percontarier ecquem filium Stratonis noverim ; Hec. 116; Aul. 318, 
infit postulare uti liceret ; Eud. 601, videtur rogare scalas ut darem 
utendas ; Trin. 14, quoniam ei, qui me aleret, nil video esse relicui ; 
H. T. 304. 

h) The infinitive is independent. 

Exclamatory infinitive : Hec. 532, adeon pervicaci esse animo ut 
puerum praeoptares perire. 

Historical infinitive : Merc. 240, mihi videri mirum ut illaec 
capra uxoris simiai dotem ambederit ; Lucil. 9, 4, uni se studio omnes 
dedere verba dare ut caute possint ; 9, 7. 

346 Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses. 

2. After the future infinitive. 

a) The governing verb is in the present and we have primary 
sequence, e.g. Asin. 528, an te id exspectare oportet, si quis promittat 
tibi te facturum divitem si inoriatur mater sua ? M. G. 1414, iuro 
me nociturum nemini quod ego hie hodie vapularim. 

b) The governing verb is in the present perfect, e.g. Hec. 586, ego 
rus abituram hinc esse certo decrevi, ne mea praesentia obstet neu 
causa restet. 

c) The governing verb is past and we have secondary sequence, e.g. 
Asin. 363, interminatust nos futuros ulmeos, ni hodie Argyrippo 
viginti essent argenti minae : Amph. fr. xi, quid minitabas te facturum 
si istas pepulissem fores ? 

But we sometimes have primary sequence, e.g. Bacch. 856, dixin 
tibi ego ilium te inventurum qualis sit ? Epid. 414, te pro filio 
facturum dixit rem esse divinam domi, quia Thebis salvos redierit. 
The future infinitive following the historical present may take either 
primary or secondary sequence, e.g. Amph. 205, Telobois iubet sen- 
tentiam ut dicant suam : si sine vi et sine bello velint rapta tradere, 
si quae asportassent redderent, se exercitum reducturum, abituros 
agro Argivos. 

3. After the perfect infinitive. 

a) The governing verb is present or future. Here the sequence 
is regularly determined by the equivalence of the infinitive, being 
primary if the infinitive is equivalent to a present perfect indicative, 
secondary if it is equivalent to a historical perfect. 

Equivalent to a present perfect, e.g. Bacch. 864, faxo se haud 
dicat nactam quern derideat ; Merc. 253, capram illam suspicor iam 
me invenisse, quae sit aut quid voluerit ; And. 407, orationem sperat 
invenisse se qui differat te. Yet the imperfect occurs Eun. 931, me 
repperisse quo modo adulescentulus meretricum ingenia posset nos- 

Equivalent to a historical perfect : Epid. 508, Stratippoclem aiunt 
curavisse ut fieret libera ; Aul. 470, credo illi mercedem gallo polli- 
citos coquos, si id palam fecisset ; And. 699. But at times even 
after a perfect infinitive equivalent to a historical perfect we find 
primary sequence, M. G-. 1167, (dicas) hinc senem abs te abisse, 
postquam feceris divortium; Stich. 555, videlicet parcum fuisse 

Sequence of Tenses. 347 

ilium senem, qui id dixerit; 557; And. 664, nisi mihi decs satis scio 
fuisse iratos qui auscultaverim ; Phor. 875. 

b) The governing verb is past. Here the sequence is regularly- 
secondary, e.g. Bacch. 342, censebam me ecfugisse a vita mari- 
tuma, ne navigarem tandem hoc aetatis ; Merc. 67, atque extemplo 
inde, ut spectavisset peplum, rus rusum confestim exigi solitum 
a patre. 



The Latin forms designated as present and future imperatives are 
an Indo-European inheritance. The present was used to convey 
commands which the speaker meant to be executed forthwith ; the 
future to convey commands whose execution was conceived of as 
beginning at a later time. Prohibitions were not expressed in Indo- 
European by the imperative, but by the injunctive with me, as 
inferred from the state of affairs existing in Vedic Sanskrit. Ma 
with the imperative is not found until the classical Sanskrit. The 
Greek imperative with frf, therefore, and the Latin imperative with 
ne are not Indo-European inheritances, but innovations, though both 
appear in the earliest literature. 



Doubled forms are occasionally found, especially where the emo- 
tion is prominent, e.g. Amph. 765, mane, mane, obsecro ; so Merc. 
928 ; H. T. 613 ; 736 ; Ad. 264 ; Pseud. 1284, aperite, aperite ; 
H. T. 349, redi, redi; Eun. 834, tace, tace, obsecro; Enn. Trag. 323, 
eloquere, eloquere ; so age, age and agite, agite, which have become 
virtual interjections, e.g. And. 310, age, age; Turp. 207, age, age, 
egredere ; Lucil. 585, agite, agite. 

Plurals are sometimes accompanied by aliquis in partitive apposi- 
tion, e.g. Men. 674, Erotium aliquis evocate; Merc. 131, aperite 

1 V. Loch, Zum Gebrauch des Imperativus bei Plautus; J. Stahl, De natura atque 
usu imperativi apud Terentium ; KUhner, Ausf uhrliche Gramm. der lat. Sprache, ii, 
p. 149 ff. ; Delbruck, Vergl. Syntax, ii, p. 357 ff.; Blase, Historische Gramm. der lat. 
Sprache, iii, p. 234 ff. ; Riemann, Revue de Phil, x, p. 161 ff. 


Present Imperative. 349 

aliquis ; 910, aliquis hue foras exite ; Pseud. 1284, me adesse aliquis 
nuntiate ; Ad. 634, aperite aliquis. 

The present imperative is also often accompanied by reinforcing 
or modifying expressions, as amabo, obsecro, quaeso, sis, sodes, age, 
dum, etc. Thus : 

a) With amabo, very frequently in Plautus, in Terence but five 
times, e.g. As. 894, dice, amabo ; Bacch. 100, propera, amabo ; Men. 
541, amabo, inauris da mihi; Merc. 503, amabo ecastor, eloquere; 
Most. 166, contempla, amabo; Stich. 752, date mi locum, amabo; 
True. 128, amabo, sine me ire ; Eun. 130, hoc agite, amabo ; 150, id, 
amabo, adiuta me ; 534, f ac, amabo ; 663, vise, amabo ; 838. 

b) With obsecro, very common in both Plautus and Terence, e.g. 
Cure. 308, eloquere, obsecro hercle ; eloquere, te obsecro ; Bacch. 
1026, da mihi cc nummos, te obsecro ; Kud. 867, obsecro te, subveni 
mi; As. 29, die, obsecro; And. 861, audi, obsecro; H. T. 403, retine 
me, obsecro ; Eun. 421, narra, obsecro ; 685, tace, obsecro. 

c) With quaeso, very frequent, e.g. Am ph. 500, imperce, quaeso ; 
Bacch. 744, quaeso, cave ; Capt. 570, quaeso hercle, agedum adspice 
ad me ; Men. 498, responde, quaeso ; Pseud. 547, da operam, quaeso ; 
And. 8, quaeso, animum adtendite ; H. T. 163, quaeso, tibi parce ; 
971, prius, quaeso, disce ; Eun. 562, narra istuc, quaeso ; Phor. 141 ; 350. 

d) With oro. I have noted only Capt. 1021, sed tu die, oro ; Eun. 
912, move te, oro. 

e) With sis, very frequently, e.g. Amph. 585, sequere, sis ; As. 
677, cape hoc sis ; Merc. 169, hoc sis vide ; Most. 892, tace sis ; Pers. 
316, abi atque cave sis ; H. T. 374, vide sis ; Eun. 311, fac sis ; 799, 
cave sis ; Phor. 59, abi sis ; Ad. 766. 

f) Sultis, rare, not in Terence, e.g. As. 1, hoc agite, sultis; Stich. 
220, adeste sultis. 

g) With sodes (especially in Terence), e.g. Bacch. 837, die sodes 
mihi; Men. 545, da sodes abs te; Pers. 318, emitte sodes; And. 85, 
die sodes ; H. T. 459, aliud lenius sodes vide ; 770, die sodes ; Phor. 
103, due nos sodes ; 741, concede hinc paulum sodes ; Hec. 358 ; 841 ; 
Ad. 517. 

h) With age, agite, agedum, age sis, very frequent in the drama- 
tists, e.g. : 

1) age, agite : Amph. 551, age tu i secundum ; 750, age me hue 

350 The Imperative. 

aspice; As. 488, age ambula ergo; Pers. 38, age fi benignus, 
subveni; Ad. 937, age da veniam filio. Age may be used even with 
the plural, e.g. Cas. 488, age modo fabricamini ; M. G. 928, age igitur 
intro abite ; Rud. 808, age adsistite ; Stich. 221, age licemini. Plural : 
Cure. 88, agite, bibite festivae fores ; M. G. 1198, agite, abscedite. 

2) agedum, e.g. Amph. 783, agedum solve earn cistulam ; 1081, 
agedum expedi ; As. 746, agedum istum ostende ; M. G. 345, agedum 
ergo face ; Eun. 694, agedum hoc mi expedi ; H. T. 310. 

3) age sis : As. 679, age sis hunc delude ; Capt. 179, age sis roga 

i) With modo: frequently, e.g. Amph. 674, sequere hac me modo; 
As. 145, me specta modo ; Capt. 167, habe modo bonum aniniura ; 
Cure. 655, sine modo ; Men. 148, die modo ; Most. 326, cave modo ; 
Eun. 65, sine modo; 724, id modo die; Phor. 670, tu modo fac ut 
ducat ; Ad. 280, tace modo ; 538, fuge modo intro. 

j) With -dam, frequently, e.g. As. 585, manedum ; Men. 265, 
cedodum ; M. G. 955, circumspicedum ; Most. 674, pultadum ; And. 
29, adesdum; H. T. 249, abidum ; Eun. 707, dicdum ; Hec. 803 ; 844, 
manedum; Pacuv. 202, iteradum. Separated: Men. 378, sine me dum. 

k) With quin, frequently. The use of quin with the imperative 
seems to be borrowed from its employment in expressions like quin 
abis f used with imperative force, e.g. Most. 815, quin tu is intro 
atque otiose perspecta. Examples: Bacch. 276, quin audi; Cure. 240, 
quin tu perdura; Men. 416, quin tu tace modo; Pseud. 1016, quin 
sequere ergo intro ; Kud. 628, quin tu omitte genua ; And. 45, quin 
die; H. T. 890, quin tu ausculta; Phor. 350, quin tu hoc age; 486, 
quin omitte me; Ad. 543, quin tu animo bono es. 

1) W r ith proin, proinde, e.g. Amph. 311, proin tu istam cenam 
largire ; Stich. 667, proin tu lavare propera ; As. 27, proinde istuc 
eloquere; And. 408, proin tu fac; Eun. 56, proin tu cogita; And. 
707, proinde hinc vos amolimini. 

m) With sane (infrequent), e.g. As. 464, at nosee sane ; Pers. 500, 
cedo sane mihi ; 772 ; H. T. 832. 

Present for future. — While the present regularly and properly is 
used of acts which the speaker wishes to be performed at once, it 

Present Imperative. 351 

occurs occasionally referring to acts that belong clearly in the future, 
and under circumstances where the future is more correctly employed, 
e.g. Capt. 900, bene ambula et redambula; so M. G. 936; Most. 
853. Here the act belongs to the future, and that tense is used in 
Capt. 452 ; Merc. 327 ; Pers. 50. Further, the present occurs at 
times where a subordinate clause in the future or future perfect 
clearly indicates that the sphere of the imperative is the future, e.g. 
As. 231, si alius ad me prius attulerit, tu vale ; Bacch. 800, impinge 
pugnum, si muttiverit; Cas. 146, vir si quid volet, me facite accer- 
satis ; Cist. 592, vir tuos si veniet, iube domi opperirier ; Ep. 423, ubi 
erit otium, revortere ad me extemplo; Men. 1105, id quod rogabo 
dicite ; M. G. 1394, si non sequitur, rapite sublimen ; Pers. 46, quic- 
quid erit, recipe te ad me ; 47 ; And. 848, ubi voles, arcesse ; H. T. 
618, ilia si iam laverit, mihi nuntia. Expressions like Pers. 146, 
hoc si facturus, face, do not belong here, though cited by Loch, p. 5, 
as similar to those just mentioned. Face in the Persa passage refers 
to the immediate present. 

In Indo-European the future imperative seems to have been used 
after the present to indicate that the execution of one command was 
to follow the execution of another, and the same usage was common 
in Latin (see below under the future, p. 355). Yet even when denot- 
ing a subsequent act, the second imperative frequently stands in the 
present, e.g. Asin. 367, abi et narra; Bacch. 592, abi et renuntia; 
Cas. 421, intro abi et fac accures ; 587, i tu atque arcesse illam ; 613, 
abi et aliudcura; so 718; Pers. 165; Cist. 770, da isti cistellam et 
intuo abi; Men. 220, abi atque obsonium adfer; M. G. 255; 394; 
Most. 807, i intro atque inspice ; 928; Poen. 1116 ; Pseud. 890, intro 
abi atque cenam coque; so Aul. 458; Stich. 533, abi intro et lava; 
Capt. 950, ite actutum, Tyndarum arcessite; Men. 736; 952; Pers. 
487; Poen. 424; 1319; Pseud. 349; Stich. 683; Eun. 753, abi tu, 
cistellam ecfer ; 763, abi atque obsera ostium ; Phor. 563, abi domum 
et illam consolare ; 309, abi, eum exquire atque hue adduce ; so also 
Stat. 178, abi intro atque istaec aufer. Other examples where 
the future would naturally be expected are : Ad. 204, eras redi ; 
Eun. 436, immo, auge suspicionem ; 970, ego abeo : tu isti narra 

Logical force of the present imperative. In its range of meaning the 

352 The Imperative. 

present imperative covers the entire field between peremptory com- 
mands and the humblest request or prayer. Thus : 

a) Commands, e.g. Amph. 628, sequere me ; 707, tace ; 778, cedo 
mi ; 984, concedite atque abscedite omnes, de via decedite ; Capt. 950, 
Tyndarum hue arcessite ; 954, age tu illuc procede ; 964, tandem 
istaec aufer ; Men. 696, heus tu, tibi dico, mane, redi ; And. 28, 
istaec auferte: abite; 299, propera ; 579, evocate Davom ; 754, die 
clare ; 861, sublimen rape ; 978, abi, propera, accerse ; H. T. 762, 
accede hue; 831, cape hoc argentum ac defer; Eun. 505, ehem curate 
diligenter istam virginem ; 506, vos me sequimini ; 625, heus puere 
Pamphilam accerse. 

b) Bequests, e.g. Amph. 38, hue animum quae loquar advortite ; 
1146, nunc spectatores plaudite ; As. 14, date benigne operam mihi ; 
Cas. 280, eloquere quid velis ; Cist. 787, more maiorum date plau- 
sum ; Cure. 423, cape, signum nosce ; Epid. 3, respice vero ; Men. 
678, pallam, amabo, mihi redde ; M. G. 750, commodulum obsona ; 
Most. 328, sine sine cadere me ; Pers. 127, filiam utendam mihi da ; 
439, hue continuo adduce ; Poen. 336, mitte amabo ; 350, comperce 
amabo attrectare; Trin. 385, sed adde ad istam gratiam unum; 
True. 118, respice hue modo; And. 24, favete, adeste, rem cognos- 
cite ; 328, saltern aliquot dies profer ; 596, gnatum corrigere enitere ; 
901, da veniam ; sine exorem ; H. T. 28, date copiam ; 35, adeste, 
date potestatem; 339, obsecro aliquid reperi; 845, serva filium et 
me ; Eun. 281, paululum da mi operae. 

c) Advice, e.g. Amph. 277, perge, nox, ut occepisti; gere patri 
morem meo ; Poen. 309, abi domum ac te suspende (ironical) ; And. 
383, die te ducturum ; 394, patri die velle ; 522, perge f acere ; H. T. 
88, rastros adpone ; 373, gemitus abstine ; Eun. 609, muta vestem. 

d) Warning, e.g. Most. 324, cave ne cadas; 460, fuge, obsecro, 
atque abscede ; fuge hue, fuge ad me ; Pseud. 1144, in hunc intende 
digitum: hie lenost; And. 205, cave; 300, verbum unum cave de 
nuptiis ; 399 ; 753. 

e) Encouragement, e.g. Amph. 545, bonum animum habe ; 671, 
bono animo es ; And. 350, nil periclist : me vide ; 409, crede mihi ; 
H. T. 241, respira. 

f) Invitations, e.g. Most. 341, accuba. 

g) Challenges, e.g. Epid. 699, da pignus; Pseud. 1070, roga me 

Present Imperative. 353 

xx minis; True. 275, pignus da ni ligneae sint; Cas. 301, inachinare 
quidlibet quovis modo. 

h) Entreaties, e.g. Amph. 765, mane mane, obseero; Merc. 928, 
mane mane, Charine ; And. 351, obseero te, hoe me libera metu; 
Ad. 155, obseero, populares, ferte auxilium : subvenite inopi. 

i) Wishes, e.g. Cure. 455, leno, salve : : di te anient; and so fre- 
quently ; Eud. 310, salvete ; similarly vale ; Capt. 900, bene ambula 
et redambula. 

j) Prayers, e.g. Merc. 850, date, di, quaeso, conveniundi eius co- 
piam ; Capt. 976, serva, Iuppiter, me ; And. 232, di date facilitatem 
pariundi ; And. 473, Iuno Lucina, fer opem, serva me, obseero ; Eun. 
1048, O Iuppiter, serva, obseero, haec bona nobis. 

k) Curses, e.g. Amph. 370, nunc vapula; so 395; Bacch. 579, 
recede hinc dierecte ; Capt. 636, suspende te ; Cas. 103, abi dierec- 
tus ; Most. 8, abi dierecte ; Poen. 160 ; End. 1170 ; Poen. 511, ite in 
malam crucem ; And. 255, abi cito ac suspende te. 

1) As protasis, e.g. Amph. 286, modo sis veni hue: invenies 
infortunium ; Asin. 350, ausculta, scies ; 723, exopta id quod vis : 
fiet; 876, sequere hac me modo; faxo ipsum hominem manufesto 
opprimas ; Bacch. 1023, em specta ! turn scies ; M. G. 520, vise ad 
me intro ; iam scies ; Pseud. 49, recita modo ; ex tabellis iam faxo 
scies ; Eud. 386, i sane in Veneris f anum ; sedentem flentemque 
opprimes ; 1007, verbum etiam adde unum ; iam in cerebro colaphos 
apstrudam tuo ; 1010, tange ! adfligam ad terrain te ; 1088, f ac sis 
aurum ut videam ! post ego f aciam ut videas cistulam ; Phor. 561, 
audacissime oneris quid vis impone; ecferet. 

m) With permissive force, e.g. Aul. 831, vel hercle enica; num- 
quam hinc feres a me ; Amph. 956, si quid opus est, impera; Asin. 
107, turn tu igitur aliud cura quidlubet ; Capt. 978, si quid me vis, 
impera ; Cas. 248, immo age ut lubet ; bibe, es, disperde rem ; Cist. 
771, tene tu cistellam tibi; Men. 425, impera quidvis modo; 690, 
patiar : tibi habe, aufer, utere vel etiam in loculos compingite ; 
Merc. 907, opta ergo ob istunc nuntium quidvis; 182, quin tu si 
quid vis, roga ; M. G. 676, est te unde hospitio accipiam ; es, bibe, 
animo obsequere atque onera te hilaritudine ; 773, utere, accipe; 
Most. 332, cedo manum. : : em ! tene ! 394, intus potate hau tan- 
tillo minus ; 809, qualubet perambula ; Pers. 145, quaeso hercle me 

354 The Imperative. 

etiam vende, si lubet ; Stich. 424, abi quo lubet ; Trin. 276, adsum • 
impera quid vis ; 384, tibi permitto; posce, duce; And. 546, accersi 
iube ; 848, ubi voles, accerse ; 897, quidvis oneris impone, impera. 
Note the frequency with which the permissive force is emphasized 
by the presence of quidvis, si vis, lubet, etc. 

n) Denoting a stipulation, Asin. 231, atque ea lege, si alius 
attulerit, tu vale. 

Future Imperative. 


As already stated, the future imperative in Indo-European referred 
to future time. The Latin has, in the main, adhered to the Indo- 
European use. Hence we find the future imperative, — 

a) In conjunction with a subordinate clause in the future or future 

1) Future, e.g. Asin. 165; 239, ut voles, ut tibi lubebit, nobis 
legem imponito; 372, quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne suseenseas; 
375, patitor tu, quom ego te referiam ; Aul. 94, turn aquam aufugisse 
dicito, si quis petet; 340, si quid uti voles, domo abs te adferto; 
Bacch. 36, ubi me f ugiet memoria, ibi tu f acito ut subvenias ; 83 ; 
443 ; 729 ; Capt. 114, sinito ambulare, si foris, si intus volent ; Cist. 
108, si veniet, nolito acriter eum inclamare ; Epid. 263, si placebit, 
utitor consilium; si non placebit, reperitote rectius; 595; Men. 430, 
auferto tecum, quando abibis ; 529 ; 547 ; 727 ; 1029 ; Merc. 490 ; 
M. G. 866 ; 933, quom extemplo veniemus, mittitote ; 1175 ; Most. 
773; 1121; Pers. 728; Poen. 210; 1084; Pseud. 257; 480; 885; 
858; 861; 862; 863; 864; Eud. 813, si appellabit quempiam, vos 
respondetote ; 815; 1421; Stich. 67, si quis quaeret, hide vocatote; 
148; 287; True. 879, ubi domi metues malum, fugito ad me; And. 
863 ; H. T. 828, quod imperabit, facito ; loquitor paucula ; 865 ; 972, 
si displicebit vita, istoc utitor ; Eun. 214 ; 503, si id non poterit, ad 
me adducito ; 768, si vim faciet, in ius ducito ; 1067 ; Phor. 1027 ; 
Hec. 76, si quaeret me, dicito; 769; Enn. Trag. 301, sin fracebunt 
condiciones, repudiato et reddito ; Titin. 23, qui non reddet, facito ut 
multetur malo ; 169, si erit tibi cantandum, facito exvibrisses ; Cato, 
Agr. 1, 1, quom cogitabis, sic in animo habeto ; 1, 4, ad villam quom 
venies, videto ; 14, 4, quae opus erunt, indito ; 18, 1 ; si voles, ad 
hunc modum vasa componito ; 22, 1 ; 23, 2. 

Future Imperative. 851 

2) Future perfect, e.g. Amph. 501, quod erit natum tollito 
1097 ; Asin. 228, remeato audacter, mercedem si eris nactus ; 371 
800 ; Baech. 555, si non fecero, me esse dicito ignavissumum ; 712 
Capt. 896, nisi mantiscinatus probe ero, fusti pectito; Cure. 364, 
laudato, quando ecfecero ; Men. 156, oculum ecfodito, si ullum ver- 
bum faxo; M. G. 21; 524, post, quando exierit, cito transcurrito; 
160, quemque yideritis hominem, hue deturbatote in viam ; 505 ; 
806; 927; 1176; Most. 361; Pers. 162, ubi argentum accepero, con- 
tinuo illam adserito manu ; 676 ; Eud. 755, postea aspicito meum, 
quando ego tuom inpsectavero ; Pseud. 510 ; 513 ; 520 ; 1229 ; Eud. 
815; 1347; Stich.436; 719; 759; 770; Eun.596; 853; 1056; Phor. 
143; 718, ubi hoc egeris, transito; Ad. 582, ubi ad Dianae veneris, 
ito ad dextram; 816, quod hinc accesserit, id de lucro putato esse 
omne ; Cato, Agr. 26, ubi erit lectum, oblinito ; 30, pabulum aridum 
quod condideris, conservato. 

3) Present with future force : Men. 1093, liber esto, si invenis. 

b) In conjunction with a co-ordinate future or future perfect in- 
dicative, e.g. Asin. 240, modo tecum argentum adferto ; facile patiar 
cetera; Bacch. 95, argentum iubebo ecferri foras; tu facito obso- 
natum sit; Men. 538; Merc. 139; 497; M. G. 382, ego eloquar, sed 
amabo advortite animum ; Poen. 346 ; 599 ; Eud. 1029 ; True. 726, 
eloquar, sed tu taceto; Phor. 229, prior adito tu; ego in insidiis ero. 

c) Future following the present and denoting a subsequent act, 
e.g. Amph. 353, abi, advenisse familiares dicito. Here the idea is, 
4 go, and when you have arrived at your destination, tell, etc.' 
Similarly: Amph. 770, (i) tu, intus pateram proferto; Asin. 382, i, 
puere, pulta, atque Sauream evocato ; 740, curre, patrem hue orato lit 
veniat; Bacch. 227, abi intro; ego hie curabo: tu intus dicito; 877; 
1175, i hac mecum intro, atque ibi filium concastigato ; Cas. 295; 
756; Epid. 194, palliolum in collum conice itaque adsimulato quasi, 
etc. ; Men. 436 ; 736 ; Merc. 277 ; 787, i, rogato meum patrem ; Most. 
578; Pers. 195; 444; Pseud. 20; 161; 647; 986; Stich. 150; 263; 
477 ; Trin. 577 ; 803 ; 1103 ; True. 914 ; Eun. 595, cape fiabellum, 
ventulum huic sic facito ; Phor. 664 ; Ad. 351, abi et rem enarrato 
omnem online; 376, piscis ceteros purga; gongrum istum in aqua 
sinito ludere ; Enn. Trag. 113, audi atque auditis hostimentum ad- 
iungito; Titin. 21, aspecta formam atque os contemplato meum; 

356 The Imperative. 

172. As observed above (p. 351), this usage seems to have been 
Indo-European, being somewhat frequent in Sanskrit ; cf . Delbruck, 
Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 359 ; Blase, Hist. Gramm. der lat. Spr. iii, p. 236. 
But the subsequent act is often denoted by the present ; see above, 
p. 351 ; Neue, Formenlehre der lat. Spr. iii, p. 220 ff. 

d) Combined with adverbs or other time expressions referring to 
the future, e.g. Asin. 166, semper tibi promissum habeto; 685, re- 
dito hue conticinio ; Cas. 210 ; semper huic verbo vitato ; Cure. 30, 
semper eurato ne sis intestabilis ; 526, eras peti iubeto ; Men. 437, 
turn facito ante solem oecasum ut venias ; 695, aliam posthac in- 
venito ; Merc. 375, eras agito ; perendie agito ; 1021 ; 770, eras 
petito ; M. G. 1364, cogitato identidem quam fidelis fuerim ; Most. 
579, redito hue circiter meridie ; 654, petito eras ; Pers. 678, rur- 
sum te ad me recipito ; Poen. 144, postid mihi ignoscito ; 807, eras 
mane in Comitio estote; Rud. 858 y post hue redito atque agitato 
hie custodiam ; 1417, hie hodie cenato ; Trin. 485, semper tu hoc 
facito cogites ; H. T. 590, at tu posthac comprimito manus ; Ad. 
426, iterum sic memento. 

e) In other cases the future imperative is shown by the context 
to involve a more or less definite reference to future time, e.g. Amph. 
917, vel hunc rogato Sosiam ; Asin. 91, me defraudato ; 101, tibi 
optionem sumito Leonidam ; 375, aequo animo patitor ; Aul. 95, cul- 
trum securim fures venisse atque abstulisse dicito ; 257, facito ut 
memineris; so also, Bacch. 328 ; Cure. 210; M. G. 354; Pseud. 515; 
Stich. 47; Capt. 689, facito ergo ut clueas; Cist. 64, facito ut scias; 
Poen. 1414, des facito aut reddas; 1418, facito habeas; Aul. 458, 
lege agito mecum ; Bacch. 75, simulato me amare ; 84, dato ; 703, 
quantum lubet me poscitote aurum ; Capt. 190, eurato aegrotos domi; 
389, salutem dicito matri et patri ; so Cure. 524 ; Capt. 395, dicito 
patri ; so 401 ; 432, cogitato hinc mea fide mitti ; 452, bene ambu- 
lato ; so Merc. 327 ; Pers. 50 ; Capt. 721, ergo ab eo petito gratiam 
istam ; 948, ducito ; Cas. 273, eum orato ; 309, in furnum calidum 
condito atque ibi torreto me ; 493, emito sepiolas ; 523, f acitodum 
merula quod cantat ; so also Poen. 408, rem divinam facito ; Rud. 
792 ; Cas. 832, integrae atque imperitae huic impercito ; 870, spec- 
tato hinc omnia ; Cist. 764, ceterum ex ipsa exquaeritote ; Cure. 31, 
quod amas amato testibus praesentibus ; 138, tu me ne sitiam cu- 

Future Imperative. 357 

rato; 622, intestatus vivito; Poen. 890, sed tu hoc tecum taciturn 
habeto ; Epid. 730, liber esto 5 so also Men. 1029 ; 1148 ; Men. 548, 
haec me curaturum dicito ; 628, properato apsente me comesse 
prandium; Merc. 115, aspellito; 464, at me incusato ; 908, deos 
orato ; Most. 255, ubi tu commoda's, capillum commodum esse 
credito; 422, illi hoc dicito; 1150; Pers. 159, abs chorago (orna- 
menta) sumito ; 246, tecum habeto. : : et tu hoc taceto ; 302, paratum 
iam esse dicito, iubeto habere animum bonum; 667; Poen. 159, me 
dato ; 181, rogato servos veneritne ad eum tuos ; 406, atque audin ? 
: : Veneri dicito multum salutem ; 729, portam frangito; 872, nolito 
devellisse ; Pseud. 123, de istac re in oculum utrumvis conquiescito ; 
545, stilis me totum usque ulmeis conscribito ; 652, dato istunc sum- 
bolum ergo illi ; 1075, atque etiam habeto mulierem dono tibi ; Pud. 
1213, dicito daturum meam illi flliam uxorem ; Stich. 553 ; Trin. 
295, moribus vivito antiquis ; 296 ; 323, benefacta benefactis perte- 
gito ; True. 429, sic f acito ; 953, noster esto, sed de vostro vivito ; 
And. 865, cura adservandum, atque audin ? quadrupedem constrin- 
gito ; H. T. 221, periclum ex aliis facito tibi quod ex usu siet ; 702, 
ita ut res sese habet narrato ; 783 ; 943 ; Eun. 445, par pro pari re- 
ferto ; 712 ; Phor. 664, petito hasce a me ; Ad. 174, in istam partem 
potius peccato ; 500 ; 574, praeterito hac recta platea ; 575 ; 577 ; 
940; 977; Ace. 373, ilico (= in eo loco) habitato ; Afran. 230, ipsi 
me velle vestimenta dicito ; Liv. And. Od. 20, ibi manens sedeto ; 
Enn. Ann. 62, aeternum teritote diem concorditer ambo. 

Future imperative accompanied by reinforcing expressions. These 
are much less frequent than with the present imperative. Thus : 

a) With amabo: As. 939, memento, amabo; M. G-. 382, amabo 
advortito animum. 

b) With obsecro : Cist. 764, obsecro, exquaeritote ; Ad. 281, obse- 
cro te, istum hominem absolvitote. 

c) With quaeso : Amph. 1097, quaeso, absolvito ; As. 375, quaeso, 
patitor; Capt. 432, te quaeso, cogitato; M. G-. 865, quaeso tamen 
accipito; Poen. 807, eras mane, quaeso, in Comitio estote; Ad. 808, 
quaeso, hoc facito tecum cogites. 

d) With sultis, sis : Men. 350, adservatote haec sultis ; Poen. 1084, 
facito sis reddas. 

e) With age : Bacch. 855, age nunc vincito me ; Phor. 1027, age 

358 The Imperative. 

nunc Phormionem, qui volet, lacessito; Men. 866, agite, facitote 
sonitus appareat. 

f ) With -dum : Cas. 523, f acitodum colas ; H. T. 550, f acitodum 
eadem memineris. 

g) With prom, proinde: Eun. 106, proin tu, tacere si vis, vera 
dicito ; Phor. 668, sescentas proinde scribito iam mihi dicas. 

h) With quin: Eun. 902, quin tu me servato; Ad. 533, quin 
otiosus esto. 

i) With modo: Amph. 520, muttito modo; As. 240, modo adferto; 
Men. 334, observato modo ; Ad. 845, modo f acito ut illam serves. 

Except in the language of laws the 3d singular future imperative 
is rare. This may reflect Indo-European conditions, for in the Vedas 
the 3d singular imperative is likewise rare ; see Delbriick, Vergl. 
Synt. ii, p. 360. Instances of the 3d singular are : Asm. 801, si 
dixerit, haec multa esto; Cure. 470; 472, damnosos maritos sub 
basilica quaerito ; Men. 51, si quis quid curari sibi velit, audacter 
imperato et dicito ; Most. 773 ; 1164, immo me praesente amato, 
bibito, f acito quod lubet; Poen. 211; Pseud. 950; Phor. 668, 
sescentas proinde scribito iam mihi dicas ; 1027, qui volet, laces- 
sito. The only instance of the 3d plural is Poen. 1281, turn pro- 
fecto me sibi habento scurrae ludificatui. 

A solitary instance of an imperative in a relative clause occurs in 
H. T. 577, quod ilium facere credito. 


Future used referring to the present. In a few instances (mostly 
standing formulas) the future imperative is used without apparent 
reference to future time. 1 Thus salveto (not in Terence) often occurs 
(especially in reply to a previous salve ; Havet, Wolfflin's Archiv fur 
lat. Lexikographie, x, p. 287 ff.) as the equivalent of salve, e.g. Cure. 
234, salve : : salveto; so Merc. 283; Pud. 416; As. 296; Pers.789; 
Men. 1076, tu salveto, tu vale; Rud. 103, pater salveto : : salvo' sis. 
So often facito, e.g. Bacch. 1153, f acito ut facias ; Cist. 62 ; 64, f acito 
ut scias; Men. 866, agite, facitote sonitus ungularum appareat; Merc. 
565, facito ut cogites; so also Most. 216; Stich. 519; Ad. 500; 

1 So also in the Vedas. The usage may have been Indo-European ; Delbriick, 
Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 360. 

Future^ Imperative. 359 

M. G. 354, facito ut memineris ; so also Pers. 500 ; Stich. 47 • Pers. 
388, facito ut veniat in mentem tibi. Similarly cogitato (= cogita) 
e.g. Capt. 711; M. G. 915; Eun. 759; Cato, Agr. 3, 2; and often. 
Loch, p. 10, suggests that this may be on prosodic grounds. Other 
examples are: Bacch. 992, animum advortito igitur; so Ace. 485- 
Amph. 507, observatote quam blande palpabitur ; Men. 334, observato 
modo ; Aul. 56 ; Bacch. 741, plane adscribito ; cf . 745, adscribedum, 
which is not different from adscribito; M. G. 1029; 1034; 1217; 
Pers. 154 ; Poen. 1320, si quid per iocum dixi, nolito in serium con- 
vertere; Bacch. 75, simulato me amare ; Aul. 788, " ita di faxint," 
inquito; Men. 51, si quis quid curari sibi velit, audacter imperato et 
dicito; Phor. 166, depecisci morte cupio ; tu conicito cetera; 423, 
omnia ilium putato dicere ; Lucil. 582, coicito te intro ac bono animo 
es ; Liv. And. Od. 6, mihi narrato omnia ; C. Gracchus (Meyer, p. 229), 
si ulla meretrix domum meam intravit, nequissimum me existimatote; 
Enn. Trag. 355, extemplo me necato et filiam. This is the only in- 
stance I have noted where the future imperative is used accompanied 
by an adverb denoting the immediate present, unless the imperative 
is joined to a subordinate clause in the future or future perfect in- 
dicative ; see above, p. 354 f. 

The only imperative of scire is scito, with the force of the present, 
e.g. Eun. 877; Hec. 67; Cato, Agr. 1, 6; and frequently. M. G. 
282 the MSS. read scis, for which Bentley, followed by Lindsay, 
reads sci; others read scias. Like scito is memento, e.g. Merc. 
282, hoc memento and frequently. Doubled in Cas. 737, memento, 

Logical force of the future imperative. In its logical value the future 
imperative covers substantially the same field of meaning as the 
present. Thus it is used to convey, — 

a) Commands, e.g. Amph. 501, quod erit natum, tollito ; As. 375, 
patitor, quom ego te ref eriam ; Aul. 94, aquam aufugisse dicito ; 
Rud. 813, si appellabit quempiam, vos respondetote ; Eun. 768, si 
vim faciet, in ius ducito ; Enn. Trag. 301, sin fracebunt condiciones, 
repudiato et reddito ; Titin. 169. 

b) Requests, e.g. As. 939, de palla memento, amabo ; Capt. 432, 
te, quaeso, cogitato mea fide mitti domum ; Men. 350, adservatote 
haec sultis ; Poen. 144, postid mihi ignoscito ; Liv. And. Od. 6, tuque 

360 The Imperative. 

mihi omnia narrato ; Ad. 281, obsecro te hercle, hominem istum quam 
primum absolvitote. 

c) Advice, e.g. H. T. 972, si displicebit vita, istoc utitor ; Eun. 
445, par pro pari referto ; Cato, Agr. 1, 1, quoni cogitabis, sic in animo 
habeto ; 1, 4, ad villam quom venies, videto. 

d) Probably the commonest single use of the future imperative is 
in laws and in general directions for procedure. This use is peculiar to 
the future and is not shared by the present. Examples : Leges Re- 
giae, Eestus, 189, dis piaculum dato ; Gell. iv, 3, 3, si tangit, Iunoni 
agnum caedito ; Livy, i, 26, si provocarit, provocatione certato ; si Vin- 
cent, caput obnubito, infelici arbori suspendito, verberato vel intra 
pomerium vel extra ; XII Tab. 1, si in ius vocat, ito ; 8, patronus si 
clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer esto; and frequently in the XII Tab.; GIL, 
i, 197, 10, 11, f acito ioudicetur ; i, 202, 21, praeconem legunto ; i, 198, 
57, f acito det ; 58, quaestor accipito et habeto ; i, 200, 28, eas f aciunto 
pateant ; especially frequent in the directions for farming given in 
Cato's de Agricultura, e.g. 4, villam pro copia aedificato ; 5, 6, boves 
maxima diligentia habeto ; 5, 7, scabiem caveto ; frondem legito, earn 
substernito ; 23, 2, uvas miscellas legito ; 2, marmor si indes, in 
culleum libram indito ; id indito in urnam, misceto cum musto ; 3, 
resinam si indes, bene comminuito. Many chapters fairly bristle 
with future imperatives. 

e) So too in proverbs and rules for conduct, e.g. Trim 295, mori- 
bus vivito antiquis ; 323, benefacta benefactis aliis pertegito ; Cure. 
28, ita tuom conferto amare semper ; semper curatone sis intestabilis ; 
Cas. 210, semper huic verbo vitato ; Pseud. 301, erne die caeca hercle 
olivom; id vendito oculata die; Ad. 417, hoc facito; hoc fugito. 

f) Contracts, e.g. Poen. 1157, pactam rem habeto; Pers. 667, 

g) Wishes, e.g. Capt. 452, bene ambulato; Merc. 327; Pers. 50. 
So also frequently salveto; see above, p. 358. Here belongs the 
expression, macte esto virtute, e.g. Pacuv. 146 ; Lucil. 143. Baeh- 
rens, Frag. p. 34, terra pestem teneto, salus hie maneto. 

h) Prayers, e.g. Cato, Agr. 132, 1 ; 2 ; Iuppiter, macte hac illace 
dape pollucenda esto, 134 ; 139 ; 141. 

i) Challenges and Defiance, e.g. Phor. 1027, qui volet, lacessito ; 
Men. 629, post me derideto. 

Future Imperative. 361 

j) Curses, Cure. 622, te Iuppiter male perdat; intestatus vivito; 
Ps. 1229, si mihi argentum dederis, te suspendito. 

k) Invitations, e.g. Eud. 1417, hie hodie cenato. 

1) Protases, e.g. Cure. 138, tu me curato ne sitiam ; ego tibi quod 
amas adducam ; Merc 140, calidam picem bibito ; aegritudo apscesse- 
rit; cf. also Amph. 520, muttito modo. Eud. 729, occipito illis 
adf erre vim ; te ego hinc ornatum amittam te ut non noveris ; Cato, 
Agr. 157, 4, brassicam opponito; cito sanum faciet; bis in die oppo- 
nito ; dolores auferet ; 157, 10 ; 16. 

m) Proviso, As. 240, modo tecum argentum adferto, facile patiar 
cetera. This is entirely equivalent to modo adferas, etc. 

n) Concession, e.g. H. T. 572, esto, 'granted/ 'very well'; so 
Lucil. 771. 

o) Permission (Wolfflin, Archiv fur lat. Lexikographie, x, p. 130). 
This category is especially prominent. Examples : XII Tab. 1, ni 
it, igitur em capito; 3, in ius ducito; ni iudicatum facit, secum 
ducito ; si volet maiore vincito ; si volet, suo vivito ; si volet, plus 
dato; As. 165, solus ductato, si dabis; 239; ut tibi lubebit, nobis 
legem imponito ; Amph. 439, ubi ego Sosia nolim esse, tu esto sane 
Sosia; Capt. 896, nisi mantiscinatus probe ero, fusti pectito; Cas. 
309, in furnum condito atque ibi torreto me ; Cist. Ill, si quid tibi 
opus erit, promito ; Epid. 595, ubi voles pater esse, ibi esto ; Men. 
727, mea quidem hercle causa vidua vivito; 1029, mea quidem causa 
liber esto; M. G-. 21, periuriorem hoc hominem si quis viderit, me 
sibi habeto; Most. 773, de exemplo meo ipse aedificato; 1164, 
amato, bibito, facito quod lubet ; Pseud. 123, de istac re in oculum 
utrumvis conquiescito ; 258 ; 513, at si non abstuleris ? : : virgis cae- 
dito ; 950 ; 1075; Trin. 266, apage te sis, Amor; tuas res tibi habeto ; 
570 ; And. 863, si invenies me mentitum, occidito ; Phor. 143, ubi 
abiero, vel occidito ; 668, sescentas proinde scribito iam mihi dicas ; 
984; H. T. 865, si voles, desponsam esse dicito; Eun. 596, si voles, 
lavato ; 853 ; 1056, hoc si effeceris, quodvis donum a me optato ; 
1067 ; Ad. 970, liber esto. 

According to Delbrtick, the same usage occurs also in Sanskrit 
and Greek ; Vergl. Synt. ii, p. 358. 

362 The Imperative. 

Present Tense. 

Ne with the present imperative (a construction that has grown up 
on Latin soil; see p. 348) is fairly common in Early Latin (66 
instances in Plautus ; see Loch, p. 21 ; and 14 in Terence ; Stahl, 
p. 38). Examples : Amph. 530, ne corrumpe oculqs ; 674, ne time ; 
so also, 1064; Cas. 835; Cure. 520; Men. 136; Merc. 173; 891; 
1004; M. a. 1346; Pseud. 922; Rud.688; 1049; Trim 1181; Amph. 
1110, ne pave ; so also Merc. 885 ; M. G. 895 ; Pseud. 103 ; As. 462, 
ne formida; so also 638; M. G. 893; 1011; Capt. 554, ne verere ; 
Amph. 803, ne interpella; 810; 813; True. 896; As. 377, ne nega; 
so also 922 ; Bacch. 566 ; Stich. 715 ; As. 665, ne nos diiunge ; 826, 
ne mone; Aul. 434, ne doce; Pers. 677; Bacch. 733, ne interturba; 
833, ne crepa; Capt. 139, ne fie; Epid. 601; M. G. 1324; Cist. 751, 
ne obloquere ; Merc. 501, ne plora ; so Pseud. 1038 ; Poen. 1192, ne 
lacruma; so Stich. 20; Merc. 614, animum ne desponde; M. G. 215, 
ne somno stude; 1220, ne parce; Most. 641, ne me roga; 955, ne 
molestu's ; so Kud. 1254 ; Most. 1105, ne nugare ; Pers. 227, ne me 
attrecta; 490, abi, ne iura; Poen. 261, ne obturba ac tace; 543 > 
ne date; 1229, ne moramini; Pseud. 734, ne quaere; Trin. 361, 
ne opprobra; 926, ne male loquere ; True. 366, ne abi; And. 384, ne 
nega ; 543, ne obsecra : 868, ne saevi ; H. T. 84, ne lacruma ; 85, ne 
retice, ne verere ; 89, ne labora ; 564, ne nega ; 975, ne te admisce ; 
Phor. 664, ne clama ; 803, ne nega ; Ad. 279, ne time ; 802, ne cura 

Most of the foregoing, it will be noted, are short expressions with 
a tendency to become formulaic, as ne time, ne pave, ne verere, ne 
nega, ne jle, ne lacruma, ne plora. Outside of such expressions the 
usage had little vogue. 

Ne with the present imperative accompanied by reinforcing words. 
There are few instances of this kind. I have noted only Cure. 137, 
ne plora, amabo; Merc. 321, ne sis me obiurga; Pers. 656, ne sis 
plora ; H. T. 1052, age quaeso, ne offirma te ; Eun. 95, ne crucia te^ 
obsecro ; Ace. 95, ne retice, obsecro. 

Negative Uses, 363 

Noli, Nolite, with the Infinitive. 

Of this there are 19 examples in Plautus (Loch, p. 23), 7 in 
Terence (Stahl, p. 43), and 9 in other Early Latin writers. 

a) With noli: Amph. 540, noli, amabo, irasci Sosiae; Frag, xvii, 
noli precari ; As. 417, quaeso hercle noli hunc verberare ; Capt. 840, 
noli irascier; Cas. 204, noli sis illic advorsari ; 387, noli uxori 
credere; Cist. 58, noli, obsecro, imperare; Cure. 197, noli, amabo, 
verberare lapidem ; 697, frater, obsecro te, noli hunc condemnatum 
perdere ; Merc. 934, noli istuc, quaeso, dicere; M. G. 372, noli 
minitari; 1129, noli stare; Most. 813, noli facere mentionem ted 
emisse; Pers. 622, noli flere; Poen. 370, noli, amabo, suscensere ero 
ineo; 872, noli (nolito, P) edepol devellisse; 1129, mirari noli neque 
contemplarier ; Trin. 627, noli avorsari; True. 674, noli metuere; 
And. 385, suadere noli ; 685, noli te macerare ; Phor. 556, noli 
metuere ; Hec. 316, noli f abularier ; 467, noli fodere ; 654, redduce 
ac noli advorsari ; Com. Incert. 87, noli rogare ; Af ran. 310, noli cum 
patre coicere (jwlim, MSS ; noli, Mercer) ; 321, noli credere ; Lucil. 
401, reprehendere noli; Cato (Jord.) 37, 6, noli noli peribere; further, 
noli without inf.: Amph. 520, ah noli! Cure. 131a; Ad. 781, noli, 
inquam ; Hec. 109, noli. 

b) With nolite (not in Plautus), Enn. Ann. 142, nolite morari; 
Cato (Jord.) p. 67, 4, nolite habere; Crassus (Meyer, p. 263), nolite 
sinere; so Hec. 46; Enn. Trag. 303, nolite ad me adire. 

An examination of the foregoing material shows that as compared 
with expressions of the type: ne time, the tendency is much less 
towards restriction to formulaic expressions. 

As regards the logical value of both types (ne fle; noli flere), it 
should be noted that, while ordinarily styled ' prohibitions/ their 
force is less frequently that of peremptory commands than of re- 
quests, advice, or encouragement. 

Future Tense. 

In Early Latin ne with the future imperative is not found except 
in laws and the de Agr. of Cato, the diction of which imitates the 
legal style throughout. Examples : Lex Numae (Pliny, N. H. xiv, 
12), vino rogum ne respergito ; Lex Numae (Gell. iv, 3), paelex asain 

364 The Imperative. 

Iunonis ne tacito (= tangito) ; Ver Sacrum (Livy, xxii, 10), ne fraus 
esto . . . ne populo scelus esto; Lex Numae (Fest. p. 178, M), ne 
supra genua tollito; XII Tab. 6, (Fest. p. 364 M), tignum iunctum 
aedibus vineave ne solvito ; XII Tab. 10, (Cic. de Leg. ii, 23), hoc plus 
ne f acito ; rogum ascia ne polito ; XII Tab. 10, (Cic. ii, 24), homini 
mortuo ne ossa legito; old proverb (Fest. p. 4, M), ne pomum ex 
alieno legito in annum; Cato, de Agr. 33, 3, ne serito; 144, 1, ne 
stringito ; 144, 3, ne deportato ; 145, 2, ne tangito ; 145, 3, socium ne 
quern habeto ; 146, 2, ne quid deportato ; probably also in 49, 1, 
binas gemmas ne amplius relinquito, though some interpret the ne 
here as belonging exclusively with amplius; cf. 43, 2, vitibus et 
sulcos et propagines ne minus pedes IIS quoquo versus facito, where 
ne certainly goes with pedes IIS. In the following we find the form 
ni, nei : CIL, i, 197, 6, nei sinito ; i, 199, 30, ni quis posideto ; ibid. 
36, vectigal invitei dare nei debento ; i, 198, 69, quaestor moram nei 
facito ; ibid. 71, quom ( = cum) eis hace lege actio nei esto; i, 577, II, 
1, disponito ni plus. 

In the following, XII Tab. (Gell. xx, 1, 24), si nolet, arceram ne 
sternito, we have the only instance that I have noted of a negative 
permissive imperative, 'he need not spread, unless he chooses/ 
Blase, therefore, is in error when, Hist. Gramm. der Lat. Spr. iii, 
p. 249, Anm. 1, he asserts that the permissive use does not occur 
with negative imperatives. 

Connecting Negatives with the Imperative. 

These occur almost exclusively in connection with the future im- 

1. Present: Only Stich. 20, ne lacruma neu tuo id amimo fac. 

2. Future. 

a) Neve, neu, neive, nive, Merc. 1021, neu quisquam posthac pro- 
hibeto; CIL, i, 197, 20, magistratum nei petito neive gerito, neive 
habeto . . . ni quis sinito neve eum censor in senatum legito ; i, 199, 
32, is eum agrum nei habeto nive fruimino; ibid. 34, niquis pro- 
hibeto, nive quis vim facito, neive prohibeto quo minus ; i, 198, 28, 
neive equom adimito neive quid ob earn rem f raudi esto ; ibid. 71, 
avocarier iubeto neive abducito neive abducier iubeto neive facito ; 

i, 200, 9, neive quis facito ; i. 577, II, 21 ; Eph. Epigr. ii, 198, ne 

Negative Uses. 365 

quis fundatid, neve cadaver proiecitad neve parentatid; Cato, Agr. 
144, 1, oleam ne stringito neve verberato; XII Tab. (Cic. de Leg. 
ii, 23), hominem mortuom in urbe ne sepelito neve urito; ibid, 
mulieres genas ne radunto neve lessum funeris ergo habento; 24, 
neve aurum addito. 

b) Neque, Ver Sacrum (Livy, xxii, 10), profanum esto neque scelus 
esto; CIL, xi, 4766, honce loucom nequis violatod neque exvehito, 
neque exferto quod louci siet neque cedito ; Cato, Agr. 145, oleum ne 
tangito utendi causa neque furandi causa ; Poen. 1129, mirari noli 
neque me contemplarier ; Appius Claudius (Baehrens), 2, amicum 
quom vides, obliviscere miserias ; inimicus si es commentus, nee 
libens aeque. 


Nolito with the infinitive is rare. I have noted only the following 
examples in the entire range of Early Latin: Cist. 108, nolito acriter 
eum inclamare; Poen. 1321, nolito in serium convortere; Cato, Agr. 
64, 1, nolito credere; 112, 1, nolito implere; 113, 2; 156, 6, nolito 
dare ; Lucil. 722, nolito putare. In Poen. 872, the P MSS, read 
nolito, accepted by Lindsay. 


The forms of the Latin infinitive are by origin partly dative 
(amari, moneri, regi), partly locative (esse, amare, audire, etc.). But 
in Indo-European, owing to the relationship of the dative and loca- 
tive, the dative function attached itself also to the locative forma- 
tions, so that all infinitives possessed the general notion of direction. 
From this force there developed in Indo-European the infinitive of 
purpose, the infinitive as object of auxiliary verbs, the predicative 
use (' this pasture is not to rob ; ' i.e. to be robbed), and the infinitive 
in commands, as seen especially in Homer. See Delbruck, op. cit. 
p. 453 ; Brugmann, op. cit. p. 603. 

Of these four Indo-European types of usage the Latin has inherited 
with certainty the first two. Concerning the possible presence in 
Latin of the infinitive in commands, see below under the Historical 
Infinitive. New uses of the infinitive, developed in the special his- 
tory of the Latin itself, are the free use of the infinitive both with 
and without subject accusative as subject and object of verbs; also 
the restricted use of the infinitive as appositive and predicate. The 
origin of the infinitive without subject accusative as object is to be 
sought in such expressions as propero ire; facere paro; facere occipio, 
etc. Here the infinitive was originally one of purpose, but the con- 
nection of ideas naturally led to the feeling that the infinitive was 
the object, and thus paved the way for the freest use of the infinitive 
as object with a great variety of verbs. 

The origin of the infinitive with subject accusative is probably to 
be sought in expressions like mecogis ire; me subigis fateri ; te iubeo 
scribere; cupio filiam desponderi. From being the object of the main 

1 Walder, Der Infinitiv bei Plautus, 1874; Votsch, De infinitivi usuPlautino, 1874; 
Bartsch, De infinitive- apud scaenicos poetas Latinos usu, 1882; Reinkens, Ueber den 
Accusativus cum infinitivo bei Plautus und Terentius, 1886; Schmalz, Syntax und 
Stilistik 4 , p. 419 ff. ; Delbruck, Vgl. Syntax, ii, p. 440 ff. ; Brugmann, Kurze VgL 
Gramm. p. 603 ff. 


Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 367 

verb, the accusative came to be felt as associated with the infinitive, 
and so led to the free use of the accusative as subject of the infini- 
tive with a multitude of verbs of diverse meanings. 

It seems natural to believe that the use of the infinitive as subject 
(whether with or without subject accusative) is later than its use as 

The following classification of infinitive uses is based primarily 
on the presence or absence of subject accusative. Under each of 
these heads are grouped the various constructions of the infinitive 
as object, subject, appositive, and predicate. The infinitive of pur- 
pose, the infinitive in exclamations, and the historical infinitive will 
receive separate treatment. 


As Object. 

The infinitive with subject accusative is used with a large variety 
of verbs. Following a familiar and much used method of grouping, 
I have arranged these under the heads of Verba Declarandi; Verba 
Sentiendi ; Verba Affectuum ; Verba Voluntatis. 

Verba Declarandi. 

adfirmo: Pers. 140, numquam prius edes quam te hoc facturum 

adiuro (6) : Present : Men. 1025, per Iovem adiuro med erum 
tuom non esse; 656; Present with future force: Cist. 583, se 
adiurat mihi monstrare ; Future : And. 694, adiuro numquam earn 
me deserturum ; Perfect : Cist. 569, se earn peperisse adiurabat ; 
Men. 616. 

adnuo: Enn. Ann. 87, adnuit sese mecum decernere ferro, with 
future force. 

adsimulo (13) : Amph. 999, adsimulabo me esse ebrium ; Asin. 
581 ; Capt. 1007 ; And. 735, venire me adsimulabo ; H. T. 333. 

aio (over 200 instances) : Present : Amph. 759, me advenire nunc 
primum aio ; Merc. 296 ; And. 833, illam civem esse aiunt ; Present 
with fut. force : Capt. 586, quod redimere se ait ; Perfect : Capt. 
979, gnatum meum tuo patri ait se vendidisse ; H. T. 924, quod me 

368 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

fecisse aiebas ; Future (unusual) : Men. 1043, ait se allaturum mar- 
suppium ; True. 204. 

arguo (5) : Perfect only : Amph. 1003, eum fecisse ille arguet 
quae ego fecero; Men. 814; M. G. 244; 337; 389. 

autumo (16) : Present : Baceh. 822, tun me odium esse autumas ? 
Capt. 885 ; Present with fut. force : Most. 1132, quian me pro te ire 
ad cenam autumo ? Perfect : Men. 8, omnis res gestas esse Athenis 
autumant ; Pseud. 985 ; Atta, 6 ; Lucil. 562. 

clamito: Aul. 818, quod pueri clamitant in faba se repperisse; 
And. 813. 

commemoro: Epid. 171, earn qua ex commemores hanc filiam 
prognatam; Trin. 951. 

comminiscor: Ad. 657, commenta mater est esse puerum natum. 

confingo: Merc. Arg. 4, confingit servos emptam matri pedisequam. 

confiteor: Present: H. T. 338, habeo aliud quod confiteamini sine 
periclo esse; Perfect: And. 607; Aul. 763, quam confessus mihi te 
abstulisse; Trin. 184. 

convinco : H. T. 1017, metuis ne non convincas esse ilium tuom ? 

deblatero : Aul. 268, deblateravisti vicinis omnibus meae me filiae 
daturum dotem. 

declaro : Pseud. 682, hominem catum eum esse declaramus. 

dedico : Ace. 78, te esse Alcimeonis f ratrem dedicat. 

deiero : Eud. 1336, deiera te mihi argentum daturum. 

delico : M. Gr. 844, ut tu ipse me dixisse delices. 

denego: Stich. 558, denegarit dare se granum tritici (the present 
here has future force) ; And. 241, denegarat se commissurum mihi. 

dico (several hundred instances): Present: Men. 331, dicam te 
hie adstare Erotio ; Present with fut. force : Asin. 366, dixit sese 
operam dare; Cas. 479, se locum dixit dare; Merc. 419; And. 411; 
Perfect : Merc. 401, neu te advexisse dixeris ; H. T. 304, dicimus 
redissete; Euture: Amph. 919, testem quern te adducturum dixeras ; 
Asin. 356; H. T. 500, dixeram operam daturum me. 

dietito: H. T. 23, dictitat repente ad studium hunc se adplicasse 
musicum ; Phor. 4 ; 743. 

dissimulo : Most. 1071, dissimulabo me horum quicquam scire ; 
Poen. 113. 

edoceo: Pacuv. 374, id magis veri simile esse usus edocet. 

Verba Declarandi. 369 

enuntio : Poen. 888, ut ne enuntiet id esse facimis ex te ortum. 

epistulam remisit : True. 397, remisit ad me epistulam sese exper- 

exelamo : Eun. 23, exclamat furem, non poetam, f abulam dedisse. 

excuso : Aul. 749, excusemus ebrios nos fecisse amoris causa. 

exiuro: Am ph. fr. vii, exiuravisti te mihi dixe per iocum. 

exprobro : Capt. 591, pergin servom me exprobrare esse ? 

expostulo : M. G. 697, opstetrix expostulavit mecum parum missum 

expurigo : Capt. 620, me expurigare volo me insaniam neque tenere 
neque mi esse ullum morbum. 

f aeio : H. T. 31, qui nuper fecit servo currenti in via decesse 
populum ; Lucil. 727, purpuream uvam facit albam pampinum habere. 

fateor (24) : Present : Asin. 62, f ateor earn esse importunam ; And. 
896, me amare hanc fateor ; Perfect : Aul. 794, me iniuriam fecisse 
fateor ; Hec. 828, se fatetur nescio quam compressisse. 

fidem do: Cist. 236, do (fidem) non facturum esse me ; M. G. 453 ; 
455; Eud. 953; Hec. 112, si mihi fidem das te tacituram. 

hariolor : Asin. 316, hariolari sibi esse in mundo malum. 

indico : Merc. 352, illam me emisse indico ; Hec. 395, quod te 
scire ipsa indicat res ; Ad. 338 ; Eun. 53. 

insimulo: Amph. 902, nisi hoc falso dici insimulaturus es. 

intendo : Eun. 525, hanc se intendit esse. 

interminor : Present : Pseud. 776, interminatust eum eras perbitere, 
with fut. force; Future : Asin. 363, interminatust nos futuros ulmeos. 

interpello : Merc. 201, interpello matri te ancillam tuae emisse. 

itero : Turp. 140, festum esse hice quartum diem hodie iterant. 

iuro (9) : Present : Amph. 435, iuro med esse neque me falsum 
dicere ; 436; Present with fut. force: Pers. 401, iuratust sese hodie 
argentum dare; Future: M. G. 1411, iura te non nociturum nemini; 
1414; Ad. 332, iurabat se unum numquam victurum diem; 473; 
Perfect : CIL, i, 198, 18, iurato sese eos ex hac lege legisse. 

ius iurandum do : Present : Amph. 931, ius iurandum dabo me 
meam pudicam esse uxorem arbitrarier; Hec. 697, dabo ius iurandum 
nil esse istorum mihi; Ad. 166; Perfect: Most. 1084, ius iurandum 
pollicitust dare se, neque se hasce aedes vendidisse; Poen. 1394; 
Future : Bacch. 1028, ius iurandum dedi daturum id me. 

370 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

laudo: Cato, fr. (Jord.) 33, 9, laudant me id comparavisse. 

mentionem f acio : Most. 813, noli f acere mentionem ted emisse. 

memoro (13): Present: Bacch. 1096, miles memorat meretricem 
esse earn; Enn. Ann. 114; Perfect: Capt. 577, tune te gnatum 
memoras liberum ? 

minor: Asin. 604, minatur se abire, with fut. force ; H. T. 489, 
abiturum se esse minabitur. 

minitor: Asin. 611, minitaris te vitam esse amissurum ; Amph. 
Frag. xi. 

narro : Present : H. T. 192, quid narrat? : : se miserum esse; 711; 
Phor. 366 ; Perfect : Amph. 467, narrabit servom sese amovisse; Eud. 
64 ; Hec. 145 ; Future : Asin. 367, narra ut acturi sumus : te f uturum 
esse atriensem. 

nego (42) : Present : Amph. 434, tu negas med esse ? And. 612, 
negabon velle me ? Perfect : Amph. 758, te abisse negas ? 760 ; 
H, T. 18, id esse factum hie non negat ; Future : Cas. 323, negavi 
ipsi me concessurum Iovi ; And. 148, ut se filiam neget daturum ; 

nuntio (14): Present: Merc. 279, nunties negotium mihi esse in 
urbe; Trin. 773; Perfect: Pseud. 1198, nunties abduxisse alium 
praedam ; Hec. 314, me venisse nuntia ; Future : Phor. 777, nuntia 
hanc venturam. 

nuntius : Men. 37, rediit nuntius puerum surruptum patremque 
esse emortuom. 

obiecto : Most. 810, cave illi obiectes te has emisse ! 

obicio: Epid. 664, neque obiciet mihi pedibus sese provocatum; 
Lucil. 294, Scipiadae magno obiciebat lustrum illo censore malum 

ostendo : Present : H. T. 438, si te leni esse animo ostenderis ; 
933; Phor. 597; Ad. 124; 142; 364; 986; Perfect: Ace. 17, me non 
peccasse ostendam. 

perhibeo : Pacuv. 366, Fortunam insanam esse perhibent philosophi. 

pernego : Eun. 34, eas f actas prius Latinas scisse sese, id pernegat. 

polliceor : Bacch. 742, id pollicetur se daturum aurum ; Most. 1084, 
ius iurandum pollicitust dare se, with fut. force ; Hec. 679, pollici- 
tast se concessuram ex aedibus. 

pono (' I assume ? ) : Phor. 630, pono esse victum eum. 

Verba Declarandi. 371 

portendo: Ace. Praet. 35, commutationem rerum portendit fore 

praedico (22): Present: Amph. 359, me esse familiarem praedico; 
Perfect : Amph. 730, cur praedicas te me vidisse ? Phor. 725, ne se 
eiectam praedicet ; Af ran. 403. 

praedico : Pacuv. 138, hoc est quod fore praedixit. 

praesagio : Aul. 178, praesagibat mi animus frustra me ire. 

proco : Liv. And. Trag. 13, parere vos maiestas mea procat. 

profiteor : Trag. Incert. 52, quern ego me profiteor esse. 

promitto : Present with fut. force : Bacch. 969a, quos dare se 
promisit ; Merc. 631 ; Eud. 540 ; Future : Aul. 219, promitte hoc 
fore; Cure. 709; M. G. 326; Poen. 422; Pseud. 901; Hec. 791; 
Put. Pass. : Cure. 490, memento promisisse te argentum redditum iri. 

queror : Cist. 504, quod factum queror. 

renuntio : Bacch. 157, te esse mortuom renuntiem ; H. T. 859, 
quid nunc renuntiem abs te responsum ? And. 508. 

repromitto : Asin. 454, repromittam solutam rem futuram. 

respondeo: Present: Cure. 334; Merc. 943; M. G. 179; Perfect: 
Capt. 899, tuom advenisse filium respondeo. 

rumor est: And. 185, meum gnatum rumor est amare; Hec. 39, 
rumor venit datum iri gladiatores. 

scribo : Cure. 591, poetam audivi scripsisse mulieres duas peiores 
esse quam unam; Phor. 6, nusquam insanum scripsit adulesculen- 
tulum cervam videre fugere ; Asin. 760. 

signum : H. T. 298, magnum hoc quoque signumst dominam esse 
extra noxiam. 

simulo (18) : Present : Men. 125, se uxori simulat male loqui ; 
And. 472, hanc simulant parere ; H. T. 943 ; Hec. 184 ; 188 ; Turp. 
84 ; Perfect : Epid. 373, quae se emptam simulet ; True. 18. 

spondeo : Epid. 8, spondeo me accepturum ; Trin. 1162, filiam 
tuain sponden mi uxorem dari ? 

testis : Present : Capt. 5, testes estis me verum loqui ; Perfect : 
Amph. 919, testem te hue non venisse ; Men. 812; Future: Capt. 
426, Iovem testem laudo me infidelem non futurum Philocrati; 428; 
Pseud. 514. 

verba inicio : H. T. 892, iniecisse verba Dromonem scilicet sponsae 
vestem opus esse. 

372 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

vinco : Amph. 433, vincon te non esse Sosiam ? Cato, fr. (Jord.) 
77, 3, vincam nequissinmm et indocile esse genus illoruin. 

voveo : Cure. 72, me inferre Veneri vovi iaientaculum ; 181, Venerin 
pervigilare te vovisti ; both with fut. force. 

Verba Sentiendi. 

accipio: M. G. 1287, quom multos multa admisse acceperim; And. 
397, si te aequo animo ferre accipiet. 

adspicio : Merc. 220, aspicit te timidum esse ; Hec. 367, postquam 
me aspexere ancillae advenisse; Enn. Ann. 260, quom aspiciunt 
hostes accedere. 

animum advorto : Phor. 909, id vos velle animum advorteram. 

arbitror (61) : Present : Amph. 675, me meum ofneium facere 
arbitror ; And. 60, id arbitror esse utile ; Aul. 120 ; And. 812 ; 959 ; 
Perfect : Eud. 537, iure optumo me elavisse arbitror ; Asin. 461 ; 
Hec. 839, me f ecisse arbitror ; Future : Hec. 299, turn matrem me aut 
uxorem in culpa inventurum arbitror. 

audio (57) : Present: Amph. 752, audivistin hodie me illi dicere? 
Cist. 170 ; And. 474, postquam ante ostium me audivit stare ; 858 
H. T. 421 ; Perfect : Bacch. 949, Ulixem audivi fuisse audacem 
Cure. 591 ; Phor. 39, erilem filium duxisse audio uxorem ; 575 
Future: And. 173, ubi nuptias futuras esse audivit; Pass.: 177, 
postquam audierat non datum iri filio uxorem suo. 

ausculto : Pseud. 523a, satis lubenter te ausculto loqui. 

censeo (over 100 instances) : Present: Asin. 485, erum nos fugitare 
censes? Men. 636; 924; Eun. 217, censen posse me perpeti? 720; 
1072; Present with fut. force: Aul. 528, aes censet dari; Most. 
1005, ne me vocare censeas ; Perfect : Aul. 240, ne me thensauros 
repperisse censeas; Bacch. 342; Phor. 327, quot me censes homines 
deverberasse ? Future : Pers. 415, non mihi censebas copiam argenti 
fore; Trin. 71. 

cerno: Cist. 1, quom ego antehac te amavi et mihi amicam esse 
crevi ; Ace. 289, Amfilocurn hue vadere cerno ; 499, te cerno vadere ; 
675 ; Titin. 50, simul ut pueras hasce suspirare crevi. 

cogito : Capt. 432, cogitato hinc mea fide mitti domum te ; Aul. 591 ; 
Poen. 240 ; Ad. 32, uxor te amare cogitat ; Cato, Agr. 3, 2 ; 39, 2. 

cognosco: Present: Cist. 179, earn cognoscit esse quam coin- 

Verba Sentiendi. 373 

presserat; Men. 429; Poen. 1374; Perfect: Hec. 811, cognosse 
anulum ilium gnatae suae fuisse; Epid. Arg. 6. 

cognitio facta est : Hec. 831, inde est cognitio facta Philumenam 
compressam esse. 

commemini : Men. 1074, non commeministi te mecum exire ex 

comperio(r) : And. 90, comperiebam nil ad Pamphilum attinere ; 
145; 902, dum'ne ab hoc me falli comperiar; Hec. 763; Ace. 601. 

confido : Future only : Cure. 143, confido parasitum liodie adven- 
turum; Merc. 746; Pers. 286; 627; Poen. 1165 ; Kud. 633; Trin. 
460 ; H. T. 159, ilium salvom adventurum esse confido ; Inf. in 
-assere: Aul. 687, istuc confido me impetrassere ; Capt. 167, ilium 
confido me reconciliassere. 

confidential M. G. 229, confidentiast nos inimicos profligare posse; 
Pseud. 763, confidentiast inimicos me posse perdere. 

coniectura : And. Alt. Ex. 18, id ita esse f acere coniecturam ex me 

conscius : Hec. 392, parturire earn nee gravidam ex te solus con- 
sents ; Ad. 348, conscia milii sum a me culpam esse banc procul. 

consentio: Aul. Calatinus, Baehrens, p. 37, bunc consentiunt pri- 
marium fuisse virum ; CIL, i, 31, bone oinom ploirume cosentiont 
optumo fuise viro. 

conspicio : Enn. Ann. 55 ? 20, conspicit inde sibi data Komulus esse 

conspicor : Present : Baccb. 279, lembum conspicor exornarier ; 
Cas. 40 ; Cure. 595 ; Baccb. 669 ; Perfect : Ampb. 1070, illam geminos 
peperisse conspicor. 

credo (over 150 instances): Present: M. G. 1391, omnis se amare 
credit; Cas. 217; 759; And. 341, quern credo toto me oppido 
quaerere ; 432 ; Cato, Agr. 64, 1 ; Perfect : Aul. 815, credo ilium 
anum adiisse ; Bud. 397 ; H. T. 623, ne quid credas me facere esse 
ausam ; Eun. 679, an tu bunc credidisti esse ad nos deductum ; Future : 
Asin. 398, credo eum adf uturum ; Kud. 1186 ; H. T. 591, quid ilium 
porro credas facturum ? Eun. 739; Future in -assere: M. G. 1128, 
credo te facile impetrassere. 

deputo : Amph. 159, me omnes esse dignum deputent ; Pbor. 246, 
omne id deputare esse in lucro ; 251 ; Hec. 477 ; 799. 

374 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

diiudico : Amph. 677, quam esse optumam diiudicat. 

duco (9): Present: Amph. 839, non illam mi hi dotem duco esse; 
Capt. 436 ; Most. 125 ; Pers. 637 ; Trin. 638 ; Af ran. 324 ; Perfect : 
Cure. 513, male dictum id esse duco; H. T. 836, quas pro alimentis 
esse nunc duco datas ; Gracchus, Meyer, p. 233, gloriae sibi ducebat, 
talentum ob imam fabulam datum esse. 

existumo: (11): Present: Capt. 325, non lucrum omne esse utile 
existumo; Most. 305; 909; Eun. 758, metuo qualem me esse homi- 
nem existumes; Phor. 369; Hec. 7c; 604; Lucil. 548; Perfect: 
Stich. 162, minus laboris cepisse illam existumo; Ad. 13, furtumne 
factum existumetis an locum reprensum. 

experior: Stich. 509, te amicum experior esse; True. 529, id ita 
esse experta es; nunc experiere me te amare; Bacch. 387. 

falsus sum : Aul. 123, haud falsa sum nos odiosas haberi. 

fides, fidem habeo : H. T. 571, mihi fides apud hunc est nil me 
istius f acturum ; Eun. 139, si fidem habeat se iri praepositum tibi. 

habeo pro, sic habeo : Asin. 628, qui pro cibo habeas te verberari ; 
Cato, Agr. Prooem. sic habuerunt et ita in legibus posiverunt furem 
dupli condemnari. 

indaudio: Capt. 30, indaudivit captum esse equitem Aleum ; M. G-. 
442, hie sororem esse indaudivi; Stich. 77, quasi indaudiverim eas 
meruisse culpam ; Aul. 266. 

inspecto : Eud. 1021, inspectavi procul te hunc habere. 

intellego (37) : Present : Bacch. 344, id mi haud licere intellego ; 
Cas. 11; Cist. 627; And. 500, an tute intellexti hoc adsimulari? 
H. T. 412; Perfect: Bacch. 390, ilium intellego invenisse; Epid. 
281; Men. 497; H. T. 843, te intellego resipisse; Future: H. T. 
478, si intellexerit prius proditurum te tuam vitam ; Pass. Periphr. 
Pud. 101, villain integundam intellego totam. 

invenio : Present : M. G. 1375, eum fidelem esse invenio ; Hee. 300, 
quod quoin ita esse invenero ; 845 ; Lucil. 602 ; Gracchus, Meyer, 
p. 232; Perfect: Most. 477, id adeo nos nunc factum invenimus ; 
And. 863, si quicquam inyenies me mentitum ; Hec. 777. 

iudico : Cas. 375, optumum istuc esse iudico ; Eun. 29, id ita esse 
iudicare poteritis ; Ad. 892. 

memini: Present: Cist. 552, mihi memini adferri parvolam 
puellam; Cure. 651; Epid. 554; 639; Men. 1113; Pseud. 1089; 

Verba Sentiendi. 375 

Asin. 926; Asin. 333; H. T. 626, meministin te maxumo opere 
edicere nolle tolli ; Phor. 74 ; Hec. 822 ; Naev. Trag. 6, auri f onte 
lavere me memini manum; Trag. Incert. 193 ; Enn. Ann. 10, memini 
me fiere pavom ; Perfect : Cure. 490, memento promisisse te ; Aul. 
258, illud memineris convenisse. 

in memoriam regredior, in memoria habeo : Capt. 1023, in memoriam 
regredior audisse me; Poen. 1278, facito in memoria habeas tuam 
filiam mihi te despondisse. 

nescio: Bacch. 814, nescis nnnc venire te; Capt. 29; Enn. 736, 
nescibam id dicere illam ; Lucil. 22, si me nescire hoe nescis. 

nosco, novi: Ad. 862, id esse veriim qnoivis facilest noscere ; 
Eun. 778, imperatoris virtntem noveram et vim militum ; sine san- 
guine hoc non posse fieri. 

obliviscor: Merc. 481, satine ut oblitus fui tibi me narravisse; 
True. 235, qui, quod dedit, id oblitust datum. 

opinor (21) : Present : Cas. 473, non opinor fieri hoc posse ; Epid. 
306 ; Hec. 772, neque has respicere deos opinor ; Ad. 648 ; Perfect : 
Hec. 95, haud opinor commode fin em statuisse orationi militem; 845 '•> 
Future: Pers. 257, neque opinabar neque eensebam earn fore mihi 
occasionem ; And. 387. 

opinio est : Cist. 320, hanc earn esse opinio est. 

percipio : Asin. 36 ; 162, magis istuc percipimus lingua dici quam 
f actis fore ; Most. 727 ; Lttcil. 728. 

perdisco : Asin. 187, perdidici istaec esse vera. 

persentisco: Merc. 687, poterat persentiscere illam esse amicam 
tui viri. 

praesentio : And. 839, quom me adesse neuter praesenserat. 

puto (35) : Present : Amph. 284, deos esse tui similis putas ; Cure. 
511; And. 113, haec putabam esse humani ingeni; H. T. 115, me 
putavit plus scire; Cato, Agr. Ill; 114, 1; Perfect: Merc. 350, 
induci ut putet matri ancillam emptam esse illam; H. T. 842, me 
fortunatissumum factum puto esse ; Future : Merc. 654, amorem te 
hie relicturum putas? Most. 195; Hec. 500, is sibi me supplica- 
turum putat? 

reor (28) : Present : Amph. 656, quos nemo posse superari ratus 
est ; Aul. 205 ; Hec. 581, te quod me amare rebar ; Perfect : Most. 
158, nee quom me melius rear esse deficatam ; Ace. 96, tu meam 

876 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

benevolentiam interisse es ratus ? Future : Hec. 819, uxorem quam 
numquam est ratus se habiturum. 

reperio : Hec. 58, quam paueos reperias fidelis evenire amatores ! 
Ad. 861. 

rescisco (9) : Present : Merc. 380, non vereor ne illam me amare 
hie potuerit resciscere; And. 400, puerum ne resciscat mi esse ex 
ilia; H. T. 670; Perfect: Capt. 945, ubi rescivi mihi data esse 
verba ; Merc. 107 ; Hec. 208, me immerito esse accusatam post 

scio (over 100 instances) : Present : Amph. 510, te sciat operam 
dare ; Men. 251 ; And. 95, scias posse habere iam ipsum suae vitae 
modum ; 859 ; Pres. with fut. force ; Most. 17, te in pistrinum scis 
actutum tradier ; Cato, Agr. 1, 5 ; 143, 1 ; Perfect : Aul. 729, 
scit peperisse filiam ; H. T. 396, me semper scio f ecisse sedulo ; 
Future : Pseud. 115, ut me ecfecturum quod promisi scias ; H. T. 
176, illam hie adf uturum hodie scio ; Fut. Passive : Cas. 699, nisi se 
sciat vilico non datum iri. 

scilicet: Cure. 263, item alios deos facturos scilicet; Pud. 395, 
nunc earn cum navi scilicet abisse pessum in altum; H. T. 359, 
scilicet facturum me esse ; 892. 

scisco : Bacch. 302, ut illi id factum sciscerent. 

sentio (43) : Present : Capt. 140, sensi filio meo te esse amicum ; 
Cas. 58 ; And. 173, ita Davom modo timere sensi ; 196 ; Perfect : 
Epid. 92a, ubi senserit sibi data esse verba; Merc. 334; H. T. 
860, ne sentiat me sensisse. 

somnio: M. G. 392, id me insimulatam falsum esse somniavi; 
Pers. 257 ; Ad. 724, tu de psaltria me somnias agere ; Enn. Frag. 
499 (Baehr.), videbar somniare me esse mortuom. 

specto : Amph. 152, spectantibus Iovem et Mercurium facer e 
histrioniam ; Eud. 1249, spectavi comicos ad istunc modum sapi- 
enter dicta dicere. 

spero (30) : Present, with fut. force : Eud. 589, itaque alvom 
prodi speravit nobis salsis poculis ; 996 ; True. 936 ; Eun. 520, sperat 
se a me avellere ; 920 ; Future : Amph. 718, speravi istam parituram 
filium ; Capt. 780 ; Cas. 53 ; Perfect : Capt. 757; And. 407, orationem 
sperat invenisse se ; H. T. 746 ; Eun. 203. 

spes : Capt. 957, ne spem ponas me bonae frugi fore ; Epid 332,, 

Verba Affectuum. 377 

spes est fore mecuin fortunam ; Stich. 22 y spes est eum melius fac- 
turum ; H. T. 981, est spes nos esituros satis ; Phor. 691, iniectast 
spes patri posse illam extrudi ; Future Pass. : True. 886, spes tactuiri 
(= factum in) militem. 

spicio : Cure. 155, re spicio nihili meam vos gratiam facere. 

suspicor (15) : Present : Aul. 110, me suspicentur habere ; Bacch. 
61; Mere. 925; Eun. 435, earn me amare suspicatast; Perfect: 
Bacch. 683, Bacchidem suspieabar mi male consuluisse ; Merc. 254 ; 
H. T. 1014, subditum se suspicatur; Puture : Hee. 365, suspicans 
rnorbo me visurum adfectam. 

suspicio : Bacch. 890, sentio suspicio quae te sollicitet : eum esse 
cum ilia muliere ; Cist. 317, suspiciost earn esse ; Pseud. 562 f sus- 
picio est mi nunc vos suspicarier; Eun. 514, turn erat suspicio dolo 
malo haec fieri omnia. 

video (over 100 instances) : Present : Amph. 41, alios vidi com- 
memorare quae bona vobis fecissent; Bacch. 292; And. 363, intro 
ire neminem video; Perfect: Cist. 298, video te Amoris tactum 
toxico; Poen. 68 -, St. 411; Trim 109; Eun. 1015, ubi vestem vidit 
illam esse eum indutum ; Hee. 680 ; Future : Trim 721, video cacu- 
lam militarem me futurum. 

videlicet : Stich. 555, videlicet parcum f uisse ilium senem ; 557, 
videlicet non fuisse ilium nequam adulescentem ; Asin. 599. 

Verba Affectuum. 

admiror: Amph. 89, quid admirati estis Iovem facere histri- 
oniam ? 

crucior : Capt. 600, crucior lapidem non habere me ; H. T. 673 

euro : Lucil. 536, coquos non curat caudam insignem esse. 

demiror: Cas. 219, coquos demiror eo condimento non utier; 
Merc. 698. 

discrucior: Bacch. 435, propter me haec nunc meo sodali dici 

doleo : Most. Arg. 10, se derisum dolet. 

fero graviter : And. 191, graviter sibi dari uxorem ferunt. 

ferox est: Asin. 468, ferox est xx minas meas tractare sese. 

forrnido: Bacch. 237, mens formidat animus nostrum tam diu 
desidere neque redire filium. 

378 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

gaudeo (22): Present: Bacch. 185, venire tu me gaudes; 456- 
Cist. 777 ; Eun. 976, salvom te ad venire gaudeo ; Perfect : Cas. 568 
quern litem perdidisse gaudeo; Men. 1134; Most. 448; H. T. 816, 
me istuc ex te prius audisse gaudeo. 

gratias ago : Phor. 596, dis gratias agebat tempus sibi dari. 

gratulor : Stich. 386, decumam esse adauctam tibi quam vovi 
gratulor; H. T. 880, desiste deos gratulando obtundere tuam esse 
inventam gnatam. 

gratiam habeo: And. 42, id gratum fuisse advorsum te habeo 

ira incendor : Hec. 562, incendor ira esse ausam f aeere haec te. 

invideo: Bacch. 543, nullus est quoi non invideant rem secundam 

laetor : H. T. 683, istuc tibi optigisse laetor ; Hec. 833. 

laetus sum : Naev. Trag. 15, laetus sum laudari me abs te. 

maereo : Matius, 1, corpora Graiorum maerebat mandier igni. 

maestus sum : Cure. 336, abeo ab illo maestus med ilio frustra 
advenisse ; Most. 796, sed ut maestust sese hasce vendidisse ! 

miror : Cas. 539, miror hue iam non arcessi uxorem meam ; Most. 
186; Poen. 233; 1347. 

moror (with nil) : Bacch. 153, nil moror discipulos mi esse iam 
plenos sanguinis; Cist. 778; Epid. 686; M. G-. 447; Poen. 1273; 
Trin. 337 ; Ace. 8. 

odi : Com. Incert. 95, odi puerulos praecoqui sapientia. 

patior (31) : Cist. 500, patierin me peiierare ? Men. 1010 ; And. 
203, ubivis facilius passus sim me deludier ; H. T. 443 ; Ace. 8 ; 
aegre patior : Bacch. 492, viden ut aegre patitur gnatum esse corrup- 
tum tuom? Merc. 251; Poen. 1071; Enn. Trag. 91. 

pendo nili : Eun. 94, istuc abs te factum nili penderem ! 

perfero: Most. 1170, aliud quidvis impetrari a me facilius 

perpetior: Capt. 88, nisi qui colaphos perpeti potes frangique 
aulas in caput ; 132; Amph. 887; Asin. 845; Trin. 660; 732; 1165; 
Eun. 551, nunc est profecto interrlci quom perpeti me possum. 

rideo: Naev. Com. 120, risi egomet mecum cassabundum ire 

tolero: Enn. Ann. 91, ferro se caedi quam his dictis toleraret. 

Verba Voluntatis. 379 

vereor : M. G. 1284, ni sciam, verear me hoc ornatu incedere. 
voluptatem capio : Afran. 357, voluptatem capio cruciari te. 

Verba Voluntatis. 

abnuto : Enn. Trag. 306, quid te adiri abnutas ? 

cogo : Capt. 13, histrionem cogis mendicarier ; Epid. 586 ; Pseud. 
150; Hec. 243, ut te cogam quae ego imperem facere; Ad. 652; 
Lucil. 746, tibi me haec ostendere cogunt ; 785. 

constituo : Hec. 195, constitui cum quodam hospite me esse ilium 
conventuram ; 437. 

consuefacio : Ad. 74, consuefacere filium sua sponte recte facere. 

cupio (18): Aul. 172, cupio filiam desponderi; Cas. 397, omnis 
te imitari cupis ; Cure. 724; Epid. 77; Most. 61; 301; Poen. 870; 
Pseud. 448 ; 468 ; Most. 349, Iupiter me perisse cupit ; H. T. 428, 
quoius te fieri participem cupis ; Hec. 265 ; Ad. 698 ; Pacuv. 287, me 
perbitere £upio. 

decerno : And. 238, uxorem decrerat dare se mi hodie ; H. T. 147 ; 
940 ; Hec. 148 ; 542 ; Put. : Hec. 586, ego rus abituram me esse decrevi. 

dehortor: Cato, fr. (Jord.) 27, 1, multa me dehortata sunt hue 

desidero : Cas. 423, plura verba (fieri) non desidero ; Merc. 148 ; 
Stich. 514. 

exopto : M. G. 1135, quos videre exoptabam me, exeuntis video. 

expeto : Most. 128, nituntur ut alii sibi esse illorum similis expe- 
tant ; 62S, id me scire expeto ; Trin. 365 ; 652 ; Perfect : Hec. 727, 
non hoc de nihilost quod me nunc conventam esse expetit; Pacuv. 
206, di me esse adiutam expetunt. 

gestio : Asin. 788, illam moveri gestio ; Phor. 260, ipsum gestio 
dari mi in conspectum. 

impero : Cato, Agr. 141, 1, impera suovetaurilia circumagi. 

induco in animum : H. T. 49, eum esse quaestum in animum 
induxi maxumum ; Hec. 292. 

induco animum: Trin. 704, id me commissurum ne animum in- 
duxeris ; CIL, i, 201, 6, ea animum nostrum non indoucebamus ita 
facta esse ; And. 572, si istuc animum induxti esse utile ; H. T. 41 ; 
Hec. 264; 277; Scipio, Meyer, p. 214; Cato, fr. (Jord.) 42, 9; Pas- 
sive : Pers. 67, animus induci potest eum esse civem bonum. 

380 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

iubeo (very frequent): Bacch. 95, argentum iubebo iam intus 
eeferri f oras ; Epid. 68 ; H. T. 585, iube hunc abire aliquo ! 
Hec. 301. 

malo (38): Am ph. 511, faxim ted Amphitruonem esse malis ; Asin. 
121, moriri sese mavolet ; 811, emori me malim ; Baceh. 452 ; 465, 
ilium meum malum promptare malim quam peculium ; 490 ; 519c ; 
859 ; 1118, nisi mavoltis fores comminui ; Capt. 516, nunc est quom 
me fuisse quam esse mavelim ; Cas. 290 ; Cist. 766, illius istanc esse 
malo gratiam ; Men. 720 ; Most. 179, laudari multo malo quam mearu 
speciem alios inridere ; Pers. 602, te malo eumpse adire ; Poen. 301 ; 
303; Eud. 853; Stich. 80; True. 153; 277; 743; Yid. xiii; xv; 
And. 430, se illam amplecti maluit ; 529, quid alias quam hodie has 
fieri nuptias? H. T. 26S-, Eun. 66; 762; Phor. 658; Hec. 540; Ad. 
311 ; Enn. Trag. 358, eos reduci quam relinqui malui ; Ace. 18 ; 
Stat. 49, nisi sese malit pessum dari; Afran. 34; Naev. B. P. 39, 
sese perire mavolunt. In this construction the subject of the infini- 
tive is more usually the same as that of the governing verb. 

moneo : Plaut. Frag. 26, ubi is te monebat esse. 

nolo (46): Amph. 86, mirari nolim vos ; 751; Asin. 386, nolo fores 
verberarier; 658; 789; Bacch. 99; 1064; Capt. 264; 587; 942, te 
nolim suscensere ; Cist. 83, nolo me meretricem dicier ; 232, me nolo 
f ortem perhiberi virum ; Cure. 316 ; Epid. 42 ; 70 ; Merc. 420 ; Most. 
176; 194; 287; 332; Pers. 613; 619; Poen. 1005 ; 1037; 1079, 
te moneri num nevis ? 1267; Pseud. 492; 714; Eud. 619; qui se 
scelere fieri nolunt nobilis ; 1404 ; Stich. 48 ; 630 ; 720 ; Trin. 281 ; 
685; 979; 1060; True. 546; And. 573, nolo tibi ullum commodum 
in me claudier; H. T. 323; 433; Hec. 348; 593; 758; Ad. 162, 
hanc iniuriam nolle factam esse (perfect); Stat. 183, tu minim non 
vis odiosam tibi esse? In this construction the subject of the 
infinitive is more usually not the same as that of the governing verb. 

opto: And. 797, quae sese inhoneste optavit parere ditias; 962, 
quern ego mihi potissumum optera. dari? Enn. Ann. 403, omnes 
mortales sese laudarier optant; Lucil. 201, ipsum quid facere optes; 
H. T. 757. 

perdoceo : Pseud. 874, quanti istuc unum me coquinare perdoces ? 

pervolo : Cas. 862, nunc pervelim progrediri senem. 

peto : Pseud. 683, quod cupienter dari petimus nobis. 

Verba Voluntatis. 381 

porceo : Lucil. 200, non te porro procedere porcent. 

postulo : Amph. 891, fieri quod illaec postulat ; Asin. 189, te earn 
ductare postules ; 506; Aul. 361; Capt. 339, ego me amitti non pos- 
tulo ; Cas. 127; 141; 193, postulat vilico suo se dare; Cist. 374; 
Men. 443 ; 766, quae viros supservire sibi postulant ; 795 ; M. G. 302, 
mi nil credi postulo ; Poen. 544 ; Pseud. 378 ; 438 ; 853 ; Rud. 990 ; 
Stich. 488 ; Trin. 237 ; 1022 ; True. 142 ; 863 ; 928 ; And. 331 postu- 
lare id gratiae adponi sibi ; 644 ; H. T. 671 ; 1011, iniquos es, qui 
me tacere postules ; Eun. 480 ; Hec. 564 ; Ad. 200 ; 879, a meis me 
amari postulo ; Future : Rud. 543, iam postulabas te totam Siciliam 
devoraturum ? 

praeopto : Hec. 532, adeon pervicaci esse animo ut puerum prae- 
optares perire. 

prohibeo : Epitaph of App. Claudius (Dessau, i, p. 16), pacem fieri 
cum Pyrrho rege prohibuit ; Aul. 435, prohibes nos coquere ; Cure. 
35, nemo ire quemquam prohibet ; Trin. 370 ; Hec. 266, quae res te 
facere id prohibet ? Ace. 440. 

sino (very frequent) : Amph. 264, neque hunc hominem sinam 
aecedere ; Bacch. 174 ; Eun. 124 ; Ad. 97 ; Lucil. 645. 

studeo: Amph. 892, si me illam studeam recipere ; Asin. 67, ego 
me id facere studeo ; Stich. 52, neque est quor studeam has nuptias 
mutarier; And. Alt. Ex. 9; Eun. 1, si quisquamst qui placere se 
studeat bonis ; 313 ; Phor. 767, dici nos bonos studemus ; Hec. 265 ; 
Ace. 21, cuiatis stirpem f unditus fligi studet ; Afran. 197, quern mihi 
studeo iam dudum dari. 

suadeo: Hec. 481, nunc me pietas matris commodum suadet 
sequi ; Phor. 828 is uncertain. 

subigo : Lucil. 752, tun me succedere aratro subigas ? 

tardo : Trag. Incert. 170, ilium ut maeror tardaret sequi. 

volo (very frequent, — over 250 instances) : 

a) The subject of the infinitive is the same as that of the govern- 
ing verb (30) : Amph. 662, id se volt experiri ; Asin. 183 ; volt placere 
sese amicae ; 687, exorarier vis ted ; Aul. 823 ; Capt. 920, si sese uti 
volet ; Cas. 287, id velim me scire ; Epid. 120, operam Epidici nunc 
me emere velim ; M. Gr. 678, me volo vivere ; Most. 167, volo me 
placere Phil olachi ; 218; 856; Pers. 62; 825; Poen. 265, an te vis 
inter istas vorsarier ? 338; 340; Pseud. 167; 329; 1042; 1189, 

382 Infinitive with Subject Accusative as Object. 

fricari sese ex antique* volunt ; Rud. 209 ; Stich. 422, volo me eleu- 
theria capere ; 701 ; Trin. 324 ; True. 922, gaudere aliqui me volo ; 
927; Eun. 248, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt; Ad. 504, 
si vos voltis perhiberi probos ; Pacuv. 23, qui sese adfines esse ad 
causandum volunt ; Ace. 5, ea me uti volo. 

b) The subject of the infinitive is different from that of the 
governing verb (200 -f ), e.g. Amph. 5, res rationesque bene expedire 
voltis ; 8 ; 13 ; 593, id volo dici ; 769 ; Asin. 16, vis gnatum superesse ; 
646, vin erum deludi ? Aul. 87, araneas servari volo ; 149, volo te 
uxorem ducere; Bacch. 58, apud me te esse volo; 76; 93; 530; 
Capt. 175, te vocari ad te ad cenam volo; 360; Cas. 281, te volo 
mecum loqui; 732, nisi me vis vomere; Cist. 29, nil volunt nos 
potesse ; 148 ; 591 ; Cure. 133, hoc volo scire te ; 65S ; Epid. 114, 
quid me vis facere ; Men. 51, si quis quid curari sibi velit ; Merc. 272, 
illunc hircum castrari volo; 776; M. G. 96, volo vos scire; 906; 
Most. 100 ; 628 ; Pers. 510, hospitium isti praehiberi volo ; 515 ; 
Poen. 657, locum sibi velle praeberier ; 681 ; Rud. 33 ; 183 ; Stich. 
98, quibus voluisti esse nos matres familias ; 103 ; Trin. 9 ; 39 ; 
True. 558, puras esse sibi volt aedis ; 840 ; And. 50, quid facere te 
velim ; 898 ; H. T. 164 ; Eun. 283, num quern evocari hinc vis foras ? 
979; Phor. 291, num quid me facere voluisti ? 305; Hec. 252; 473; 
Ad. 399, ut quisque suom volt esse, itast ; Ace. 488 ; Stat. 51 ; 261 ; 
Turp. 37; 146; Enn. Ann. 143, 4; 345; 391; Lucil. 127; 480; 
Scipio, Meyer, p. 214 ; Cato, Agr. 2, 6 ; fr. (Jord.) 25, 4. 

In a few instances we have the perfect infinitive in this construc- 
tion : Amph. 33, iustam rem esse oratam a vobis volo ; Cas. 21, vos 
omnes opere magno esse oratos volo ; Phor. 792, virum me natum 
vellem. In Phor. 792 the perfect denotes prior action; in the 
other examples the action looks towards the future, and the force of 
the tense does not differ from the present. 

In a number of passages sometimes taken as perfect infinitives 
with omitted esse, we should probably recognize merely predicate 
participles. See under Participles, p. 438. 

voto : Asin. 522, te votui eompellare ; 536 ; Capt. 703, votuin te 
quicquam mi falsum proloqui ? Epid. 67a; Men. 848; Mere. 110; 
M. G. 830; Poen. 456, votui exta prosicarier; Pseud. 1291; True. 
641 ; Afran. 93, votuit me remeare in ludum. 

Dependent on the Context. 383 

Dependent on the Context. 

Often the infinitive with subject accusative is not dependent upon 
any particular word, but upon the notion of saying or thinking in- 
volved in the context, e.g. Epid. 251, adlatae sunt tabellae eum 
argentum sumpsisse ; Merc. 47, iniustitiam lenonum expromere ; 
lacerari valide suam rem ; 464, at me incusato : te fecisse sedulo ; 
M. G. 262, non potuit quin sermone suo aliquem participaverit, sese 
vidisse ; M. G. 1184, Philocomasium arcessito . . . nisi eat, te solu- 
turum esse navim ; ventum operam dare ; Pers. 165, puerum volo 
mittere . . . med esse ecfecturum ; Poen. 771, id nunc his cerebrum 
uritur, me ccc Philippos facturum lucri; Pseud. 418, sermoni omni- 
bust, eum velle amicam liberare ; True. 439, ostendit sese medulli- 
tus : se mi infidelem numquam fore ; Phor. 214, par pari respondeas 
. . . vi coactum te esse ; 598, hominem ad forum iussi opperiri : eo 
me esse adducturum senem ; Ad. 162, quod te purges, hanc iniu- 
riam mihi nolle factam esse; Turp. 136, litteras misi, processe nobis 

Infinitive as Object, with Subject Accusative Understood. 

With many of the categories enumerated in the preceding pages, 
the subject accusative is often understood, both when it is the same 
as the subject of the governing verb, and when it refers to another 
person or thing. The following are the most important instances of 
this usage : 

abdico : Pacuv. 55, consanguineam esse abdicant. 

adiuro : Amph. 889, adiuret nolle esse dicta ; Hec. 268, sancte 
adiurat non posse perdurare ; Men. 655. 

adnuo : Bacch. 187, ego autem venturum adnuo ; Cure. 342. 

adsimulo : H. T. 358, istunc exora ut suam esse adsimulet ; Hec. 
235, qui scis an ea causa me odisse adsimulaverit ? 

aio : Amph. 387, ego sum ille Sosia quern tu esse aiebas ; Capt. 
365 ; And. 353, ait tibi uxorem dare hodie ; 450 ; 470 ; 688 ; Merc. 
637; H.T. 171; Eun. 315; 513; Phor. 315; 864; Hec. 238; Pacuv. 
369, insanam autem esse aiunt. 

arbitror: Amph. 908, nihilo magis es, neque ego esse arbitror; 
Bacch. 1131 ; Cas. 283 ; Hec. 215, an, quia ruri esse soleo, nescire 
arbitramini ? Ad. 401. 

384 Infinitive with Subject Accusative Understood. 

aspicio: Cas. 228, tristem stare aspicio; Ace. 184, aspicio ex 
nemore pavichim egredi. 

audio: Capt. 602, audin lapidem quaeritare? H. T. 181, huic 
filium scis esse ? : : audivi esse ; 731, audisti proxumam esse huic 
fundo ad dextram ? 

autumo : H. T. 19, neque se pigere et deinde facturum autumat; 
Pacuv. 118, aut hie est aut hie adfore actutum autumo. 

censeo : Asin. 385, nemo tetigit. : : at censebam attigisse ; 338 ; 
731; Baceh. 839; 904; Ad. 193, neque vendundam censeo, quae 

cerno : Poen. 101, quia amare cernit. 

clamito : And. 144, clamitans, comperisse. 

clamo: Bacch. 284, cum mi ipsum nomen clamaret dempturum 
esse si quid crederem. 

cognosco : Aul. 717, nam esse bonum cognosco ; Eun. 226, ut non 
cognoscas eundem esse. 

commemini : Cure. 710, non commemini dicere. 

comminiscor : Hec. 333, aliquid tulisse comminiscentur mali. 

comperio : Phor. 801, cognatam comperi esse nobis ; Hec. 779, si 
compererit crimine falso credidisse. 

concriminor : M. G. 242, si concriminatus sit earn vidisse osculari. 

confido : Capt. 696, si ille rebitet, sicut confido adfore. 

confiteor : Cist. 741, confitemur cistellam habere. 

constituo : Eun. 205, is hodie venturum ad me constituit domum ; 
cf. Hec. 195. 

credo: Am ph. 469, ilium mentiri sibi credet, neque credet hue 
profectum ; 129 ; Bacch. 1129 ; 1138 ; Capt. 559 ; Cas. 271 ; 355 ; 
H. T. 881, ut nil credas intellegere ; Eun. 118 ; 827 ; 858 ; Hec. 499; 
617; Ad. 359; 518; 750. 

cupio : Asin. 83, cupio esse quod det. 

deiero : Cas. 670, deieravit occisurum eum ; Lucil. 610, deierat 
non scripsisse et post non scripturum ; Eun. 331. 

denego: Men. 582, datum denegant quod datum est; H. T. 487, 
dare denegaris. 

dico : Amph. 345, iam faciam ut (sc. me) verum dicas dicere ; 
Asin. 806, si forte velle dixerit; Aul. 108; And. 394, die patri 
(sc. te) velle ; H. T. 726, at quom (sc. me) venturam dixero ; 768 ; 

As Object. 385 

774; 866; Phor. 627; Hec. 76; 434; 550; Ad. 151; Enn. Frag. 
479 ; Lucil. 22. 

diffido : Cato, Agr. 157, 13, quos diffidas sanos facere, facies. 

dissinmlo : Epid. 238, dissimulabam earum operam sermoni dare. 

duco : Hec, 343, qui amat quoi odio est bis facere stulte duco. 

edico : H. T. 626, meministin te edicere, si puellam parerem, nolle 

existumo : Amph. 330, vix incedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere 
existumes ; Ad. 270, coram te laudare, ne id adsentandi facere 

experior: Trin. 460, benigniorem te mihi, quam nunc experior 
esse, confldo fore; Hec. 489, amo et desidero, nam fuisse miro 
ingenio expertus sum. 

expeto : Enn.Trag. 379, quern quisque odit periisse expetit ; Pacuv. 

fama : Hec. 775, famae (me) solam id fecisse. 

fateor : Asin. 566, f ateor esse vera ; Bacch. 1013 ; Epid. 703 ; Eud. 
1358 ; And. 14, in Andriam fatetur transtulisse ; Ad. 77. 

fingo : Trag. Incert. 247, finge advenam esse. 

gaudeo : Epid. 7, venire salvom gaudeo ; M. G. 897 ; Most. 1147 ; 
H. T. 407, salvom venisse gaudeo; Hec. 353. 

gratiam habeo : Phor. 54, amo te et non neclexisse habeo gratiam. 

impero: And. 842, animo otioso (eos) esse impero; Eun. 252, 
imperavi mihi omnia adsentari; Ace. 385, (milites) signa canere ac 
tela ob moenia offerre imperant; Trag. Incert. 89, solvere imperat 
secundo rumore. 

induco animum : And. 883, quom ita animum induxisti tuom, 
quod cuperes aliquo pacto efficiundum tibi. 

induco : Amph. 914, periclitatus sum animum tuom quid faceres 
et quo pacto id ferre induceres (in a different sense from And. 883). 

inspecto : Poen. 710, egredere ut inspectes aurum lenoni dare. 

intellego : Aul. 648, ut ne (sc. te) apstulisse intellegam ; Most. 
278 ; Pseud. 459 ; Vid. 34 ; And. 517, quom intellexeras id consilium 
capere ; H. T. 979 ; Hec. 413 ; 657. 

itero: Trin. 832, fidus fuisti ; infidum esse iterant; Pacuv. 370, 
caecam esse iterant. 

iubeo: Asin. 526, (eum) accersi iubes; Cist. 592, vir si veniet, 

386 Infinitive with Subject Accusative Understood. 

iube opperirier ; 618 ; Epid. 69 ; Men. 225, cocta sunt ; iube ire accu- 
bitum; 776; Merc. 777 ; M. G. 70; 1268; 1278; Most. 377; 420; 
752; Pers. 269; 303; 314; 790; St. 248; 607; True. 585; And! 
464, quod peperisset iussit tolli; 546; 741; 955; H. T. 775, e t 
quideni iubebit posci ; 1001; Eun. 262; 836; Phor. 409; 414; Hec. 
185; Ad. 416; 429; 925. 

iuro: Cist. 98, iuravit (se) me uxorem* ducturum esse; Poen. 361 ; 
Eud. 1379; And. 728, si opus sit iurato mihi non adposisse; Hec. 
60; Cato,fr. (Jord.) 77,6. 

ius iurandum : Cato, Agr. 148, 2, ius iurandum dabit verum 

laetus sum : Eun. 392, ain tu, laetast ? : : non tarn ipso quidem 
dono, quam abs te datum esse; Phor. 820. 

malo : Eun. 796, Painphilam hue redde, nisi vi mavis eripi. 

memini: Epid. 540b, quam memini comprimere; And. 428, ego 
illam vidi: virginem forma bona memini videri. 

minor: Men. 842, minatur mihi oculos exurere; Stich. 21. 

miror : True. 204, nondum advenisse admiror ; H. T. 1001, miror 
non continuo abripi iusse. 

nego : Cas. 573, si neget (animum) adesse ; 583, negavit (se) posse ; 
698; Cist. 738, negat esse quod det; Epid. 227; Merc. 767; Most. 
735; Poen. 105; Pseud. 119; 125; Stich. 2m-, 367; 393; And. 358, 
negat vidisse; 379; Phor. 459 ; 1014. 

nolo: Bacch. 914 si non est, nolis esse; 1062; Men. 351; Trin. 
979, dum ille ne sis quem ego esse nolo; 1170; H. T. 206, scortari 
(sc. filios suos) crebro nolunt; 627; Phor. 796. 

nuntio : H. T. 892, nam ubi desponsam nuntiasti filio. 

nuntius : Merc. 667, quoniam a viro ad me advenit nuntius rus 
non iturum. 

obiecto : Merc. 411, mihi obiectent lenocinium f acere. 

opinor : Bacch. 12, Praenestinum opino esse ; ita gloriosus erat ; Cas. 
858; And. 929, hercle opinor fuisse Phaniam. 

opto : Bacch. 724, bellus, atque ut esse optabam, locus. 

patior : Ace. 365, pulsum patimini. 

percipio : Cure. 159, ne quae hie agimus erus percipiat fieri. 

polliceor: Men. 311, nummum ilium quem mihi pollicitu's dare; 
Most. 1086; And. 401, pollicitus sum suscepturum; 613; H. T. 724; 

As Object. 387 

Hec. 751, pollieerer tibi segregatum habuisse a me Painphilum; 
Lucil. 213. 

postulo : Rud. 941, nil habeo, ne tu niilii esse postules ; 393. 

praedico: And. 840, id facturas Davos praedixit mihi. 

praedico: Ace. 615, ni vestitus, maestitudo praediearent homi- 
neni esse. 

prohibeo : H. T. 573, ea f acere prohibet tua praesentia ; Pacuv. 
227, si ire conor, prohibet baetere. 

promitto : Bacch. 920, quos dare promisi militi ; Asin. 97 ; 529 ; 930 ; 
Cas. 288, Casinam promisi vilico nostro dare ; Cist. 542 ; Men. 894 ; 
Eud. 777 ; Trin. 5. 

puto : Bacch. 121 ; Cure. 557, quoi homini di sunt propitii ei non 
esse iratos puto; Poen. 1092; Phor. 21, quod adlatumst sibi esse 
rellatum putet ; 1022. 

renuntio : H. T. 661, quid renuntiavit ? : : f ecisse id quod iusseram. 

reor : Capt. 256, quom cavisse ratus est, saepe is cautor captus est ; 
Epid. 485 ; Ace. 378. 

repromitto : Cure. 667, ita repromisit, omne argentum reddere. 

respondeo : Amph. 214, respondent se et suos tutari posse. 

rumor: H. T. 16, quod rumores distulerunt malivoli, multas con- 
taminasse Graecas. 

scio : Amph. 22, scibat (vos) f acturos ; Cist. 588 ; Cure. 325 ; 331 ; 
Most. 953 ; Pers. 118 ; Stich. 336 ; And. 402, me obsecravit, qui se 
sciret non deserturum, ut darem ; 976 ; H. T. 181 ; Hec. 641 ; Ad. 402. 

scilicet: Asin. 787, scilicet facturam; Pseud. 1179; H. T. 856. 

scribo : Eun. 10, scripsit causam dicere prius unde petitur. 

sentio : Men. 481, quoniam sentio (earn) errare ; Amph. 729 ; Hec. 
638, sensit peperisse. 

sino : Amph. 453, hanc nostram adire non sinam ; Capt. 114 ; Cas. 
472; Cist. 115; 453; Pers. 318; Poen. 373; 722; Pseud. 861; Hec. 
565, edicam servis, ne ecf erri sinant ; 853 ; Ace. 365. 

spero : Stich. 71, spero ab eo impetrassere ; True. 734 ; 753 ; And. 
553, ut sperem posse avelli ; 560 ; Hec. 147 ; Lucil. 456, deplocassere 

spes: Men. 1102, spes mihi est vos inventurum fratres germanos; 
Stich. 387. 

subigo : True. 783, vis subigit verum f ateri. 

388 Infinitive with Subject Accusative Understood. 

suspicor : M. G-. 401, suspicatus es earn vidisse osculantem. 

video : Asm. 472, non vides irasci ? Capt. 420 ; Men. 953 ; Pers. 
642 5 Eun. 603, video esse; Lucil. 795. 

videlicet: Asin. 599, esse interdius videlicet Solonem. 

vinco: Most. 95, profecto esse vera vincam. 

volo : Asin. 12, Asinariam volt esse ; Cist. 506, quod dedi datum 
non vellem ; True. 118 ; H. T. 322, vis quod des illi effici ; Ad. 969 ; 
Com. Incert. 100 ; Lucil. 145. 

voto : True. 901, manus votat priusquam penes sese habeat quic- 
quam credere ; Most. 869. 

Dependent on the context : Trin. 102, te volturium vocant : hos- 
tisne an civis comedis parvi pendere ; H. T. 605, orat ut det : post 

Aequom censeo Type. 

In a number of passages we have an infinitive with subject accu- 
sative used as object of a verb, accompanied by aequom, or some 
similar word standing in predicate relation to the object infinitive, e.g. 

aequom censeo : Asin. 229, die quid me aequom censes pro ilia 
tibi dare ! Aul. 597 ; Capt. 301 ; Epid. 552, tuae memoriae interpre- 
tari me aequom censes ; Merc. 569, etiamst quod te facere aequom 
censeo; Trin. 304, meum animum tibi servitutem servire aequom 
censui ; cf. Poen. 794, amicos consulam quo me modo suspendere 
aequom censeant, where me may serve both as subject and object; 
Cato, fr. Jord. 64, 6, vim in corpus liberum non aequom censuere 

fas existumo : Asin. 514, neque id me facere fas existumo. 

acceptum, sanctius, habeo : Most. 247, si acceptum sat habes tibi 
fore ilium amicum sempiternum; Cato, fr. Jord. 59, 7, maiores 
sanctius habuere defendi pupillos quam clientem non fallere. 

Passive Construction of Verbs Taking the Infinitive with 
Subject Accusative as Object. 

A few verbs taking the infinitive with subject accusative in the 
active are found used personally in the passive with a dependent 
infinitive Q Nominativus cum Infinitivo ? ), e.g. 

adducor : Af ran. 290, adducor ferre humana humanitus. 

arguo : Cato, f r. Jord. 24, 5, quod arguatur male facere voluisse. 

Nominativus cum Infinitive*. 389 

dico : Asm. 382, ubi dicitur habitare ; Men. 10, ubi factum dicitur ; 
Pseud. 870, dicitur ,fecisse ; Rud. 161, Herculis socius esse diceris ; 
True. 84, is nunc dicitur yenturus peregre ; Asin. 313 ; Cist. Too ; 
Frag. 73 ; Pacuv. 167, prius data est quam tibi dari dicta (dico = pro- 
mitto) ; Ace. 530, in quos delatus locos dicitur ; 535 ; ]STaev. Com. 2, 
dicitur geminum occidisse ; Gracchus, Meyer, p. 230, quin appetisse 
dicamini ; 233 ; Cato, Agr. 6, 4 ; f r. Jord. 15, 10. 

digno : Ace. 474, cui dignabor dari ? 

existimo : Cato, Agr. Prooem., amplissime laudari existimabatur. 

fero: Ace. 669, quorum genitor fertur esse ops gentibus. 

invenio : Poen. 1171, ut haec inveniantur esse huius filiae. 

itero : Ace. 3 (Baehrens), quae Cronia esse iterantur. 

iubeo : Phor. 416, iussast dari ; CIL, i, 198, 63, quo die iusei erant 

monstro: Poen. 959, in hisce habitare monstratust regionibus. 

renuntio : And. 499, quasi non tibi renuntiata sint haec sic fore. 

perhibeo : Men. 408, qui perhibere natus esse in Sicilia; Pers. 202, 
nullus esse peior perhibetur; Stich. 25, esse aurei perhibentur; 
Trim 692. 

reperio : Cas. 1013, haec Casina huius reperietur filia esse. 

subigo : Amph. 1143, mea vi subactast facere. 

video (frequent): Aul. 803, esse in vado videtur; Amph. 303, iam 
pridem videtur factum ; And. 757, adeon videmur vobis esse idonei 
in quibus sic inludatis ? Eun. 454, audire vocem visa sum militis. 

voto : Phor. 864, ait esse votitum accedere. 

After the analogy of dicor we find clueo with the infinitive, e.g. 
Bacch. 925, Atridae cluent fecisse f acinus maxumum ; Ace. 533, unde 
ignis cluet mortalibus divisus ; Enn. Praet. 1, esse cluebat miserrimus. 

Except with dicor and videor the construction ISTominativus cum 
Infinitivo is rare ; with videor it occurs with great frequency, as it 
does in the classical period. 

Infinitive (with Subject Accusative) as Subject. 

The infinitive with subject accusative is used as subject with a 
large variety of impersonal verbs, and with a few other expressions. 

acceptum est: Merc. 655, si id fore ita sat animo acceptum est; 
Most. 224. 

390 Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

accidit : Amph. 171, quodquomque homini accidit lubere, posse 

adparet : Eun. 486, adparet servom hunc esse domini pauperis, 
aegre est : Capt. 129, aegre est mi hunc f acere quaestum carcerarium. 
aequom est (60) : Amph. 851, quid aequomst fieri ? Bacch. 29 ; 
398 ; 524 ; Capt. 259 ; Epid. 257, si aequom siet me plus sapere quam 
vos ; Eud. 715 ; H. T. 203, huncine erat aequom ex illius more 
vivere? Eun. 42; Phor. 673; Hec. 868; Ad. 255) 675; Enn. Trag. 
137 ; Titin. 134 ; Cato, Jord. 24, 14. 

aequius est, videtur : Cas. 265, ilium mi aequius est quam me illi 
concedere; Men. 1010, me perirest aequius; Merc. 549; M. G. 515; 
Eud. 269, aequius vos erat candidatas venire ; 322 ; Stich. 97 ; 290 ; 
Trin. 119, ei rei operam dare te fuerat aequius ; 1040, ubi malos 
mores adfigi fuerat aequius ; M. G. 517, med expurgare haec tibi 
videtur aequius; Trin. 551. 

aequissimum est : Eud. 1246, semper cavere hoc sapientis aequis- 

aliud est : Cato, Erag. 44, 4, aliud est properare, aliud est f estinare. 
auditum est: And. 534, ex te auditum qui aibant filiam meam 
nubere tuo gnato ; with f ut. force. 

auguratum est : Ace. Praet. 38, auguratum est rem Eomanam pub- 
licam summam fore. 

bene est : Trin. 52, bene est illam valere. 

certum est: Merc. 644, certumst ire me; Stich. 141, certumne est 
neutram persequi imperium patris ? Eun. 704, iam satis certumst 
virginem vitiatam esse ? Hec. 583, nunc tibi me certumst gratiam 
referre ; Turp. 180, certum ac deliberatum est me illis obsequi ; Enn. 
Ann. 143, 7, eorundem libertati me parcere certum est. In the 
Eunuchus passage, certum est is employed in the unusual sense of 

certa res est : Merc. 857, certa rest me usque quaerere illam. 
certissumum est: Men. 1058, certissumumst mepte potius fieri 

clam me est : Hec. 577, non clam me est tibi me esse suspectam. 
condecet : True. 227, meretricem similem sentis esse condecet. 
conducit : Bacch. 764, non conducit huic sycophantiae senem tran- 
quillum esse. 

As Subject. 391 

consentaneum est : Cure. 165, procul amaiitem abesse hau consen- 

constat : Lucil. 172, unum concidisse senem constat. 

convenit: Bacch. 659, vorsipellem frugi convenit esse hominem ; 
Eud. 703, ignoscere Ms te convenit ; Trin. 681, non convenit me in 
ditiis esse ; H. T. 165, non convenit nunc me ipsum fugere ; Eun. 494. 

convicium est : Merc. 59, convicium (esse), me annos iam se pascere. 

credibile est : Merc. 210, neque credibilest forma eximia mulierem 
earn me emisse matri. 

cruciat : M. G. 617, quid est quod cruciat ? : : me tibi facinora 
puerilia obicere. 

curatum est : Bacch. 1067, curatum est esse te senem miserrumum. 

decet : In many cases it is impossible to determine with certainty 
whether we have the infinitive with subject accusative, or whether 
the accusative depends upon decet. The following are the most 
certain illustrations of the infinitive with subject accusative : Amph. 
35, iniusta a iustis impetrari non decet ; 267, decet et facta moresque 
huius habere me similis ; Asin. 81, me habere honorem decet ; 
833; Bacch. 640, hunc hominem decet auro expendi, huic decet 
statuam statui ; Capt. 321, ne patri decere videatur magis me satu- 
rum servire ; Cas. 230, non decet esse te tarn tristem ; Cist. 22, decet 
pol, mea Selenium, hunc esse ordinem benevolentis inter se ; Cure. 
332 ; Epid. 443 ; Men. 453 ; Poen. 1186 ; Pseud. 1225 ; Eud. 407 ; 
702 ; Stich. 443 ; Trin. 548 ; And. 16, disputant contaminari non 
decere f abulas ; H. T. 132 ; Hec. 252 ; Naev. Com. 22 ff. 

decorum est: Asin. 508, an decorum est advorsari meis te prae- 
ceptis? 689; 701. 

decretum est : Asin. 73, eos me decretumst persequi mores. 

dictum est: And. 796, in hac habitasse platea dictumst Chrysi- 

difficile est : Trin. 620, difficilest reperiri amicum. 

dignum est : M. G. 723, huic homini dignumst divitias esse et diu 
vitam dari ; Trin. 1045 ; H. T. 108, ego quod me in te sit facere 
dignum invenero. 

dispudet : Eun. 832, dispudet sic mihi data esse verba. 

dubium est : Hec. 326, perisse me haud dubium est. 

evenit : Cist. 309, opportune evenit rediisse Alcesimarchum. 

392 Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

expedit : Afran. 278, ut scire possis ad quo te expediat loqui ; 
Lucil. 543 ; Cato, Agr. 3, 2. 

fallit : H. T. 514, me fefellit hosce id struere. 

fas est : H. T. 149, nee fas esse ulla me voluptate frui ; Bacch. 
1025, nunc si me fas est opsecrare ; Ace. 157. 

flagitium est : Poen. 965, flagitiumst te pati ; Ad. 102, non est 
flagitium adulescentulum scortari ? 112. 

f ortasse : Epid. 296, xl f ortasse earn posse emi minis ; Merc. 782 ; 
True. 680, parasitum te fortasse dicere; Hec. 313, fortasse unum 
verbum inter eas iram hanc concivisse. 

gaudio est : And. Alt. Ex. 13, mihi non minus est gaudio me rep- 

gratum est : Capt. 414, te meminisse id gratum est mihi. 

grave est: And. 566, istuc periculum in filia fieri grave est. 

honestum est: Hec. 151, earn ludibrio haberi neque honestum 

honestius est : Asin. 820, me honestiust hanc rem facere. 

humanum est : Hec. 552, nonne ea dissimulare nos magis huma- 
num est ? 

iniquom est : Scaurus, Meyer, p. 242, est enim iniquom apud alios 
me rationem vitae reddere. 

inscitiast : Eun. 1071, vos non facere inscitiast. 

iniurium est: Aul. 699, me illi irasci iniurium est; Hec. 73. 

interest : Trin. 130, quid interest dare te in manus argentum amanti 
homini ? 

intermissum est : Most. 959, est haud intermissum scorta duci. 

ita est : Aul. 688, si ita est, te compressisse virginem. 

ius est : Pers. 106, pernam ius est adponi frigidam ; Ad. 686. 

licet: Cas. 706, redire me ut liceat; 89; Asin. 421; Pers. 291; 
774; Pseud. 16; Trin. 21; True. 747; H. T. 401; 666, non licet 
hominem esse saepe ita ut volt; 672; Eun. 550; Hec. 11; 207; 
Afran. 118 ; CIL, i, 199, 5, quern agrum eos vendere heredemque 
sequi licet. The relative infrequency of this construction is in 
marked contrast with the common use of the infinitive without sub- 
ject accusative in connection with licet; see below, p. 409. 

lubet : And. 958, at mihi nunc sic esse hoc verum lubet. 

longum est : And. 977, longum est ilium me exspectare. 

As Subject. 393 

melius est (15) : Amph. 664, redire meliust nos ; Asm. 249 ; Cure. 
417; Epid. 669; Men. 329; not in Terence. 

in mentem est : Baceh. 161, ecquid in mentem est tibi patrem tibi 
esse ? 

in mentem yenit : Aul. 228, in mentem venit te bovem esse ; Baech. 
1193; Pers. 388; Plaut. Frag. 156; Phor. 652. 

mirum est ; mira videntur : Baceh. 179, mirum est me te quaesere ; 
Cas. 259; M. G. 321; Men. 361, mihi mira videntur te hie stare 
f oris ; so True. 669. 

mirabile est : H. T. 387, vos esse istius modi et nos non esse haud 

miseria est : M. G. 68, nimiast miseria nimis pulchrum esse 

miserum est : Epid. 136, miserum est ingratum esse homini id 
quod facias bene. 

miseret: H. T. 750, miseret me tantum devenisse ad eum mali. 

molestiae est : Eud. 830, num molestiaest me adire ad illas ? 

mos est: Capt. 198, servitus si evenit, ei vos morigerari mos 
bonust; Ad. 532. 

necesse (necessus) est: Pseud. 995, necesse est hodie Sicyoni me 
esse ; True. 222 ; And. 372, quasi necessus sit te illam uxorem ducere ; 
Eun. 1075, necessest multum accipere Thaidem ; Hec. 304, nescio 
quid necessest evenisse; Naev. Com. 106. 

nefas est : Ace. 280, petere a me id quod nef as sit concedi tibi. 

nihil est : Cas. 286, nihil est me cupere factum. 

nimium est : Cato, Agr. 57, eos non est nimium in annos singulos 
vini quadrantalia decern ebibere. 

nobile est: Trim 828, nobilest pauperibus te parcere solitum. 

nuntiatum est : Stich. 676, quoniam nuntiatum est istarum venturos 

officium : Trim 174, quid fuit officium meum me facere ? 

operae pretium est : M. G. 31, ne hercle operae pretium quidemst 
mihi te narrare. 

oportet (102) : 

a) Following the present. This is the commonest usage (85) : 
Amph. 268, me malum esse oportet atque hunc pellere ; Capt. 283, id 
Orcum scire oportet; Stich. 68, pati nos oportet quod ille faciat; 

394 Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

And. 786, hanc oportet abripi ; H. T. 546, te adiutare oportet ; Cato, 
Agr. 2, 7 ; Amph. 1031, prodigum te fuisse oportet in adulescentia, 
shows the perfect inf. 

b) Following the perfect and imperfect. 

1) The infinitive more commonly stands in the perfect, — 
probably as a result of the desire to emphasize the reference to the 
past: Amph. 740, te Iovi comprecatam oportuit; Cas. 766, cenam 
iam esse coctam oportuit; Epid. 11, quam te iam diu perdidisse 
oportuit; Men. 194, si amabas, iam oportebat nasum abreptum; 
M. G. 1336, aurem admotam oportuit ; Poen. 526, pridie nos te hue 
duxisse oportuit; Trin. 416; True. 510; And. 238, oportuit prae- 
scisse me ; Eun. 981, oportuit rem praenarrasse me ; Ad. 214 ; Stat. 
9, gratulatum med oportebat (codd : me oporteat). 

2) In the following instances we find the present infinitive with 
oportuit : Aul. 180, neque magister quern dividere argentum oportuit ; 
Capt. 294, hie fecit hominem frugi ut facere oportuit; Eun. 1012, 
credere oportuit te ; Phor. 70, regem me esse oportuit ; Ad. 672, an 
sedere oportuit domi virginem ? Cato, Agr. 2, 3, centones, cuculiones 
familiam oportuisse sibi sarcire ; 2, 4 ; CIL, i, 200, 61, quantum 
numerum hominum in coloniam deduci oportuit licuitve. 

optumum est : Turp. 56, quam legere te optumum esset. 

opus est : Bacch. 988a, quid me tibi adesse opus est ? Capt. 553 ; 
Merc. 917, non opus est intro te ire ; Pseud. 1255 ; Stich. 81 ; 232 ; 
Phor. 560, opus est mihi Phormionem adiutorem dari; Hec. 409; 
Ad. 625 ; Naev. Sat. 66 , quod sciri opus est. 

par est : Amph. 832, quam me vereri et metuerest par maxume ; 
Capt. 147; Bacch. 620; Pers. 800; Stich. 512; Trin. 230; Cure. 110b; 
Hec. 561, aderam quoius consilio par fuerat ea prospici ; 739 ; 867 ; 
Ace. 137, magis me par est tibi consulere et parcere. 

par videtur : Amph. 493, deum non par videtur facere ; 959. 

patris est : And. 187, ea me exquirere iniqui patris est. 

piaculum est: True. 223, piaculumst miserere nos hominum rei 
male gerentum. 

perdoliscit: Ace. 317, nee perdoliscit fligi socios, morte campos 

periculum est : Eud. 144, nullumst periculum te hinc ire inpransum 
domum ; Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 33, 1. 

As Subject. 395 

peropus est : And. 265, nunc peropus est hunc cum ipsa loqui. 

placet : Amph. 310, non placet me hoc noctis esse ; Hec. 866. 

placabilius est: Phor. 961, id nosmet indicare placabilius est; 
Ad. 608. 

praestat: Bacch. 396, impendiosum praestat te quam ingratum 

praestabilius : Hec. 284, quanto fuerat praestabilius ubivis gen- 
tium agere aetatem quam haec ita esse me resciscere. 

pravitas est : H. T. 973, quae istast pravitas id obesse huic ! 

prodest : Afran. 13, quid prodest istuc te blaterare ! 

prostibuli est: Cist. 331, nam meretricem adstare in via solam 
prostibuli est. 

pulchrum est : Ace. 148, tropaeum ferre me a forti viro pulcrum est. 

pudet : Bacch. 1007, pudet prodire me ad te in conspectum ; 
1155a j Epid. 168, quid est quod pudendum siet, genere gnatam 
bono ducere te uxorem ! H. T. 260, quoius nunc pudet me monuisse 
frustra neque eum potuisse me aspellere; Hec. 231, cum puella anum 
suscepisse inimicitias non pudet ? Ad. 690, si te mi ipsum puduit 
proloqui. Some other passages are taken by certain scholars as 
belonging under this category, but in these the accusative is best 
taken as depending directly upon pudet; see below, p. 411, and cf. 
above under decet, p. 391. 

pudicitiast : Stich. 100, pudicitiast eos nos magnuficare. 

rectius est : Ad. 920, multo rectiust quam illam duci per viam. 

refert: Bacch. 704, quid mi refert Chrysalo esse nomen ? Cas. 529, 
quid me amare refert? Cure. 555-, Epid. 116; 133; M. G. 882; 
Pseud. 1085 ; True. 394. 

renuntiatum est: Aul. 604, earn renuntiatum est dari, with fut. 
force; Men. 1127. 

sat est : Poen. 250, sat est isfcuc alios dicere nobis ; Phor. 724, non 
satis est tuom te omcium fecisse ; Enn. Ann. 276, vetusta virum non 
est satis bella moveri. 

satius est : Amph. 176, satius est me queri ; 1017 ; Bacch. 395 ; 
Cas. Ill; Cure. 266-, Epid. 60; Merc. 656 ; Poen. 552; Trin. 311; 
True. 926 ; And. 307, quanto satius est te id dare operam ! H. T. 
969 ; Eun. 772 ; Hec. 730, ne quid faciam plus quod post me minus 
fecisse satius sit (perfect) ; Ad. 29. 

396 Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

scelus videtur: Merc. 209, scelus videtur me parenti proloqui 

servile est : Poen. 523, servile (servuli, G) esse dueo f estinantem 

spectatum est : Poen. 823, satis spectatum est deos eius neclegere 

stabile est : Bacch. 520, stabilest me patri aurum reddere. 

stultitia est: Cas. 282, stultitia est te esse tristem; 563; Pers. 

suavius est : Pers. 540, te de aliis quam alios de te suaviust fieri 

subolet : H. T. 899, ne subolat esse amieam hanc Cliniae. 

susurratur: And. 779, iam susurrari audio civem Atticam esse 

turpe est : Phor. 913, nunc viduam extrudi turpest. 

utile est : H. T. 199, nam in metu esse hune illist utile ; Ad. 341. 

veri simile est : Aul. Ill, veri simile non est hominem pauperem 
pauxillum parvi facere. 

videtur: Cure. 262, neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pen- 
dere visum est ; Ace. Praet. 19, visum est pastorem ad me adpellere 
pecus lanigerum ; CIL, i, 542, hoc dare sese visum animo suo. 

volup est: Eud. 892, volup est me his mulierculis auxilium 

Infinitive as Subject with Subject Accusative Understood. 

With many verbs and expressions already enumerated as taking 
the infinitive with subject accusative, we find at times also the 
infinitive with subject accusative understood. The following are 
examples of this usage : 

addecet : Bacch. 128, (te) mutum esse addecet ; Pseud. 568. 

aequom est : Stich. 131, non aequomst (nos) abduci ; 548 ; Phor. 
450, quod te absente hie films egit, restitui in integrum aequomst. 

certum est : Men. 977, bonum (me) esse certumst. 

condecet : Aul. 590, qui ero ex sententia servire servos postulat, 
in erum matura condecet capessere. 

convenit : Ace. 193, cuius sit vita indeeoris, mortem fugere turpem 
haut convenit. 

As Subject. 397 

decet : Amph. 836, quae non deliquit, decet audacem esse ; Men. 
88 ; Pseud. 1127. 

fortasse : Poen. 1004, fortasse medicos nos esse arbitrarier. 

iniquom est : Hec. 740, inscitum (me) offerre iniuriam tibi ini- 
quoin est. 

melius est : Eud. 141 (te) iubere meliust prandium ornari domi. 

mirandum est : Capt. 158, non mirandum est (eos) fugitare hanc 

mirum est: M. G. 354, totiens (te) monere mirumst; 922. 

necesse est : Cist. 46, necessest quo tu me modo voles esse, ita esse; 
Asin. 217. 

oportet (frequently) : Amph. 322, atque hau longe abesse oportet ; 
944, primum (te) cavisse oportuit; Aul. 754, non (earn) attactam 
oportuit; 757; Bacch. 400; 819; Cas. 571 ; Cist. 584, at non missam 
oportuit ; Epid. 270 ; Men. 995 ; M. G. 47 ; Pers. 273 ; Kud. 1385 ; 
Stich. 112; 130; 726; Trin. 1092, visne aquam petam? :: res quom 
animam agebat, turn esse offusam oportuit; And. 239, nonne prius 
communicatum oportuit; H. T. 635, interemptam (earn) oportuit; 
Ad. 659. 

optumum est : True. 626, iam te conficiam; (te) occidi optumum est. 

opus est : Most. 287, quid opust, quod suom esse nolit, (id) ei ultro 
ostentarier ? 

suavius est : Bacch.. 1045, si plus perdundum sit, (id) periisse 
suaviust quam, etc. 

superbum est: Hec. 155, reddi (earn) patri, quoi nil dicas viti, 

volup est : Phor. 610, (te) venire salvom volup est. 

vostrum est: Poen. 572, hau vostrumst (vos) iracundos esse. 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative, used as an Appositive. 

The infinitive with subject accusative (occasionally understood) 
is also used with considerable freedom as an appositive, especially 
after hoc, haec, id, istuc, istaec; occasionally with certain other pro- 
nouns, and a few nouns. But it is to bo noted that this usage is 
confined to sentences containing some verb or expression which regu- 
larly takes the construction of the infinitive with subject accusative, 
so that while the infinitive in the following examples is not directly 

398 Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

dependent upon a governing verb, yet, as a rule, its appositional use 
is undoubtedly partly due to the presence of such verb. 

hoc : Asin. 407, quid hoc sit, neminem meum dictum magni 
facere ? Aul. 128, hoc cogitato tibi proxumam me esse ; 226, venit 
hoc mi in mentem, ted esse divitem ; Bacch. 1099, hoc est demum 
quod percrucior, me ludificari ; Capt. 61 (iniquom est) ; 701 (aegre 
est); Cist. 774 (fabulor) ; Merc. 243; M. G. 1349 (vitio vortat) ; Pseud. 
642, hoc scio, f ebrim tibi esse ; Eud. 22 (in animum inducunt) ; 187, 
hoc deo complacitumst, med in incertas regiones eiectam ; Stich. 11 
(crucior) ; Trin. 793 (dico) ; 1132 (miror) ; And. 409, crede hoc mihi, 
numquam tecum commutaturum patreni unum verbum; Eun. 199 
(scio); 660 (suspicor); 766 (dico); 857; 1069 (credo); Hec. 155 
(cognosco) ; Ad. 272 (dolet) ; Ad. 803 ; Lucil. 435 (video) ; the phrase 
hoc tmum occurs with scio in Most. 72 ; And. 281 ; 506 ; Eun. 877. 
In a few of the above examples, the subject ace. of the appositive is 
understood. Sometimes hoc is attracted to the gender of a predicate 
noun, e.g. Epid. 431, haec stultitiast me illi vitio vortere quod facti- 
tavi ; Stich. 729. 

haec (plu.): Merc. 797, Demiphoni haec eloquar, me istanc pro- 
tracturum esse in viam ; Ad. 964. 

id : Amph. 561, praedicare id, domi te esse ; Bacch. 98 (flagitium 
est) ; Capt. 195 (volo) ; 564 (planum est) ; Cas. 429 (aegre est) ; M. G. 
475 (palam est) ; Rud. 397, id maestast sibi evenisse inopiam ; 1201 
(miror) ; Stich. 446 ; And. 180, id voluit, nos duci f also gaudio ; 671 
(puto); 811 (facile est); 835 (utilest) ; H. T. 324; 471 (subsentio); 
922 (flagitium est); Eun. 724 (dico); 998 (gaudeo) ; Phor. 906 
(nuntio); Hec. 476 (testor); Ad. 682 (dolet); M. G. 683. 

istuc: Capt. 638, satin istuc exquisitum est, fuisse hunc servom 
in Alide? Merc. 985 (ius est); M. G. 1321 (crucior); Pseud. 313; 
Stich. 718, haud tuom istuc est te vereri ; H. T. 1028. 

istaec : Pseud. 430, istaec quae tibi renuntiantur, filium te velle 
argento circumducere ; Merc. 764, palam istaec hunt te me odisse ; 
attraction, M. G. 878, stultitia istaec sit, me ire in opus alienum. 

illud: H. T. 422, illud falsumst, diem adimere aegritudinem 
hominibus. With attraction: M. G. 703, ilia laus est, liberos 
hominem educare. 

quod: Ace. 206, quod esse arbitror periclum, misceri genus. 

As Appositive and Predicate. 399 

aliquid: M. G-. 1067, quin respondes aliquid, aut facturum aut 
non facturum (with subject ace. te understood)? 

With nouns : 

audacia: Pseud. 1298, quae istaec audacia, te sic cum corolla 
ebrium ingrediri ? 

causa : Hec. 677, hanc ubi dixti causam, te propter tuam matrem 
non posse habere uxorem. 

facinus : Ace. Praet. 26, contueri mirificum f acinus, orbem flam- 
meum solis linquier cursu. 

factum : Capt. 684, erit mi hoc factum memorabile me meum erum 
fecisse liberum. 

fama: Trin. 689, ne mi hanc famam differant, me meam sororem 

fallacia: And. 220 ff., fingunt quandam f allaciam, civem Atticam 
esse hanc. 

opus : Cato, Agr. 2, 3, quae opera fieri potuerint, dolia lavari, 
frumentum transferri, stercus efferri, etc. 

res : Bacch* 770, illaec res est magnae dividiae mihi, supterfugisse 
Chrysalum ; Cist. 102. 

responsum : Phor. 16, responsum hoc habeat, in medio omnibus 
palm am esse positam. 

unum : Merc. 266, unum scio, me periisse. 

verbum: Merc. 771, yerum illud verbum esse experior: aliquid 
mali esse propter vicinum malum. 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative, used as Predicate. 

The only instance I have noted is : Merc. 620, istucine est operam 
dare bonum sodalem ! 

As Object. 

This use occurs with the following verbs and expressions : 

A. Denoting Another Action of the Same Subject. 

abnuo : Enn. Ann. 193, certare abnueo. 
abstineo : Cure. 180, dum mihi abstineant invidere. 
adfecto: Bacch. 377, quibus patrem et me adfectas ad probrum 

400 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 

adgredior: Enn. Ann. 4*38, adgretus fari; cf. Paulus, p. 5, Th., 
pro eo quod est adgressus ponitur. 

adorno : Epid. 690, tragulam in te inicere adornat. 

adpeto : Turp. 159, oculi adpetunt cupide intui. 

adsimulo : Cist. 96, adsimulare amare oportet ; Trag. Incert. 57. 

adsuetus : Asin. 887, ire adsuetum. 

agito : Eud. 936, magnas res agito in mentem instruere. 

apparo : Asin. 434, delenire apparas. 

attendo (—persevero) : Ace. 279, ne attenderis petere a me ! 

audeo (very frequent) : Aul. 663, non audebit abstrudere ; And. 
505 ; H. T. 156 ; Eun. 619 ; Phor. 758. 

calleo : Pacuv. 75, callent dominum imperia metuere. 

caveo : Cato, Agr. 20, 1, eo plumbum effundere caveat. 

cerno : Lucil. 160, praesidium castris educere crevit ; 332. 

certo : Enn. Ann. 304, 3, fluctus extollere certant. 

cesso (frequent) : Trin. 1135, quid ego cesso hos conloqui ? Cure. 
672; Epid. 342; Pers. 197; And. 846; Eun. 265 ; Phor. 252. 

coepi (very frequent) : Epid. 248, coepi ad illas accedere ; Men. 483 ; 
H. T. 97 ; Eun. 116 ; coeptus sum : Men. 718, itaque coepta appeliari 
est Canes. 

cogito : Amph. 319, me quasi murenam exossare cogitat ; Merc. 
316 ; Poen. 1419 ; Pseud. 475 ; H. T. 607, quid nunc f acere cogitas ? 
Eun. 777 ; 897 ; Afran. 46 ; Cato, Agr. 1, 1 ; 3, 1 (bis). 

commemini: Cure. 710, non commemini dicere ; M. G. 645. 

comparo : Titin. 57, ut cum ea comparemus conloqui. 

comperco : Poen. 350, comperce me attrectare. 

compesco : Bacch. 463, compesce in ilium dicere iniuste ! 

concesso : Poen. 219, numquam concessamus lavari. 

condisco: Cure. 161, merum condidicit bibere; 534; Poen. 514; 
Pseud. 945. 

conor : Trin. 1150, quod conatus sum agere ; Asin. 213 ; Capt. 62 ; 
Enn. Trag. 5; Pacuv. 65; 227; Afran. 47; Lucil. 796; 862; Val. 
Aed. 1. 

constituo: Phor. 676, mihi dotem iam constituerunt dare. 

consuesco : Pers. 170, mandata non consuevi simul bibere ; consue- 
tus : Aul. 637, id quidem te datare consuetum ; Pacuv. 261. 

cuncto : Ace. 72, cunctant subferre laborem. 

As Object. 401 

cupio (very frequent) : Cure. 590, cupio dare mercedem ; Aul. 771 ; 
True. 185 ; H. T. 449 ; Eun. 145 ; 561 ; Enn. Ann. 170. 

cupido: Enn. Trag. 216, cupido cepit me proloqui caelo Medeai 

euro: Lucil. 423, Persiuin non euro legere; Cato, Agr. 141, 1, uti 
cures lustrare. 

cura : Enn. Ann. 90, ingens eura mis cum concordibus aequiperare. 

debeo : Amph. 39, debetis velle quae velimus; Pers. 160. 

decerno: And. 219, quidquid peperisset, decreverunt tollere; 
Lucil. 37. 

def etiscor : Phor. 589, neque defetiscar usque adeo experirier. 

depropero : Poen. 321, deproperant sacruficare. 

desino : Men. 122, virum observare desines ; Aul. 523; Bacch. 100; 
439 ; Men. 405 ; Pseud. 307 ; And. 22 ; H. T. 879 ; Eun. 16; Hec. 810. 

desisto : Bacch. 1171, ut desistas ire oppugnatum ; Cist. 582 ; Men. 
245; Pud. 682; Trin. 1012; And. 660; Hec. 105; Ace. 172. 

digno : Pacuv. 166, quoin neque me aspicere aequales dignarent ; 
212; Acc.447. 

disco (16) : Amph. 687, didici dicere ; Cas. 362 ; Merc. 147 ; 508 ; 
Trin. 631 ; Ad. 125, pater esse disce ab illis qui sciunt ; Afran. 255 ; 

do operam : Hec. 553, quam dare operam id scire. 

dubito : Epid. 260, quid istuc dubitas dicere ? Bacch. 1117 ; M. G-. 
1008; Poen. 789; Pseud. 625; 1313; Ace. 294; 360; Com. Incert. 36. 

duro : True. 326, non quis parumper durare opperirier ? 

enitor : And. 596, gnatum mi corrigere enitere ! 

exanclo : Ace. 269, ferre exanclavimus tyranni saevom ingenium. 

exopto : And. 20, quorum aemulari exoptat neclegentiam. 

exordior : Hec. 362, unde exordiar narrare. 

experior : Capt. 425, magis non factum possum velle quam opera 
experiar persequi ; Phor. 538 ; Lucil. 705. 

expeto : Aul. 652, audire expetis ; Asin. 27 ; Cas. 184 ; 669 ; Cist. 
554; Cure. 107; M. G. 1258; Poen. 1131; Pseud. 1087; Eud. 240; 
917; Trin. 674; H. T. 890. 

exsequor: Asin. 160, te tractare exsequor; Merc. 913. 

f atiscor : Pacuv. 154, numquam fatiscar facere quod quibo boni. 

faveo (=volo): Enn. Ann. 256, moeros complent spectare faventes. 

402 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 

f ormido : Pseud. 316, si isti formidas credere. 

f ugito : Hec. 776, quod aliae meretrices f aeere f ugitant. 

gaudeo : Ace. 32, omnes gaudent f acere recte ; Ad. 254. 

gestio : Cas. 471, iam osculari gestio ; Men. 486 ; M. Gr. 8 ; 1398 ; 
Pseud. 116 ; 1073 ; Lucil. 699. 

incipio: Asin. 448, incipit tinnire; End. 462; True. 465; 467; 
And. 493; 821; H. T. 495; Enn. Trag. 231; Ace. 368. 

incepto : Cure. 24, nuroquid facis aut inceptas f acinus f acere ? 
Trin. 1030. 

incipisso: Capt, 802, quid hie homo incipissit f acere? Trin. 

induco animurn : Baech. 1191, f acere inducam animum ; And. 834 ; 
Eun. 490 ; Hec. 99. 

induco in animum: Hec. 603, non tute incommodam rem in ani- 
mum induces pati ? 

infit : Asin. 343, infit percontarier ; Bacch. 265 ; Aul. 318 ; Merc. 
249; Eud. 51; 53. 

immemor est (= obliviscitur) : Pseud. 1104, qui ofneium f acere 
immemor est. 

insisto : Capt. 584, vide ne quid huic insistas credere ! Phor. 192 ; 
Hec. 381, hanc habere orationem institit; Ace. 134; 428; Trag. 
Incert. 57 ; Af ran. 81. 

insto : Pacuv. 249, Spartam reportare instat. 

instituo: Bacch. 1082, ego dare me meo gnato institui; Eun. 19; 
Ad. 38. 

insuesco : Capt. 306, qui imperare insueram ; Ad. 55. 

intendo : M. G. 380, pergin intendere hanc arguere ? 

laboro : Lucil. 270, labora discere ! 

lubido: Bacch. 416, est lubido homini suo animo opsequi; Epid. 
97, qui lubidost male loqui ? 240; Men. 83; Pers. 121; 188; Poen. 
1322 ; Pseud. 552 ; Trin. 626 ; S65. 

malo (16) : Poen. 706, accipere tu non mavis quam ego dare ; 
Pseud. 140; Stich. 700; Trin. 306; And. 332; H. T. 858; Phor. 
658; Hec. 110; Enn. Trag. 222; Ace. 85. 

meditor : Ad. 896, meditor esse affabilis, et bene procedit. 

memini : Stich 60, meministis petere cibum ; qui minus meminis- 
tis quod opus sit f acere ? Eun. 340, advocatus mi esse meminerit ; 

As Object. 403 

Bacch. 328. — Memento : Capt. 231, at scire memento ; Epid. 658 > 
Pseud. 1164. 

metuo: Aul. 248, metuit congrediri; Most. 1125; Pseud. 304; Trin. 
754 ; True. 353, quo intro ire metuas. 

metus: Phor. 482, quantum metuist mihi videre patruom (=me- 
tuo videre). 

minitor : Hec. 427, quod nunc minitare facere. 

mitto: Aul. 651, scrutari mitto; And. 873, mitte male loqui! so 
also Pers. 207; And. 904, mitte orare! H. T. 900, mitto iam osculari. 

neglego: Merc. 86, mea promissa non neglexit persequi; Most. 
141, optigere earn neglegens f ui ; Amph. 586. 

nego: Instances of the infinitive without subject accusative fol- 
lowing nego are taken as illustrating the infinitive with subject 
accusative understood ; see above p. 386. 

nequeo (frequent): Poen. 848, nequivit propitiare Venerem; 
1294; Bacch. 91; Capt. 592; Merc. 125; 253; H. T. 320; Eun. 
181 ; 661 ; nequitur, nequitum est : Eud. 1064, ut nequitur comprimi ! 
Erag. 109, retrahi nequitur; Pacuv. 390, quom contendi nequi- 
tum vi. 

nescio (< know how ? ) : Bacch. 581, fores pultare nescis ; M. G-. 880 ; 
Most. 606; Pers. 762; Ad. 77, fateatur nescire imperare liberis! 
220; Enn. Trag. 183; Trag. Incert. 112; Stat. 143. 

nil moror : Capt. 16, alieno (sc. aere) uti nil moror. 

nolo (very frequent): Asin. 835, nolo metui; amari mavolo; 
Bacch. 1083 ; And. 155 ; Enn. Trag. 303 ; Naev. Com. 36 ; Afran. 
310 ; Lucil. 145. 

novi: Enn. Trag. 133, ut pro viribus tacere ac fabulari noveris; 
Cato (Jord.), 36, 9, ceteros sequi si norit. 

obliviscor : Most. 487, lucernam oblitus fueram exstinguere ; Pers. 
722 ; Poen. 118 ; Pseud. 171 ; Trin. 1137 ; And. 841, sum oblitus 
dicere ; Naev. ap. Gell. i, 24, 2. 

occepto : Men. 916, iam occeptat insanire ; 934. 

occipio (frequent): Amph. 107, amare occepit; Asin. 316; 590; 
Epid. 77 ; Stich. 579 ; And. 504, si quid tibi narrare occepi ; Hec. 
116 ; occeptus sum : Eun. 22, occeptast agi. 

occulto : Pers. 493, est res quaedam quam occultabam tibi dicere. 

occupo : Most. 566, sed occupabo adire ; Poen. 320 ; Pseud. 921 ; 

404 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 

Rud. 248; Stich. 89; Enn. Trag. 140; Ace. 380, quern impetum 
oecupemus facere in regem ; 650 ; Titin. 145 ; Cato (Jord.), 24, 2. 

odi : Amph. 900, inimicos semper osa sum optuerier ; Capt. 66. 

omitto : Merc. 624, flere omitte ! Pers. 431 ; 642 ; Eun. 989, omitte 
de te dicere ; Phor. 861. 

optineo : M. G. 186, earumque artem et diseiplinam optineat 

opto : Asin. 608, me morti dedere optas ; Aul. 11 ; Hec. 651, hunc 
videre saepe optabamus diem. 

ordior : Trin. 1136, nam que hoc commodum orditur loqui. 

parco: Bacch. 910, cave parsis in eum dicere! Epid. 464; 
Pers. 312; Hec. 282, hancine ego vitam parsi perdere ! Cato, 
Agr. 1, 1. 

parito : Merc. 649, illo quo nunc ire paritas. 

paro : Enn. Ann. 320, sonitum dare voce parabant. 

percupio : Asin. 76, percupio obsequi gnato meo. 

pergo (frequent) : Amph. 262, nunc pergam eri imperium exsequi 
et me domum capessere ; Bacch. 570 ; Merc. 303 ; Trin. 162 ; True. 
265; And. 522; H. T. 237; Phor. 194. 

perpetro: True. 465, nisi id ecficere perpetrat. 

persequor : Rud. 667, ingredi persequamur. 

persevero : Stich. Arg. 1, quod perseverent peregrinantes pauperes 
sustinere fratres. 

pervolo : Epid. 536, pervelim mercedem dare. 

pigro : Ace. 294, cur prof erre haec pigrem ? Enn. Ann. 274, pigret 
scribendi ferre laborem. Cf. Ace. 32. 

ploro : Aul. 308, aquam plorat profundere. 

possum (very common) : Amph. 147, videre poterit ; Bacch. 27 ; 
M. G. 782 ; Pacuv. 100, potestur investigari ; Enn. frag. 574, retrahi 
potestur. — Potens : Enn. Ann. 231, bellum tolerare potentes. Details 
as to the occurrence of potis sum, potis, pote, belong to the history 
of forms. 

postulo (21): Amph. 789, nos delirantis facere postulat; Aul. 
589; Cas. 963; Men. 794; 1080; M. G. 437; Most. 613; Pseud. 
851 ; Rud. 709 ; And. 657, nee postulabat nunc quisquam uxorem 
dare ; Eun. 61 ; Ad. 238 ; Enn. Sat. 479, qui postulat alterum 
frustrari; Cato, fr. Jord. 39, 12. 

As Object. 405 

praefestino : Hud. 119, qui praefestinet praeloqui ; Afr. 395. 

praeopto : Capt. 687, meum me caput praeoptavisse ponere. 

praetereo: Merc. 403, quod praeterii dicere. 

propero (frequent): Aul. 181, properare propero; Bacch. 1049; 
Pers. 667 ; Phor. 436 ; 845. 

queo (frequent) : Bacch. 982, ad lacrumas coegi male dictis, 
quae quivi comminisei; Capt. 100; Merc. 588; Trin. 801; True. 
326; And. 270; 277; H. T.453; Phor. 498; Ace. 661, neque impelli 
quitus sum; Ace. Baehrens, p. 269, 18, unde omnia perdisci ac 
percipi queuntur; Hec. 572, nosci non quitast; Stat. 279, non 
sarciri quitur. 

quiesco : Most. 1173, tu quiesce hanc rem modo petere. 

remitto : And. 827, si cogites, remittas me onerare iniuriis. 

scio (' know how ') : Capt. 850, scis bene esse, si sit unde ; Cure. 620 ; 
Epid. 505; Pers. 6; 645; 762; Pseud. 226; 745; Trim 766; 769; 
H. T. 196, qui uti scit; Phor. 79; Cato, Agr. 5, 4; 143, 3. 

simulo : Aul. 463, simulavit mittere ; Cist. 96 ; Eud. 1399. 

soleo (frequent) : Bacch. 897, quod dici solet ; Capt. 70 ; Cas. 466 ; 
H. T. 363 ; 371 ; 520 ; 548. 

studeo (17) : Amph. 182, referre studeant gratiam ; Bacch. 1161 ; 
Poen. 818; And. 822; Hec. 265; Lucil. 103. 

studium : Hec. 202, viris esse advorsas studiumst (= advorsae 
esse student). 

sueo : Enn. Ann. 61, vi depugnare sues stolidi solida suent. 

tempero: Poen.22,dormiretemperent; 33; 1036; Trag.Incert.l5(?). 

tempto : Pacuv. 95, saxum temptans scandere. 

teneo (= abstineo) : Merc. 52, omnes tenerent (timer ent, Ritschl) 
credere ; ( = scio) : Bacch. 655, qui et bene facere et male tenet. 

timeo : see under teneo. 

vereor : Epid. 41, simul ire mecum veritust ; M. G. 1168 ; Trin. 
1149 ; And. 323, vereor dicere ; 488 ; 936 ; Phor. 61 ; Ad. 269 ; 
Pacuv. 67, ut verear eloqui; Ace. 157, vereor plus quam fas est 
captivam hiscere. 

volo (extremely common) : Amph. 294, volt pallium detexere ; 
360 ; Asin. 67, volo amari ; Poen. 661 ; Ad. 151 ; Enn. Ann. 55, 9 ; 
Lucil. 209. Eor the perfect infinitive used with the force of the 
present, see below under Tenses of the Infinitive (p. 427). 

406 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 


To this second subdivision belong those cases in which the infini- 
tive fulfils the function of an abstract noun: Cure. 28, ita tuom 
conferto am are (= amorem) semper ; Men. 451, qui primus commentus 
est contionem habere ; Bacch. 158, hie vereri (= verecundiam) per- 
didit ; Pers. 224, nihili facio scire (= scientiam) ; Poen. 313, ego 
amo hanc. : : at ego esse et bibere (< eating and drinking ') is also 
usually cited as an illustration of this use. 

C. Aequom censeo Type. 

In several passages we have an infinitive without subject accusa- 
tive used as object, followed by aequom, or some similar word in 
predicate relation, e.g. 

Merc. 117, hau quisquam dignum habet decedere ; 132, num 
quisquam adire dignum arbitratur; Ad. 5% non necesse habeo 
omnia pro meo iure agere ; Ace. 205, qui non sat habuit coniugem 
inlexe in stuprum ; Cato, Agr. 1, 1, ne satis habeas semel circumire ; 
fr. Jord. 24, 5, ecquis est qui aequom censeat poenas dare. 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative, Used as Subject. 

The infinitive without subject accusative is employed with a large 
number of impersonal expressions. But there are few established 
types of usage. Apart from addecet, aequom est, certum est, decet, 
decretum est, licet, lubet, melius est, necesse est, oportet, piget, pudet, 
satius est, there are few expressions which are used with free'&om in 
this construction. In fact, the large majority of expressions with 
which the construction appears occur but a single time. 

addecet: Amph. 1004, eius studio servire addecet; Cas. 199; 
Most. 902; Pers. 835; Poen. 328; 1389; Pseud. 738; Eud. 112; 
115; 1391; Stich. 518; Trin. 78; Plaut. Frag. 94; Enn. Trag. 257. 

aequom est : Amph. 29, mirari non est aequom ; Bacch. 924 ; 1017 ; 
Cas. 895; Merc. 81; M. G. 1071; Pseud. 269; Hec. 527; 620; 840. 

am arum est : Cist. 68, an amare occipere amarum est ? 

amici est : Lucil. 428, amici est bene praecipere. 

attinet : Pers. 701, quid attinet non scire ? 

As Subject. 407 

bonum est : Cure. 176, bonum est pauxillum amare ; Trin. 462 ; 
Cato, fr. Jord. 77, 2. 

capital est : Lucil. 438, seimus capital esse irascier. 

certa res est : Amph. 705, certa res hanc est obiurigare ; Merc. 857; 
M. G. 267; 398 ; Most. 706 ; Trin. 270. 

certuin est (frequent) : Asin. 247, adire certurnst mihi ; Amph. 
265, certurnst hominem eludere ; Capt. 492 ; M. G. 303 ; True. 549 ; 
And. 311 ; H. T. 466 ; Eun. 269 ; Ad. 718 ; Lucil. 590. 

commodum est : Phor. 1026, quibus est commodum ire. 

commodius est : Phor. 603, commodins esse opinor duplici spe utier. 

condecet : Turp. 127, etiam amplius apparare condecet ; Poen. 305. 

condicio : Stich. 118, utra siet condicio pensior virginemne an 
viduam habere. 

conlubet : Amph. 858, qui illi conlubitum siet sic me insimulare ; 
Merc. 258; Most. 295. 

consilium est : M. G. 344, consilium est ita facere. 

convenit : Merc. 551, rei tuae quaerendae convenit operam dare ; 
Cato, Agr. 7, 1 ; Matius, 10 (Baehr), edulcare convenit vitam curasque 
acerbas gubernare ; Ace. 193. 

decet (frequent) : Amph. 267, decet mores huius similis habere ; 
Capt. 196; M. G. 40; 616; Most. 53; Poen. 1402; True. 182; Yid. 
89 ; Eun. 789, omnia prius experiri decet ; Ad. 506 ; Enn. Ann. 58 ; 

decretum est : Aul. 572, bibere decretumst ; 574 ; Bacch. 516 ; 
Cist. 648 ; Merc. 1 ; M. G. 77 ; Most. 667 ; Stich. 218 ; Vid. 61 ; Cas. 
94; H. T. 392; 465; Enn. Ann. 325. 

delectat : Cato, f r. Jord. 3, 12, quos delectat populi Eomani res 
gestas describere. 

deliberatum est : Afran. 274, deliberatum est non tacere amplius 
(me amplius, Hermann). 

difficile est : And. 211, quoi verba dare difficilest. 

dignum est: Pseud. 1013, salutem scriptam dignumst dignis 

disciplina est: H. T. 300, disciplina eis demunerarier ancillas. 

dispudet : Bacch. 481, alia memorare quae vidi dispudet. 

distaedet : Phor. 1011, cum hoc ipso distaedet loqui. 

est : Cure. 177, totum insanum amare, hoc est, — quod meus erus 

408 Infinitive without Subject Accusative, 

f acit ; Ad. 131, ambos curare propemodum reposcere ilium est quern 
dedisti ; Cato, Agr. Prooem. 1, est interdum praestare mercaturis rem 
quaerere ; 61, 1, quid est bene arare ? Lucil. 176, salvere iubere salu- 
tem est mittere amico ; Asellio, Peter, p. 109, scribere bellum initum, 
iterare, non praedicare quid senatus deererit, id fabulas pueris est 
narrare, non historias scribere. 

expedit : Capt. 54, expediet fabulae huic operam dare ; H. T. 337, 
nil video quam ob rem accipere hunc mi expediat metum ; 388 ; Hec. 
57 ; Lucil. 482 ; Cato, Agr. 9. 

facile est : Cure. 240, facile est miserum inridere ; M. G. 917 ; Most. 
411 ; 791 ; Poen. 871 ; 974 ; Ad. 862, id esse verum quoivis facilest 
noscere ; Turp. 9. 

f acinus est : Trin. 23 , amicum castigare inmoene est f acinus. 

fas est: Enn. Prag. 511, si fas endo plagas caelestum ascendere 
quoiquam est. 

fit : Trin. 1035, petere honorem pro flagitio more fit ; so 1036. 

flagitium est: Ad. 422, nam id nobis tarn flagitiumst quam ilia 
non facere quae modo dixti. 

futtilum est: Enn. Trag. 266, saeviter suspicionem ferre falsam 
futtilum est. 

hominis est : Ad. 734, simulare certe est hominis. 

honestius est : Poen. 1232, nisi honestiust prehendi. 

humanum est: Merc. 319, humanum amare est; humanum autem 
ignoscere est. 

incidit: Phor. 157, utinam ne Phormioni id suadere in mentem 

incommodum est: Hec. 153, hoc proferre incommodum mi esse 
arbitror ; 417. 

iniurium est : Hec. 71, eandem iniuriumst esse omnibus ; 72, iniu- 
rium autem est ulcisci advorsarios ? 

inscitia est: Cure. 185, male mereri de inmerente inscitiast; Ace. 215, 
id quod multi invideant inscitiast postulare. 

insipientia est : Amph. 36, iusta ab iniustis petere insipientiast. 

intermissum est : Most. 959, est haud intermissum esse, pergrae- 
cari, fidicinas ducere. 

lepidum est : Cist. 313, lepidumst amare semper ; Pers. 266 ; Eun. 
1018, lepidum tibi visumst, nos inridere ? 

As Subject. 409 

licet (very frequent) : Amph. 388, ut liceat te alloqui ; 393, nunc 
licet mihi loqui; Asin. 935; Aul. 565] Cure. 401; Most. 239; 
Pseud. 252 ; Trin. 1173 ; H. T. 21, licere id f acere putat ; Eun. 262 ; 
Cato, Agr. Prooem. ; Lucil. 386. Apparently after this analogy, we 
find Ucentia with the inf. in Trin. 1034, scuta iacere fugereque hostis 
more habent licentiam. 

liquet : Eun. 331, illurn liquet mihi deierare his mensibus sex non 

lubet (frequent): Aul. 211, quod non lubeat proloqui ; Bacch. 
353; Cas. 262; Cure. 131; M. G. 826, qui lubitum est illi eondor- 
miscere ? Stich. 698 ; And. 816, ipsam despoliare non lubet ; Hec. 
56; Ad. 445; 766; Cato, Agr. 3, 2 ; fr. Jord. 16, 16. 

lucrum est: Ad. 216, pecuniam in loco neglegere maxumum est 
lucrum ; Phor. 61, ubi quid mihi lucri est te fallere ? 

malum : Trin. 673, insanum malumst in hospitium devorti ad 

melius est (frequent) : Men. 802, melius sanam est mentem su- 
mere; M. G. 292; 881; Pers. 346; Ad. 180, ante aedis non fecisse 
erit melius hie convicium ; Ace. 267, melius pigrasse quam depro- 
perasse est nefas ; Lucil. 634. 

meliusculum est : Cure. 489, meliusculum est monere. 

meticulosa res est: Most. 1101, nescis quam meticulosa res sit ire 
ad iudicem. 

matronae est : Most. 190, matronae est unum inservire amantem. 

in mentem est, in mentem venit : Amph. 710, qui istuc in men- 
temst ex me percontarier ? Trin. 77. 

meum est : H. T. 549, non est mentiri meum ; so also Lucil. 427. 

mirum est : Phor. 848, num. mirum aut novomst revocari ? 

miseria est: Pers. 238, oertare tecum miseriast ; Poen. 820; True. 

molestum est : M. G. 672, tibi tanto sumptui esse mihi moles- 
turn st. 

mora est : Capt. 396, quae memini, mora est monerier. 

mos est : Capt. 985, mos est hominibus oblivisci ; Cato, fr. Jord. 83, 
1, vestiri in foro honeste mos erat. 

navorum est : Enn. Ann. 295, navorum imperium servare est in- 

410 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 

necessarium est : Bud. 252, id necessarium est perpeti. 

necesse est, necessus est, necessum est : Aniph. 501, mihi necesse 
est ire ; Men. 118 ; Trin. 144 ; H. T. 209, necesse est consilia conse- 
qui consimilia; Phor. 296; Enn. Trag. 340; Cist. 626; M. G. 1118; 
Stich. 219; Afran. 396; Scipio Min., Meyer, p. 212; Eun. 998, quia 
necessus fuit hoc facere. 

nihil est : Capt. 344, nihil est ignotum ad ilium mittere ; True. 
769 ; Eun. 641. 

nostrum est : H. T. 578, nostrumst intellegere. 

odio est : Most. 705, ire dormitum odiost. 

odiosum est: Bacch. 1152, quam odiosum est mortem amplexaril 

officium est: Cas. 585, non matronarum officiumst viris alienis 
subblandirier ; True. 435 ; And. 330, ne utiquam officium liberi esse 
hominis puto postulare. 

onus est : True. 470, mulieri male facere melius onus est quam 

operae pretium est : Cas. 879, est operae pretium auribus accipere; 
Most. 842 ; Poen. 1174 ; And. 217, audire eorumst operae pretium 
audaciam; Enn. Ann. 345. 

oportet (20), much less frequent than the use of oportet with sub- 
ject accusative: Bacch. 477, itane oportet rem mandatam gerere 
amici? 759, iam bis bibisse oportuit; Cist. 96 ; Men. 167; Most. 801, 
id domum trahere oportet ; True. 169, rapere otiose oportuit ; 461, 
nullam rem oportet dolose aclgrediri ; H. T. 636, interemptam oportuit, 
non simulare mortem ; Phor. 242 ; 527, itane facere oportet ? Afran. 
319 ; Lucil. 761 ; Cist. 574, quoi illam dedisset exquisisse oportuit ; 
Cato, Agr. 1, 2, bene nitere oportebit. 

optumum est : Enn. Trag. 132, (ita) sapere opino esse optumum. 

opus est : M. Gr. 636, quid opus nota noscere ? Poen. 311 ; H. T. 
578, utquomque opus sit opsequi. 

opus (< task ? ) : Most. 379, miserum est opus igitur demum f odere 
puteum ; M.G. 682. 

par est : Poen. 1396, quid mihi par facere sit ; Bud. 675. 

patris est : Hec. 529, neque arbitrari patris est aliter. 

periculum est : Poen. 633, malo bene facere tantundemst pericu- 
lum quantum bono male facere ; Pseud. 1076 ; Cato, fr. Jord. 33, 2, 
arbitror rem publicam curare summum periculum esse. 

As Subject. 411 

pericli est : Asin. 898, quid pericli sit vitium dicere ; And. 867, 
erum quid sit pericli fallere. 

perlubet : Capt. 833, perlubet hunc hominem conloqui ; Eud. 353. 

persuasum est: Bacch. 1016, persuasumst facere. 

piaculum est : Enn. Trag. 286, palam muttire plebeio piaculum est. 

piget : Aul. 210, ne id te pigeat proloqui; Most. 415; Eud. 634; 
Trin. 348; True. 528 ; Paeuv. 44 ; 144; Cato, Agr. 1, 4, eos pigeat 

praestat : Capt. 327, est ubi damnum praestet facere quam lucrum ; 
Trin. 345. 

praestabilius est: Hec. 284, quanto fuerat praestabilius ubivis 
gentium agere aetatem ! 

principium est : Enn. Trag. 378, flagiti principium est nudare inter 
civis corpora. 

probrum est : Ace. 149, vinci nullum est probrum. 

in prolubio est : Naev. Com. 31, et volo et vereor et facere in pro- 
lubio est. 

pudet : Amph. Frag, xvii, nilne te pudet in conspectum ingredi ? 
Asin. 71; Cas. 897; Men. 708; M. G. 622; Most. 1154; Poen. 1301 ; 
Pseud. 282 ; Trin. 344 ; 787 ; H. T. 1041, pudet dicere verbum turpe ; 
Hec. 231; Ad. 562; Pacuv. 144; Ace. 103; Com. Incert. 30; Afran. 
272, me pudet aliquid sufferre Graece. Apparently after this anal- 
ogy, we find : 

pudor : Com. Inc. 60, pudor est eloqui. 

pulchrum est : Cornelia (Peter), p. 222, dices pulehrum esse ini- 
micos ulcisci. 

quantum est : Pers. 595, quantum est adhibere hominem amicum ! 

quanti est : Eun. 791, quantist sapere ! 

quid est : H. T. 971, disce quid sit vivere ! 

recipitur ('the right is reserved'): Cato, Agr. 149, 2, bubus binis 
domino pascere recipitur. 

ref ert : M. G. 809, sed quid meminisse id ref ert ? True. 71 ; 
Phor. 646. 

religio est : H. T. 228, nil esse mihi religiost dicere. 

restat : Phor. 85, restabat aliud nil nisi oculos pascere. 

ridiculum est : H. T. 353, ridiculumst istuc me admonere. 

saluti est : Capt. 555, quibus insputari saluti fuit ; Eun. 940. 

412 Infinitive without Subject Accusative. 

sat est: Stich. 692, sat est servo homini modeste facere sumptum. 

satius est (12): Bacch. 151, vixisse nimio satiust quam vivere; 
Cist. 42 ; 662 ; H. T. 474, tibi perdere talentuin satius est ; Phor. 
956 ; Ad. 58 ; Ace. 472 ; Lucil. 448. 

segnities est: Trin. 796, diem sermone terere segnities merast. 

suave est: As. 642, vobis suave est fabulari; True. 342; H. T. 
482, ut non sit suave vivere. 

scitum est : H. T. 210, scitunist periclum ex aliis facere ; 
Phor. 821. 

stultitia est : Stich. 139, stultitiast venatum ducere invitas canes. 

stultum est : Eun. 761, quod cavere possis stultum admittere est. 

taedet : Phor. 487, taedet iam audire eadem miliens. 

tuom est: Poen. 573, nee tuom est amicis iniuste loqui; And. 

usus est : Asin. 376, dico ut usust fieri ; Hec. 327, non usus factost 
mihi hunc intro sequi. 

utibile est: Phor. 690, quid minus utibile fuit quam hoc ulcus 
tangere ? 

utile esse : CIL, i, 201, 9, neque id vobis oetile esse facere. 

verbum : End. 1321, miserum verbum est habuisse et nihil habere. 

virtus est : Pers. 268, virtus est, ubi occasio admonet, dispicere. 

vis est : True. 753, vis est experirier. 

volup est: M. G-. 277, te volup est convenisse. 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative, as Appositive. 

The infinitive without subject accusative occurs as an appositive, 
especially with pronouns, also with a few nouns, as follows : 

hoc: Asin. 509, hocine est pietatem colere, matri imperium 
minuere ! Aul. 235, hoc magnumst periculum, ab asinis ad boves 
transcendere ; 587, hoc est servi facinus frugi, facere quod perse- 
quor ; 593, hoc esse oificium reor, retinere ad salutem, non impellere ; 
Capt. 750, vis haec quidem est et trahi et trudi simul ; Cure. 670, 
hoc volo, meam rem agere ; Most. 1091 ; 1165, si hoc pudet, fecisse 
sumptum; Kud. 191; And. 675, hoc tibi debeo, conari noctisque et 
dies ; Ad. 74, hoc patriumst, potius consuefacere filium sua sponte 
recte facere ; Stat. 28 ; Lucil. 914. 

As Appositive and Predicate. 413 

illud : Trin. 259, illud est dulce, esse et bibere ; 809, lepida illast 
causa, dicere apud portitores inspectas esse. 

id : Capt. 208, hau nos id deceat, f ugitivos imitari ; Merc. 744, id 
habet pro cibo, videre, amplecti, osculari ; Pseud. 576, ea stultitiast, 
facinus magnum timido cordi credere ; Trin. 697 ; H. T. 49, eum esse 
quaestum in animuin induxi maxumum, servire vostris commodis; 
Phor. 768. 

istuc : Cist. 78, matronae magis conducibile est istuc, unum amare ; 
Pseud. 448 ; H. T. 566, istaec contumeliast, hominem amicum reci- 
pere ad te ; Ace. 460. 

facinus : Eud. 393, o facinus impudicum, servire postulare ; Phor. 
613, facinus indignum, sic circumiri. 

aequom : Stich. 559, aequom postulabat, accipere pro tibicina. 

opus : Cato, Agr. 2, 5, reliqua opera curare uti perficiantur : rati- 
ones putare, argentariam, frumentariam. 

quaestus : Cist. 376, eum quaestum f acio, nil promittere. 

res: Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 9, 12, Gallia duas res persequitur, rem 
militarem et argute loqui. 

Infinitive without Subject Accusative, as Predicate. 

In this use the subject is regularly either a pronoun or another 
infinitive : 

hoc : A sin. 509, hocinest pietatem colere ? Bacch. 1068, hoc est 
incepta efheere pulchre ; Merc. 355, hoccine est amare ? Ad. 707, 
hoc est patrem esse aut hoc est filium esse ? 

id: Trin. 637, an id est sapere ? And. 896, si id peccare est; 
H. T. 324, si id saperest. 

illuc : Eun. 782, illuc est sapere. 

istuc : Hec. 608, istuc sapere est ; Ad. 386. 

Nouns : Cato, Agr. 61, 2, cetera cultura est multum sarire. 

An infinitive stands as subject in this construction in the examples 
cited above, p. 407 f., under est, as exemplifying the use of the infini- 
tive as subject. 


The infinitive used impersonally occurs both as subject and object; 
also occasionally as an appositive. 

414 The Impersonal Infinitive. 

As Object. 

The impersonal infinitive as object is found after verbs like the 
following. The list is only partial and illustrative. 

accipio : Cato, f r. Jord. 62, 6, accepi ei potius credendum esse. 

aio: Cure. 679, argentariis male credi qui aiunt; And. 534, ex te 
auditum qui aibant. 

autumo : H. T. 19, neque se pigere autumat. 

arbitror: Aul. 757, oportere arbitror; Bacch. 385; Men. 985; 
Phor. 814, eommodius esse arbitror; Hec. 153. 

audio: And. 779, iam susurrari audio. 

censeo : Cas. 411, tibi cavendum censeo ; Men. 345 ; Rud. 407 ; 
961a ; And. 794, paulum interesse censes ? H. T. 214 ; 462 ; Phor. 
457 ; Pacuv. 85. In connection with aequom as predicate, Stich. 
293, ad me adiri et supplicari mihi aequom censeo. 

clamo : Ad. 91, clamant indignissume factum esse. 

cogito : H. T. 239, non cogitas hinc longule esse ? 

confido: Amph. 935, confido fore; Capt. 171; Cist. 73; M. G. 

credo : M. G. 359, credo tibi esse perenndum ; And. 699, ut ne per 
me stetisse credat; H. T. 560; Eun. 245; Phor. 855; Hec. 141; 
Ad. 58. 

dico : Cure. 680, et bene et male credi dico ; And. 205, neque tu 
dicas tibi non praedictum ! H. T. 863. 

disputo : And. 15, disputant non decere. 

do fidem : Eun. 1060, do fidem futurum. 

duco : Men. 981, in rem esse ducunt ; Most. 814. 

existumo : Most. 814, esse existumo humani ingeni ; H. T. 30, ne 
pro se dictum existumet; Eun. 4; 5. 

f ateor : Bacch. 562, f ateor factum ; Hec. 838, factum fateor. 

gaudeo : Cist. 15, ventum gaudeo. 

glorior : H. T. 765, gloriare evenisse. 

insto: Merc. 242, instare factum simia; And. 147, instat factum. 

intellego: Capt. 766, intellego redauspicandum esse in catenas; 
Pers. 376 ; And. 4, aliter evenire intellegit ; Eun. 883 ; Ace. 119. 

invideo : True. 745, invidere alii bene esse. 

invenio : Aul. 758, invenies oportere. 

As Object. 415 

iubeo : Stich. 598, iuben ad ilium renuntiari ? 

iudico: Epid. 707, factum iudico ; M. G-. 1435; Ad. 960, iudico 
esse aequom. 

malo: And. 427, omnis sibi malle melius esse quam alteri. 

nolo : Cas. 501, argento parci nolo ; Pers. 358 ; 851 ; Pseud. 388, 
nolo bis iterari. 

opinor: Cas. 340, non opinor posse; Phor. 603, commodius esse 
opinor ; Enn. Trag. 132. 

patior : Bacch. 464, stultus es qui male aegre patere dici ; Pseud. 
1135 ; Stich. 125 ; Trin. 352 ; 586. 

promitto : Asin. 97, promitto tibi non obfuturum. 

puto : Bacch. 1083, aequom esse puto ; Amph. 172. 

renuntio : And. 508, renuntio futurum. 

reperio : Men. 683, numquam reperies factum. 

scio: Pers. 211, multi ita esse sciunt; H. T. 529; Phor. 588-, Hec. 
425 ; Lucil. 606. 

sentio: Capt. 381, recte convenisse sentio; Hec. 315, trepidari 
sentio et cursari ; Lucil. 386. 

sino : Poen. 117, sinite transigi ; Cato, Agr. 5, 2, inpune ne sinat 

specto : Eud. 1249, spectavi is plaudier. 

spero : Men. 1094, spero fore ; M. G. 1231 ; True. 189 ; H. T. 103, 
licere speras ? Phor. 1025 ; Ad. 71. 

teneo : M. G. 780, ita esse teneo. 

video: Asin. 24, video necesse esse ; Bacch. 559; 1209; Poen. 397; 
H. T. 1053. 

volo : Bacch. 83, ubi lepide voles etse tibi ; Capt. 460 ; Most. 313 ; 
Pers. 578, iri hinc volo ; Eud. 1035 ; Stich. 154, voli intervisi ; 187 ; 
563; 673; And. 198, velle ostendi; Phor. 306; 855. 

As Subject. 

The impersonal infinitive occurs less frequently as subject than as 
object. It is found with the following expressions : 

aequom est : Poen. 490, credo, ut mi aequomst credier ; Ad. 

decet : Cure. 352, neque diem decet demorarier neque nocti no- 
cerier; M. G. 737; Poen. 866. 

416 The Impersonal Infinitive. 

desitum est : Most. 958, desitum est potarier. 

inductum est : Cato, fr. Jord. 37, 22, inductum est male facere 
impoene, bene facere non impoene licere. 

intermissuni est : Most. 959, haud intermissum est bibi. 

licet : Pers. 376, lubere tibi per me licere intellego ; 377 ; 799. 

melius est : Pseud. 1, meliust exsurgier. 

miseria est : True. 745, invidere alii bene esse miseria est. 

oportet : Merc. 724, dictum oportuit ; 950, sic fieri oportet ; 
Most. 1093, factum iam esse oportuit ; Pers. 448, reditum oportuit ; 
Stich. 354 ; H. T. 200, mansum oportuit; 562 ; Ad. 955 ; Com. Incert. 
42, nee mulieri nee gremio credi oportet ; Cato, f r. Jord. 62, 10, oportet 

optumum est : Asin. 908, invadi optumumst. 

piget : Trin. 661, me piget parum te pudere. 

potest : Pseud. 268, potest obsisti ; True. 637, persuaderi potest ; 
And. 691, quam facile potuerat quiesci ! 699, si poterit fieri ; 922 ; 
H. T. 279 ; Phor. 402, dici non potest ; 640, non potuit melius 
pervenirier ; 773 ; Hec. 90 ; Ad. 302, unde emergi non potest. 

solet : Rud. 271, veniri solet. 

With desitum est, potest, and solet, it is possible, and perhaps better, 
to regard the infinitive not as subject but rather as employed after 
the analogy of the regular personal use of the infinitive with these 

Impersonal Infinitive as Appositive. 

I have noted but a single instance of this : M. G. 915, hoc cogitato, 
facile esse navem facere. 


Expressions regularly taking the infinitive are found with some 
frequency with the accusative alone (either as subject or as object) 
where the infinitive can easily be supplied from the context, e.g. 
Asin. 82, quom me adiit, ut pudentem gnatum aequomst patrem 
(sc. adire) ; Bacch. 1159, cor stimulo foditur : : aequius coxendicem 
(sc. fodi) ; Capt. 619, audibis vera (sc. esse) quae nunc falsa opinare ; 
Cas. 243, scio plus quam tu me arbitrare ; Merc. 50, negitare me na- 
tum suom ; M. G-. 1273, viri armati istuc f aciunt, ne mirere mulierem ; 

Infinitive Dependent on Nouns. 417 

Pers. 286, tu te numquam speras (sc. fore) ; 834 ; Poen. 1090 ; 1115, 
vin earn videre ? : : filias malo meas ; Rud. 47, ut se aequora est 
(facere) ; 570 ; 311, quid agitis ? : : ut piscatorem aequomst ; 1010 ; 
1033, ecquem novisti ? : : oportet vicinos meos ; 1074 ; 1075, si ille 
te comprimere solitust, hie noster nos non solet ; 1091 ; 1413 ; Stich. 
448, licet haec Athenis nobis (facere) ; 530 ; Trin. 306 ; 378 ; True. 
775, egon tibi male dicam ? : : tibi te mavelim ; H. T. 156, nee 
credere ausus quae est aequom patri; 570; 949; Eun. 279; Phor. 
113 ; 399, expedivi quibus me oportuit (sc. expedire) ; 447 ; Hec. 120, 
ille primo se negare (ducturum). 


In connection with the discussion of the infinitive with verbs, there 
were noted various nouns which took the infinitive after the analogy 
of related verbs, e.g. rumor (Hec. 39); fama (Hec. 775); Hcentia 
(Trin. 1034) ; pudor (Com. Incert. 60) ; so also fides , spes, and others. 
Different from the foregoing, in which the infinitive stands in relation 
of subject or object to the verbal idea involved in the noun, are the 
following instances, in most of which the infinitive seems to approach 
its primitive purpose function : 

modus : Men. 233, quid modi futurumst ilium quaerere ? 

occasio : Cure. 59, ut quaeque illi occasiost surrupere se ad me ; 
Capt. 423, nunc adest occasio bene facta cumulare ; Pers. 725, nunc 
est ilia occasio inimicum ulcisci ; Poen. 659, agere tuam rem occasi- 
ost ; 1212, facere occasiost ; Phor. 885, summa eludendi occasiost 
mihi nunc senes et Phaedriae curam adimere argentariam. 

opera : Men. 244, operam praeterea numquam sumam quaerere ; 
Aul. 341, domo aps te auferto, ne operam perdas poscere; Pseud. 
1141, operam fac compendi quaerere. 

tempus : Asin. 912, tempus est subducere hinc me ; Most. 714, tem- 
pus nunc est senem adloqui ; Ace. 290, datur tempus in castra reverti ; 
with subject accusative : M. G. 1218, nunc nos tempus est malas 
peiores fieri ; And. 631, ubist tempus promissa iam perfici ; H. T. 
168, sed ut diei tempus est, tempust (Bentley's addition) monere me 
hunc vicinum ; Hec. 597, tempust me concedere ; joined with occasio 
Men. 552, dum datur mi occasio tempusque abire. 

418 Infinitive with Adjectives. 


I have noted the following instances of the occurrence of the infini- 
tive with adjectives : 

animatus : True. 966, si quis animatust facere. 

defessus : Epid. 197, per omnem urbem quern sum defessus quae- 
rere ; 719, sumus def essi quaerere ; Merc. 805, defessus sum urbem 
totam pervenarier. 

aegrotus : Trin. 76, ut te videre audireque aegroti sient. 

inmortalis : M. G. 888, ea inmortalis memoriast meminisse. 

lentus : Lucil. 295, solvere nulli lentus. 

occupatus : Merc. 288, non sum occupatus amico operam dare. 

paratus : Phor. 427, paratus facere ; Enn. Ann. 170, alter pugnare 
paratust ; Ace. 434, paratus sum petere pestem. 

With paratus the infinitive is clearly to be referred to the primi- 
tive purpose use. With animatus and aegrotus we may conceive 
that the construction has been influenced by the ideas of wishing and 
the opposite involved in these expressions. With the other adjectives 
the use is loose and its precise genesis is not clear. Neglegens sum 
(Most. 141) and inmemor sum (Pseud. 1104) have been classified 
above ; with these the infinitive is used as object. 

In Andria 337, the MSS. give nisi ea quae nil opus sunt scire. 
Fabricius changed scire to sciri, in which he is followed by recent 
editors. But there seems no warrant for the change ; scire is loosely 
attached to opus } like meminisse to inmortalis in M. G. 888. 


The primitive character of this use has already been explained 
above (p. 366). The following are the chief illustrations of its occur- 
rence in Early Latin. The arrangement is according to the verbs 
after which the construction occurs. 

apparo : Asin. 601, qui sese parere apparent huius legibus. 

comparo : Eun. 48, an ita me comparem, non perpeti contumelias ? 
Turp. 99, numquam unius me comparavi servire elegantiam. 

curro: Asin. 910, ecquis currit pollinctorem accersere? 
recurro : Trin. 1015, recurre petere ! 

do: Pers. 821, bibere da! And. 484, quae iussi ei dari bibere; 

Infinitive of Purpose. 419 

Cato, Agr. 89, dato bibere ; bibere dato ; so 103 ; Titin. 78, date illi 
biber ; Lucil. 170, da bibere. 

eo : Bacch. 107, turbare qui hue it ; Bacch. 354, ibit aurum arees- 
sere ; Most. 66, ire in Piraeum volo parare piscatum ; Phor. 102, earn us 
visere; Hec. 189, it visere; 345, intro iit videre; Enn. frag. 534, 
ibant viere corollam. 

exeo : Cas. 855, eximus ludos visere. 

abeo : Bacch. 900, abivit aedem visere Minervae. 

initto : Cas. 688, hunc missa sum ludere ; Pseud. 642, reddere hoc, 
non perdere erus me misit ; Eun. 528, misit porro orare ut venirem ; 
Cael. Antip. (Peter), 101, 6. 

perrepto : Kud. 223, latebris perreptavi quaerere conservam. 

proficiscor : Rud. 847, ad me profectu's ire. 

progredior : Turp. 153, progredior foras visere quid hie tumulti. 

venio : Bacch. 631, venerat aurum petere ; Poen. 1175, qui eo 
visere venit; Rud. 94, venio visere; so Piso (Peter), 84, 4; True. 167, 
venis querimoniam referre. 

voco : True. 547, vocatus sum ire. 


Of the many explanations offered to account for the origin of this 
construction, none can be regarded as satisfactory. The earliest of 
these explanations goes back to classical times. Quintilian, viii, 6, 
21, refers to older grammarians who explained Virgil, Aen. xi, 142, 
Arcades ad portas mere, as the result of ellipsis. In ix, 3, 58, Quin- 
tilian is more explicit. Commenting on the words stupere gaudio 
Graecus occurring in a speech of Caelius, he adds : simul enim auditur 
'coepit.' So Priscian, xviii, 48, sic ergo et apud nos cum imperfectum 
sit, 'dicere coepi' pro 'dicebam,' 'scribere coepi ? pro 'scribebam'; 
per ellipsin verbi 'coepi' solent auctores proferre verba infmita, ut 
Terentius And. 146, < ego illud sedulo negare factum. 7 Deest enim 
'eoepi'; 'negare' pro 'negabam.' Other verbs were sometimes 
understood besides coepi, e.g. Servius on Virg. Aen. x, 458, ire prior 

iMohr, De infinitivo historico, Halle, 1878; Janicke, Jahrb. fur Klass. Phil. 151, 
p. 134 ff. ; Wackernagel, Verhandlungen der 39ten Philologenversammlung, p. 276 ff. ; 
Wolfflin, Archiv fiir lat. Lexikog. x, 177 ff. ; Wisen, ibid, xv, p. 282 ff. ; Kretschmer, 
Glotta, ii, p. 270 ff. 

420 Historical Infinitive. 

Pallas, says: subaudis voluit ire. In more recent times this theory 
has been revived by Janicke, op. cit. p. 134 ff. Janicke rests his 
support largely on the fact that coepi with a dependent infinitive 
often precedes the historical infinitive. But as Kretschmer justly 
observes, op. cit. p. 272, between the failure to repeat coepi with suc- 
cessive infinitives and its complete omission there is a great difference. 
J. gives no explanation why coepi alone is thus omitted and why we 
do not find instances of the omission of other verbs. Kretschmer 
further points out that even if we supply coepi with the historical 
infinitive, there are many cases in which this fails to suit the context, 
e.g. Merc. 46, obiurigare pater haec noctes et dies ; Yirg. Aen. iv, 421, 
solam nam perfidus ille te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus ; 
Ad. 863, ille suam semper egit vitam in otio, in conviviis, clemens, 
placidus nulli laedere os, adridere omnibus : sibi vixit ; sibi sumptum 

The view of Wackernagel, op. cit. p. 276 ff., makes the historical 
infinitive originally an imperative infinitive (see above, p. 366). In 
support he cites the fact that in various Slavic languages the impera- 
tive itself is thus used in narration. The usage is supposed to have 
arisen by conceiving the occurrence as the execution of an order. 
Cf. Trim 288, quod manu non queunt tangere, tantum fas habent 
quo manus abstineant ; cetera rape, trahe, f uge, late, where the im- 
peratives are equivalent to rapiunt, trahant, fugiunt, latent. So also 
Pseud. 137, eo enim ingenio hi sunt flagritribae qui haec habent con- 
silia : ubi data occasiost, rape, clepe, tene, harpaga, bibe, es, f uge. 
Psychologically therefore there is no difficulty in the development 
assumed by Wackernagel. The real difficulty in the way of accept- 
ing his theory is the absence of evidence to show that Latin origi- 
nally had the imperative infinitive, and the fact that the imperative 
itself did not in Latin (as in Slavic) become an instrument of histor- 
ical narration. 

Wisen, op. cit. p. 282 ff., explains the historical infinitive as by 
origin not an infinitive, but a perfect indicative, 3d plural (amare 
for amavere), which was erroneously identified with the infinitive. 
At the start this, of course, was equivalent only to illi amaverunt. 
Later it came to function as ille amavit, and (with subject expressed) 
as ego amavi. The usage also, according to Wisen, extended to 

Historical Infinitive. 421 

infinitives of other conjugations, monere, dicere, audire, including 
deponents, as rnirari, tuerier, etc. But a conclusive consideration 
against this theory is the fact that according to Wisen's hypothesis 
the historical infinitive should have aoristic value, whereas according 
to actual usage and the express testimony of Priscian, xviii, 48, it 
has the equivalence of the imperfect. 

Kretschmer (op. cit. p. 277 f£.) suggests that the historical infini- 
tive may have developed from some such loose descriptive use of 
the infinitive as we see in German and other modern languages, 
e.g. Goethe, Egmont, Clarchen's song: 

Freudvoll und leidvoll, gedankenvoll sein ; 
Langen und bangen in schwebender Pein, 
Himmelhoch jauchzend, zum Tode betriibt, 
Gliicklich allein ist die Seele die liebt. 

Kretschmer cites similar passages from Middle High German and 
from various modern languages, but he fails to make clear how the 
transition could take place from achronistic descriptive infinitives 
of the kind he cites to narrative infinitives referring to the past. 


Amph. 229 (consonat terra, clamorem utrimque ecferunt). impe- 
rator utrimque Iovi vota suscipere, hortari exercitum. (turn pro se 
quisque id quod quisque potest, edit, ferro ferit); 1112 (postquam 
pueros conspicatae, pergunt ad cunas). ego cunas recessim trahere ; 
tantoque angues acrius persequi; Aul. 19 (coepi observare . . .). 
atque ille vero minus minusque impendio curare minusque me imper- 
tire honor ibus. (ita a me factum est) ; Bacch. 289 (nostra navis solvi- 
tur). ubi portu eximus, homines remigio sequi. (quoniam sentio, 
navem statuimus); Merc. 46 (leno ut quidque poterat rapiebat 
domum). obiurigare pater haec, perfidiam lenonum expromere; 
interdum conloqui ; abnuere, negitare me natum suom. conclamitare 
tota urbe, et praedicere ; 240 (dicit capram uxoris dotem ambedisse). 
mihi illud videri mirum. instare factum simia atque hoc denique 
respondet . . . et coepit inridere me; ego enim lugere atque ab- 
ductam ill am aegre pati ; Eud. 606 (ago cum ilia nequid noceat meis 
popularibus). atque ilia nimio iam fieri ferocior. (videtur mihi mini- 

422 Historical Infinitive. 

tarier) : Trin. 836 (circumstabant navem venti), imbres atqueprocellae 
frangere malum, ruere antemnas, scindere vela; And. 62, sic vita 
erat : facile omnes perf erre ac pati ; cum quibus erat eis sese dedere • 
eorum studiis obsequi . . . (sapienter vitam instituit) ; 96, quom id 
mihi placebat, turn uno ore omnes omnia bona dicere et laudare 
fortunas meas. (Chremes ad me venit) ; 146 (venit ad me clamitans) 
. . . ego illud sedulo negare factum, (ille instat) ; 368, puerum inde 
abiens conveni : holera et pisciculos minutos ferre ; H. T. 895, magis 
etiam instare; Eun. 401, rex te ergo in oculis gestare. : : vero : credere 
omnem exercitum . . . (turn me solum abducebat); invidere omnes 
mihi, mordere; ego non flocci pendere ; illi invidere ; 432, risu omnes 
qui aderant emoriri. (denique metuebant omnes me); 515 (iam turn 
erat suspicio). ipsa adcumbere mecum, mihi sese dare, sermon em 
quaerere. (hue evasit); 618 (militem rogat); ille continuo irasci, neque 
negare audere; Thais porro instare ut hominem invitet. (invitat). 
miles vero sibi putare adductum aemulum . . . miles tendere; Phor. 
92 (inter venit adulescens quidam lacrumans). nos mirarier. (roga- 
mus quid sit) ; 117 (negat). noster quid ageret nescire. (illam ducere 
cupiebat) ; Hec. 120, ille primo negare ; 165, iniurias viri omnes ferre ; 
182, fugere e conspectu, videre nolle ; 826, ille alias res agere se simu- 
lare ; Ad. 44 (uxorem numquam habui). ille contra haec omnia : ruri 
agere vitam; semper parce se habere, (uxorem duxit); 864 (egit 
vitam in otio), nulli laedere os, adridere omnibus; (sibi vixit); Cato, 
Erag. (Jord.), 17, 3, compluriens eorum milites alteri alteros occidere, 
multi ad hostes transfugere, in imperatorem impetum facere; 58, 
10, descendit de cantherio, inde statieulos dare, ridicularia f undere ; 
Ace. 438, conlocat sese in locum celsum ; hinc manibus rapere raudus 
saxeum grande et grave; Afran. 127, ego misera risu clandestino 
rumpier, torpere mater, amens ira fervere ; Calpurn. Piso, Peter, 
p. 82, 9, L. Tarquinium, collegam suom, ruetuere eumque orat ut 
Koma concedat. 

Most of the citations by Mohr from Lucilius and the fragments of 
the dramatists are too uncertain to warrant recognition as illustra- 
tions of this usage. 

In one instance we have an interrogative historical infinitive: 
Eun. 391, magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi ? 

An examination of the foregoing material substantiates fully the 

Infinitive in Exclamations. 423 

conclusions of Wolfflin (op. cit. p. 180 ff.) that in Early Latin, reflexive 
uses are rare, that deponents occur with freedom, while the passive 1 
does not yet appear. Wolfflin notes also that the historical infinitive 
rarely occurs accompanied by a subordinate clause (as in Bacch. 289). 
More commonly, too, we have a group of two or more infinitives. 
Instances where we have but one (e.g. Merc. 242; And. 146; H. T. 
895; Ace. 438; Calp. Piso, 82, 9) are infrequent. 

As already stated above (p. 421), the historical infinitive has the 
equivalence of the imperfect, not of the historical perfect. Hence 
momentary acts cannot be expressed by it. This explains the 
frequent shift from the historical infinitive to the historical perfect 
in the same sentence ; see the above examples. 


"Prom phrases like Bacch. 237, nam meus formidat animus 
nostrum tarn diu ibi desidere neque redire filium ; Capt. 600, 
crucior lapidem non habere me; Asin. 407, quid hoc sit negoti, 
neminem meum dictum magni facere ? 127, sicine hoc fit, foras 
aedibus me eici ? it is but a step to the Infinitive of Exclamation, 
e.g. Pers. 42, sicine hoc te mihi facere?" (Lindsay, Syntax of 
Plautus, p. 75). To Lindsay's examples of origin may be added: 
Poen. 842, haec quom video fieri, crucior; pretiis emptos maxumis 
apud nos expeculiatos servos fieri suis eris, where one may well hesi- 
tate as to whether servos fieri depends upon crucior or is an infinitive 
of exclamation ; Eud. 393, o f acinus impudicum ! quam liberam esse 
oporteat servire postulare ! Hec. 547, adeon me esse pervicacem 
censes? (the origin perhaps of expressions like adeon pervicaci 
esse animo, in Hec. 532) ; Hec. 613, quid vis ? : : hinc abire matrem 
(sc. iubes)? minime ! 

Infinitives of the type under consideration fall into two classes : 
1) Without -ne; 2) With -ne. Whether the -ne in infinitives of 
the second class is interrogative, as is suggested above, or is 
intensive, as urged by Warren (American Journal of Philology, ii, 
p. 50 ff.), is uncertain. 

1 Afran. 127, rumpier, is middle. 

2 Kraz, Die sogenannte unwillige Frage mit dem Accusativ und Iufinitiv, 1862; 
Gustav Miiller, Ueber die sogenannten unwilligen Fragen, 1875. 

424 Infinitive in Exclamations. 

A. Infinitives of Exclamation without -ne. 

1) Present Tense: Bacch. 66, penetrare huius modi in palae- 
stram ! 483, manum snb vestimenta ad corpus tetulit, neque pudere 
quicquam ! Cas. 89, non mini lieere meam loqui atque cogitare ! 
Cure. 623, servom antestari! Men. 1005, erum meum luci deripier 
in via ! Stich. 765, stantem stanti dare amicum amicae ! And. 870, 
tantum laborem capere ! 879, adeo inpotenti esse animo ! H. T. 401, 
me non lieere frui ! 630, tantam esse inscitiam ! Eun. 209, ah rogi- 
tare, quasi difficile sit ! Phor. 233, non simultatem meam revereri ! 
non pudere ! 977, non hoc publicitus scelus hinc asportarier ! 1042, 
nil pudere ! ISTaev. Com. 72, quae ego probavi, ea non audere quem- 
quam regem rumpere ! Eun. Trag. 47. 

2) Perfect Tense : Asin. 580, edepol senem Demaenetum lepidum 
f uisse ! Bacch. 1102, hoc servom meum facere esse ausum ! Capt. 
945, vae misero mihi : propter meum caput labores homini evenisse ! 
783, ad ilium modum sublitum os esse mi ! Epid. 521, ei ! sic data 
esse verba ! Merc. 785, sic me nuptam tarn male ! measque in aedis 
sic scorta obductarier ! H. T. 503, ita comparatam esse naturam 
omnium ! Phor. 503, turn hoc esse mi obiectum malum ! 884, tantam 
fortunam esse his datam ! Hec. 227, non te pro his curasse rebus ! 
Ad. 562, non puduisse verberare senem ! 629, non me hanc rem patri 
indicasse ! Cato, fr. Jord. 41, 9, iniurias te facere ausum esse ! 

B. Infinitives of Exclamation with -ite. 

1) Present Tense : Bacch. 152, magistron quemquam discipulum 
minitarier ! Cure. 200, hoccine fieri ut inmodestis te moderes mori- 
bus ! 695, hocine pacto me abripi ! M. G-. 626, hancine aetatem exer- 
cere mei amoris gratia! Pers. 42, sicine hoc te mi facere! Pseud. 
202, huncine hominem pati colere iuventutem Atticam ! True. 537, 
hoccin mihi ob labores tantos tantillum dari ! 933, huncine hominem 
te amplexari ! And. 245, adeon hominem esse invenustum ! 253, tan- 
tamne rem tarn neclegenter agere ! 425, nullane in re esse quoiquam 
fidem ! 689, sicine me sollicitari ! 716, nilne esse proprium quoiquam ! 
H. T. 751, illancine mulierem alere! 921, tene istuc loqui! Eun. 225, 
adeon homines inmutarier ! 553, neminemne curiosum intervenire ! 
Phor. 339, tene asymbolum venire unctum ! 497, adeon ingenio esse 

Infinitives of Exclamation with -ne. 425 

duro te! 499, adeon te esse incogitantem ! 810, itan parvam mihi 
fidem esse ! 977, tantane adfectum quemquam esse hominem audacia ! 
Hec. 532, adeon pervicaci esse animo ! Ad. 38, vah ! quemquamne 
hominem in animo instituere ! 237, hocine incipere Aesehinum ! 
390, haecine fieri ! 408, haecine flagitia f acere te ! haee te admittere ; 
610b, hocine mali obici tantum ! Enn. Trag. 47, men obesse, illos 
prodesse ; me obstare, illos obsequi ! Cato, f r. Jord. 41, 5, eane fieri 
bonis ! With nonne : Trin. 1046, nonne hoc publice animum 
advorti ! 

2) Perfect Tense : Asin. 226, haecine te esse oblitum ; Bacch. 
283, adeon me fuisse fungum, ut crederem ! 628, criminin me habu- 
isse fidem ! 1090, hocine me aetatis ludos bis factum esse indigne ! 
Cure. 589, sicine mihi esse os oblitum; M. G-. 488, meamne hospitam 
tractatam et ludificatam ! Pseud. 371, ten amatorem esse inventum 
inanem ! Trin. 1017, tribusne te poteriis memoriam esse oblitum ! 
And. 609, servon fortunas meas me commisisse ! H. T. 980, adeon rem 
rediisse ! so Phor. 153; Eun. 360, numquamne me illam vidisse ! 
644, hocine tarn audax facinus facere esse ausum ! Phor. 466, itane te 
hinc abisse et vitam tuam tutandam aliis dedisse ! Ad. 449, ex illan 
f amilia tarn inliberale facinus esse ortum ! Pacuv. 40, men servasse, 
ut essent qui me perderent ! 

An examination of the foregoing material shows that the infini- 
tive of exclamation is used almost exclusively in expressions of 
disgust, contempt, and regret. In only a single instance do we have 
an expression of satisfaction : Asin. 580, edepol senem Demaenetum 
lepidum fuisse ! In Eun. 209, ah ! rogitare, quasi difficile sit, the 
feeling is one of mild reproach. 

It is noteworthy that Terence makes much freer use of the 
construction than Plautus. In the six plays of Terence there are 
nearly twice as many instances of the usage as in all the plays of 


Here belong such uses as in Cato, Agr. 115, 2, vinum ad alvom 
movendam concinnare ; 122, vinum concinnare, si lotium difficilius 
transibit; 128, habitationem delutare. 

426 Tenses of the Iivfinitive. 


Present Infinitive. 
Present for Future. 

The use of the present infinitive with future force is somewhat 
common in Early Latin, especially with verbs whose meaning 
involves a reference to future time, as verbs of hoping, promising, 
swearing, vowing, threatening, etc. The usage is doubtless influ- 
enced by the free use of the present indicative with future force. 
The frequency with which the subject of the accusative is omitted 
in this use is noteworthy. Examples : 

adiuro : Cist. 583, se adiurat mihi monstrare. 

adnuo : Enn. Ann. 87, adnuvit sese mecum decernere ferro. 

aio: Pseud. 1118, aibat arcessere; Capt. 586, quod redimere se ait; 
Asin. 442 ; And. 353, ait tibi uxorem dare hodie. 

arbitror : Amph. 675, me meum officium facere, si huic earn advor- 
sum, arbitror. 

audio : And. 534, ex te audi turn aibant filiam meam nubere tuo 

autumo : Most. 1132, pro te ire autumo. 

censeo : Aul. 528, aes censet dari. 

denego : Stich. 558, denegavit dare se ; H. T. 487, dare denegaris. 

dico: Asin. 366, dixit sese operam dare; 394, ire dixit; Capt. 
194, quo ire dixeram ; Cas. 479, se locum dixit dare ; Merc. 419 ; 
467; M.G. 229; 231; Poen. 529; Trim 736; And. 411, si te dices 
ducere ; Eun. 793 ; Phor. 532 ; Ad. 203 ; Pacuv. 167. 

interminor: Pseud. 778, interminatus est eum perbitere. 

iuro : Eud. 1379, iuratust mihi dare ; Poen. 361, liberare me iura- 
visti; Pers. 401. 

minor : Stich. 21, quod facere minatur ; Men. 842, minatur mihi 
oculos exurere. 

nego : Cas. 698, negat ponere ; Pers. 432, te negabas credere argen- 
tum mihi ; Eud. 1292, ei dari negatis ? Stich. 393 ; And. 379, si tu 
negaris ducere. 

polliceor : Men. 311, pollicitu's dare ; Most. 1084 ; 1086 ; And. 
613, qui sum pollicitus ducere. 

Perfect Infinitive. 427 

proinitto : Bacch. 920, quos dare promisi militi ; so also 969a ; Cas. 
288 ; Cist. 542 ; Merc. 631, promittebas te os sublinere patri ; Rud. 
777, promisimus talentum sistere; Trin. 5. 

repromitto : Cure. 667, repromisit reddere. 

scio : Most. 17, te in pistrinum scis actutum tradier. 

spero : True. 936, si hanc tecum esse speras ; Eud. 636, ut esse 
speres virgidemiam ; 589 ; Eun. 520, sperat se a me avellere ; Hec. 
147, sperasse eas tolerare posse nuptias. 

voveo : Cure. 72, me inferre vovi ; 181, pervigilare te vovisti. 

Dependent on context : Amph. 206, si velint rapta tradere, abituros 
agro, pacem dare illis. 

The foregoing verbs also govern the future infinitive, as may be 
seen by the material cited at p. 367 ff. 


Memini is regularly construed with the present infinitive of per- 
sonal experience, as in the classical period. See the examples cited 
at p. 374 f . 

Use of the Perfect Infinitive. 

Perfect Infinitive with Force of Present. 

The perfect infinitive occurs with the force of the present, es- 
pecially with verbs of wishing, and the perfect indicative of expres- 
sions having the force of 'it was fitting 7 (oportuit, decuit, aequom fuit, 
etc.). With expressions of the latter type, the perfect seems to be 
the result of a striving to bring out more clearly the reference 
to the past (Ziemer, Junggrammatische Streifzlige, p. 76). With 
verbs of wishing, it is possible that we have a survival of the aoris- 
tic force of the tense (Delbruck, Vgl. Synt. ii, p. 473). 

aequom fuit : Bacch. 1017, prius cavisse ergo quam pudere aequom 
fuit ; M. G. 730, itidem divos dispertisse vitam humanam aequom fuit. 

cupio : Asin. 901, perisse (earn) cupio. 

decuit : Naev. Com. 22, suopte utrosque decuit acceptos cibo. 

expeto : Hec. 727, me nunc conventam esse expetit ; Pacuv. 206, 
me esse adiutam expetunt. 

428 Tenses of the Infinitive. 

nolo : Poen. 872, noli devellisse (sc. alas). 

operae pretium est : Most. 842, latius demumst operae pretium 

oportuit : Amph. 944, cavisse oportuit ; Aul. 754, non attactam 
oportuit; Bacch. 759, iam bibisse oportuit; 819 ; Cas. 766, cenam iam 
esse coctam oportuit; Cist. 574, exquisisse oportuit; 584, at non 
missam oportuit ; Epid. 11, quam te iam diu perdidisse oportuit ; 
Men. 194, oportebat nasum abreptam mordicus ; 995, iam sublimen 
raptum oportuit; M. G. 1336; Poen. 526; Stich. 130, non datas 
oportuit ; Trin. 1092 ; True. 510, aliquid actum oportuit ; Merc. 724, 
dictum oportuit ; Most. 1093, factum oportuit ; Pers. 448 ; Stich. 354 ; 
Trin. 416 ; And. 238, nonne oportuit praescisse me ? nonne communi- 
catum oportuit? H. T. 200, mansum tamen oportuit; 247, non 
oportuit relictas ; 635 ; Eun. 981, oportuit rem praenarrasse me ; Ad. 
214, adulescenti morem gestum oportuit ; Stat. 9, gratulatum med 
oportebat prius (MSS. me oporteat) ; Afran. 17. 

opus est: Stich. 232, haec veniisse iam opus est. 

possum : Aul. 828, non potes probasse nugas ; Merc. 596 ; iam a 
portu rediisse potuit. 

volo : Poen. 1119, est qui ilium conventam esse volt ; Pseud. 905, 
si quemquam di voluere esse adiutum ; 906, turn me et Calidorum 
servatum volunt esse et lenonem exstinctum ; Hud. 1193, si esse bene 
factum volunt ; Stich. 127, esse ambas conventas volo ; And. 510, 
opinionem hanc esse amotam volo; H. T. 978, rogasse vellem; Hec. 
563, interdico ne extulisse extra aedes puerum velis ! Cato, Agr. 5, 
4, nequid emisse velit, neu quid dominum celavisse velit ; haruspicem 
ne consuluisse velit ; fr. Jord. 47, 16, domi quom auspicamus, hono- 
rem me divom velim habuisse ; CIL, 1, 196, 4, habuisse velet ; so 
11 ; 7, adiese velet ; 12, f ecise velit ; so 15, 16, 20 ; 13, coniourase, 
comvovise, conspondise, compromesise velet ; 14, dedise velet ; 21, 
arfuise velent. 

Corresponding to the use of the perfect indicative of sum in 
the sense 'is no longer', 'has perished/ we find occasionally also 
the perfect infinitive similarly used : Capt. 243, di animum ostende- 
runt suom ut qui erum me tibi fuisse velint (' wish me no 
longer to be your master ') ; 516, me fuisse mavelim, i I wish I 
were dead 9 ; Bacch. 151, vixisse nimio satiust quam vivere. 




The Present Active Participle. 1 

There exists unfortunately a great confusion of nomenclature in 
treating of the different uses of the Latin participle. Some, as 
Gustafsson and Tammelin, divide all uses into appositive and predi- 
cative. Others, as Schmalz, Synt., p. 453, recognize attributive and 
predicative uses. The latest work on the participle, that of Sidey, 
has nothing to say of either attributive or appositive uses, but classi- 
fies as follows: 1. Participles with true participial force; 2. Parti- 
ciples used predicatively, so that apparently a 'predicative use, as 
Bacch. 204, exeuntem me aspexisti, is not to be regarded as an illus- 
tration of a participle with true participial force. Various other 
grammarians omit all reference to attributive, appositive, and predi- 
cative uses. 

Even among those who recognize predicative uses there is not 
entire agreement as to the definition of the term. Thus Schmalz, 
Synt., p. 456, regards Cist. 123, quae hinc flens abiit, as an illustra- 
tion of the predicate use (justly so in my judgment), while Tammelin 
brings it under another head. Yet when Schmalz brings under 
the predicative uses Eud. 71, vehemens sum exoriens; Men. 951, 
at ego te pendentem fodiam stimulis; Amph. 437, iniurato plus 
credet mihi quam iurato tibi ; Cas. 510, iam victi vicimus, he is, I 
think, using the term at variance with the meaning attached to it 
by most investigators. 

We may, I believe, with good reason distinguish three different 
general types of participial uses : 

1 Tammelin, De participiis priscae Latinitatis, 1889; Sidey, The Participle in Plau- 
tus, Petronius, and Apuleius, 1909; Schmalz, Syntax und Stilistik 4 , p. 449 ff. 


430 Participles. 

1. The attributive use, where the participle limits the substantive 
directly, as 'boiling water '; aqua few ens ; 'kochendes Wasser.' 

2. The appositive use, in which the relation of the participle to its 
substantive is analogous to that of a noun in the appositive relation, 
as Marcus subito adveniens me ibi invenit; ' Marcus, suddenly arriving, 
found me there ' ; ' plotzlich ankommend fand er mich da.' 

3. The predicative use, in which the main predication is found in 
the participle, asflejis abiit; 'he departed weeping' ; 'er ging weinend 
fort'; rediit triumphans ; 'he returned in triumph'; 'er kehrte als 
Triumphator zurtick.' 

We shall have to consider also the participle used as adjective and 
as substantive. 

Attributive Uses of the Present Participle. 

The attributive use of the present participle is not frequent. Ex- 
amples are: Bacch. 478, ut in gremio osculantem mulierem teneat 
sedens ; Liv. And. Trag. 26, ego puerum ancillae subdam lactantem 
meae ; Enn. Trag. 30, lunata micans Diana facem iacit a laeva; 316, 
neque sanguis ullo potis pacto profluens consistere ; Ace. 397, vel 
globosos turbines exsistere ictos undis concursantibus ; 401, undante 
in f reto ; Stat. 214, ab amico amante argentum accipere meretrix non 
volt ; Enn. Ann. 194, 13, suavis homo, f acundus . . . secunda loquens 
in tempore . . . multa tenens antiqua sepulta ; 200, pila retunduntur 
venientibus obvia pilis ; 23J , milia militum octo duxit delectos, bellum 
tolerare potentes ; 288, 5, semper adundantes hastas f rangit ; 298, 
eripuere patres pueris plorantibus offam ; Cato, Agr. 156, 7, in aquam 

Appositive Uses of the Present Participle. 

These are the most numerous uses of the participle, and express 
various relations, such as circumstances or situation, means, time, 
cause, or the adversative relation ('concession'), etc. 

1. Circumstances or situation. 

a) Nominative : Amph. 623, vigilans vidi, vigilans nunc te video, 
vigilans f abulor ; 256, ad nos veniunt flentes ; Asin. 593, abiens 
offers morbum ; Aul. 6, obsecrans concredidit auri thensaurum ; 7, 

Present Participle. 431 

in medio foco defodit, venerans me ut id servarem ; 727, quinam 
homo eiulans conqueritur maerens ? Bacch. 48, sedens opperibere ; 
361, adveniens nomen mutabit mihi ; Capt. 914, adveniens deturbavit 
totum cum carni carnarium ; Cas. 664, omnes sub arcis, sub lectis 
latentes metu mussitant ; 932, prof ugiens exeo hoc ornatu quo vides ; 
Cist. 291, astans somnias ; Cure. 338, saluto adveniens ; Pers. 1, qui 
amans egens ingressus est princeps in Amoris vias ; Poen. 261, quid 
hie malum astans opstipuisti ? Liv. And. Trag. 12, ipsus se in ter- 
rain saucius fligit cadens ; Enn. Trag. 212, numquam era errans mea 
domo ecferret pedem Medea ; Pacuv. 71, cum incultos pervestigans 
rimarem sinus ; 158, te lacerabo et f atigans artus distraham ; Ace. 
192, hostem ut profugiens inimicis invadam in manus ; Enn. Coin. 
3, mulier lacrimans ad genua accidit; Liv. And. Od. 19 utrum genua 
amploctens oraret ; 20, ibi manens sedeto ; Enn. Ann. 28, 2, talia turn 
memorat lacrumans; 55, 1, cum cura magna curantes, turn cupientes 
regni dant operam auspicio; Lucil. 478, quaenam vox ex tecto 
resonans meo gradu remoram facit ? 651, hue praeteriens venit ; 
Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 11, 3, ut se ipsa stans sustinere non possit ; 25, 
3, Rhodienses superbos esse aiunt, id obiectantes. 

b) Genitive : Asin. 591, quia tui amans abeuntis egeo ; Hec. 517, 
nam audivisse vocem pueri visust vagientis. 

c) Dative : Am ph. 703, Bacchae bacchanti si velis advorsarier ; 
Bacch. 233, unde aurum ecficiam amanti erili filio ; Cas. 63, ei dat 
operam absenti; Cist. 84, gessit morem oranti mihi; Cure. 149, 
gerite amanti mihi morem ; Poen. 614, iam nunc illic egredienti 
sanguinem exsugam ; Stich. 512, et magis par fuerat me vobis dare 
cenam advenientibus ; And. 359, redeunti interea ex ipsa re mi 
incidit suspicio ; H. T. 31, qui nuper fecit servo currenti in via de- 
cesse populum ; Ad. 693, quid ? credebas dormienti haec tibi con- 
fecturos deos ? Cato, Frag. (Jord.), 47, 19, si cui ancillae dormienti 
evenit ; Pacuv. 215, repugnanti ego porro hunc vi detraxi unguium. 

d) Accusative: Amph. 701, hue nos dormientis detulit; Cas. 
1003, nulla causast quin pendentem me verberes ; Cist. 659 (earn) 
iacentem sustuli; Pseud. 1247, an id voltis, ut me hinc iacentem 
aliquis tollat ? Most. 330 ; Stich. 765, stantem stanti savium dare 
amicam amico ; And. 414, nunc hunc venientem sequor ; Phor. 520, 
te tuli, pollicitantem et nil ferentem ; Ace. 60, ut me depositum et 

432 Participles. 

maerentem mintio repentino alacrem reddidisti ! Liv. And. 20 
donicum videbis me carpento vehentem en domum venisse. 
e) Ablative : Pseud. 3, si ex te tacente fieri possem certior. 

2. Means : Asin. 291, loquens lacerat diem ; 709, ut cruciere cur- 
rens ; Men. 922, occidis fabulans ; Merc. 56, ea quae omnis labores 
invenisset perferens ; Pud. 26, a dis supplicans inveniet veniam sibi ; 
Trin. 680, tu obiurgans me a peccatis rapis deter iorem in viam. 

3. Time, chiefly with adveniens, abiens, etc. 

a) Nominative: Aul. 303, ne quid animae forte amittat dormiens ; 
Epid. 90, fidicinam quam abiens mandavit mihi ; M. G. 179, abiens 
ita respondit ; Most. 1103, nimio plus sapio sedens ; Poen. 692, ad- 
veniens irem in carcerem; Eud. 71, vehemens sum exoriens, quom 
occido vehementior ; Stich. 406, olim quos abiens adfeci aegrimonia ; 
And. 284, iam ferme moriens me vocat; Eun. 830, istucine intermi- 
nata sum hinc abiens tibi ? Phor. 758, offendi adveniens conlocatam 
gnatam; Ad. 457, ille tibi moriens nos commendavit senex ; Cato, 
Erag. (Jord.), 15, 10, ensem quern abiens reliquisse dicitur; 15, 5, 
Aurunci primum possederunt, inde Achaei Troia domum redeuntes. 

b) Dative : Bacch. 198, non impetratum id advenienti redderem ? 
769 ; Capt. 1004, haec mihi advenienti upupa datast ; Most. 430, 
unde advenienti sarcinam imponam seni ; Poen. 1151 ; Trin. 869 ; 
Ad. 92, hoc advenienti quod mihi dixere ! 

c) Accusative : Am ph. 706, quae me advenientem noluerit salu- 
tare; 711; 714; 978; Bacch. 101, bene me accipies advenientem; 
Hec. 237, quod heri nemo voluit visentem ad earn te intro admit- 

4. Cause : Amph. 1112, ego cunas recessim rursum vorsum trahere 
et ducere, metuens pueris, mihi formidans; M. G. 1164, quasi ex hoc 
matrimonio abierim, cupiens istius nuptiarum ; Pud. 560, signum 
amplexae tenent, nescio quid metuentes ; 274, nunc tibi amplectimur 
genua egentes opum ; And. 585, idque adeo metuens vos celavi ; Eun. 
133, pretium sperans ilico producit ; Hec. 601, quam fortunatus sum 
hanc matrem habens talem ! 

5. Adversative relation: Asin. 290, quid ego hie properans con- 
cesso pedibus ? Ace. 626. 

6. With adverbial force : Amph. 661, me temptat sciens ? Asin. 568, 
ubi sciens infidus f ueris ; so 562 ; Bacch. 569, loqueris nugas nunc 

Present Participle, 433 

sciens ; Cas. 63 ; 67